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Although many of the individual imaginations discussed in previous chapters have not developed into social imaginaries, the imagining subjects do not easily fade away; they remain latent and may garner renewed power at unexpected moments.
Hope powerfully influences our lives, deeply shaping our actions, as well as being essential for social and political change. Many accounts of hope, however, fail to do justice to its active role, ignoring the connection between hope and action that makes it a significant feature of our lives. In this essay, I propose a new account of hope in which hopes characteristically shape and figure in intentions. I argue that this account does justice to hope's distinctive manifestations in action, explains the rational constraints on hoping, and sheds light on the distinctions between hoping and wishing.
This chapter reflects on the theological virtue of hope in the Christian community and how it must be distinguished from mere optimism. Rather than seeing hope as a result of faith, the author proposes to consider both hope and faith from within the horizon of love. In paying particular attention to the transformative spirit of hope in the church, the chapter is written in dialogue with David Jasper’s ecclesiological reflections in his Trilogy.
Chapter 11, the Conclusion, begins with analysis of a viral video of a young boy performing ballet in the mud in Lagos, viewed by tens of millions of people in the summer of 2020. This video highlights potential dreams and hopes involving future paths, with potential that may not be realized, given the paucity of available opportunities. Potential future paths in the digital technology era resulting from past and present paths are then discussed.
How do refugees in Uganda’s Kyaka II cope with the violence, difficult camp conditions, and manifold uncertainties? This chapter explores the relationship between refugees’ coping strategies and the presenting issues, drawing on Lister’s agency theory. The first part revolves around practices to deal with risks of violence during conflict, flight, and encampment. It is argued that flight from violence during conflict represents a conscious decision rather than a passive reaction, and thus a protection strategy. Moreover, the role of voice and silence as well as mutual support, raising awareness in communities, and involvement in decision-making structures are explored as strategies consciously adopted to counter the prevalent risks faced during encampment. The second part addresses economic, social, political, and cultural practices to improve lives and livelihoods in the camp. This includes pursuing economic income by using or bypassing humanitarian regulations, creating normalcy and spheres of belonging despite multidimensional uncertainties, and consciously claiming rights. Hope for and belief in a better future is revealed not only to be a coping strategy but also a means of dealing with difficulties. This also includes belief in witchcraft as a way of making sense of problematic developments.
Epistemic norms for practical reasoning usually concern the question which epistemic condition must be met for it to be rationally permissible to treat p as a reason for action. I call this the classical question. In this chapter, I broaden the debate about epistemic norms, going beyond the classical question by focusing on ends. In section 2.1, I argue that we can approach the question of which ends one can rationally pursue by answering the question what one may hope for. In section 2.2, I argue that the standard condition on rational hope is too weak to properly constrain what one can rationally hope for. In section 2.3, I give my own account of what one may epistemically hope for, to which knowledge is central. In section 2.4, I point out that this suggests a novel angle on the knowledge-first program. In section 2.5, I relate my account of hope back to pursuing ends. Finally, in section 2.6, I argue that the wide variety of ends one can rationally pursue shows that many of the suggested epistemic norms that concern the classical question are overly demanding.
In this book, Andy Mueller examines the ways in which epistemic and practical rationality are intertwined. In the first part, he presents an overview of the contemporary debates about epistemic norms for practical reasoning, and defends the thesis that epistemic rationality can make one practically irrational. Mueller proposes a contextualist account of epistemic norms for practical reasoning and introduces novel epistemic norms pertaining to ends and hope. In the second part Mueller considers current approaches to pragmatic encroachment in epistemology, ultimately arguing in favor of a new principle-based argument for pragmatic encroachment. While the book defends tenets of the knowledge-first programme, one of its main conclusions is thoroughly pragmatist: in an important sense, the practical has primacy over the epistemic.
Arguing that literature requires alternatives to genres such as cli-fi – that focus on the ‘after’, the catastrophe, rather than causes or solutions – this chapter examines Palestinian literature. It draws on Ghassan Kanafani’s novella Men in the Sun (1962) to narrate a tradition of writing that has emerged from interconnected processes of resource extraction, colonialism and fossil capital; and, historically, from the nakba (‘catastrophe’) – the displacement or ethnic cleansing of 70,000 Palestinians in 1948 – and enforced migration to, for example, an unbearably hot Iraq. He notes that a twentieth-century literary tradition – of poets (Jabra Ibrahim Jabra, Marwan Darwish) and novelists (Susan Abulhawa, Liyana Badr) – both recalls a fecund Palestine, pre-oil, and resists the forces and interests of the fossil economy. With the experience of displacement and environmental devastation increasingly globalised, the enduring resistance that characterises Palestinian literature can be an exemplar for literature not as resignation but as resistance to the accelerating, imperialising forces underlying the Capitalocene.
What does it mean to practice public international law? This is a frequent topic of conversation for many of us who work with law students inspired to study the law and pursue legal vocations in the belief that peace, justice, and human rights may be best advanced through the international legal framework. But, as our students often discover, that framework can be deeply frustrating. From its heavily bureaucratic structure anchored in the United Nations (UN) system, to the unresolved tension between individuals and states as actors in and beneficiaries of international law, public international law can often seem as much an obstacle as a means to our virtue.
This chapter examines the ethic of praxis in public international law by examining an often-overlooked area of international legal practice: refugee and asylum law. An ethic of praxis, as I discuss it in this chapter, is an ethic with attention to creatureliness, which is to say finitude.
This article explores how hope and visions of the future have left their mark on media discourse in Turkey. Looking back at some of the events that took place in the 1980s, a decade that was shaped by the aftermath of the 1980 coup d’état, and considering them alongside what has happened since the ban of Istanbul’s Pride march in 2015, it examines traces of hope in two periods of recent Turkish history characterized by authoritarianism. Drawing on an array of visual and textual material drawn from the tabloid press, magazines, newspapers, and digital platforms, it inquires into how queer hope manages to infiltrate mediated publics even in times of pessimism and hopelessness. Based upon analysis of an archive of discourses on resistance, solidarity, and future, it argues that queer hope not only helps to map out possible future routes for queer lives in (and beyond) Turkey, but also operates as a driving political force that sustains queers’ determination to maintain their presence in the public sphere despite repressive nationalist, militarist, Islamist, and authoritarian regimes.
This chapter evaluates Heaney’s interest in both war and peace across the two world wars and the recent conflict in Northern Ireland. It treats ‘The Aerodrome’, ‘Anahorish 1944’, and ‘In Memoriam Francis Ledgwidge’ as representative considerations by Heaney of the world wars in the context of human testimony and the role of the poet to represent violence properly and resist aestheticizing it. Then it assesses the more familiar poetry about the Northern Irish conflict, including ‘The Tollund Man’, ‘Punishment’, ‘The Harvest Bow’, ‘Tollund’ and ‘A Kite for Aibhín’, along with his September 11 poem, ‘Anything Can Happen’, and relevant prose. Such poems recognize violence’s siren call and capacity for myth-making even as they reject it, and Heaney finally privileges poetry as an ethical space where its wholeness can slowly percolate into unhealthy societies, a precondition for eventual peace.
Existing scholarly approaches, memoirs, and documentary films fail to capture the sense of hope experienced by many people in Beijing in 1989. Looking beyond students to include workers and ordinary Beijing residents provides a more comprehensive view of the Tiananmen protests of 1989.
Hope promotes oncology patients’ adaptability to their illness, regardless of the stage of cancer. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hope in a sample of end-of-life patients and to investigate the possible relationships between hope and a set of clinical and psychosocial measures.
Three hundred and fifty end-of-life oncology patients, with a presumed life expectancy of 4 months or less and a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) of 50 or lower, were administered the Italian validated versions of a set of rating scales during their first consultation with a psychologist. This included the Herth Hope Index (HHI), Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI), Demoralization Scale (DS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT-Sp), and the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (VAS).
On average, the sample scored between moderate and high on the HHI and the average level of spirituality was high. However, most patients had clinically relevant anxious and depressive symptomatology and high levels of demoralization. Other than the pain scale, the total HHI score significantly correlated with the total scores of all rating scales and their subscales, as well as with the measure of personal religious practice. The “Meaning” FACIT-Sp subscale was found to be the main predictor of hope.
Significance of results
Since hope represents a core need and a tool for patients dealing with their illness, it is essential to implement stage-specific and realistic hope-facilitating interventions and support patients in their search for meaning, which promotes spiritual well-being and appears relevant in fostering hope.
Kratochwil criticizes two important teleological global narratives of universal progress – Luhmannian systems theory and jus cogens – and defends the need for a non-ideal and situated approach to law and politics. Despite the cogency of Kratochwil's analysis, why should we place our hope in his pragmatic program given the complexity of actual decision-making? This paper shows that more needs to be said about the role of hope grounding Kratochwil's account. Which hopes are hopeless, and which warranted? Why should we care and ‘go on’, choosing to be prudential and political rather than focusing on one's inner development or pleasure?
Research is increasingly identifying the issues of ecological distress, eco-anxiety and climate grief. These painful experiences arise from heightened ecological knowledge and concern, which are commonly considered to be de facto aims of environmental education. Yet little research investigates the issues of climate change anxiety in educational spaces, nor how educators seek to respond to or prevent such emotional experiences. This study surveyed environmental educators in eastern Australia about their experiences and strategies for responding to their learners’ ecological distress. Educators reported that their students commonly experienced feeling overwhelmed, hopeless, anxious, angry, sad and frustrated when engaging with ecological crises. Educators’ strategies for responding to their learners’ needs included encouraging students to engage with their emotions, validating those emotions, supporting students to navigate and respond to those emotions and empowering them to take climate action. Educators felt that supporting their students to face and respond to ecological crises was an extremely challenging task, one which was hindered by time limitations, their own emotional distress, professional expectations, society-wide climate denial and a lack of guidance on what works.
The conclusion summarizes this volume’s primary scholarly contributions according to three, key subjects: a canonical approach to Kings and the application of an agrarian hermeneutic (Chapters 1 and 2), exegetical examination of the Elijah narratives (Chapters 2, 3, and 4), and the relationship between the Elijah narratives and the book of Kings as a whole (Chapters 4 and 5). The author concludes by pointing readers toward new insights that the study may generate with respect to the New Testament’s typological extension of concepts central to the book of Kings.
This volume begins by introducing the reader to a leading question at the heart of contemporary Kings research: does hope characterize the biblical book in question, or only despair? Within this frame of reference, the introduction serves as an entry point to the scholarly debates surrounding Kings’ compositional history and genre, as well as the canonical approach and agrarian hermeneutic by which the exegetical portions of the present study proceed. Such an approach provides readers with a fresh perspective on the kerygmatic contribution that the Elijah narratives (1 Kings 17–2 Kings 2) make to the overall text. Placed in the Northern Kingdom of Israel, these prophetic stories portray Yhwh’s life-restoring power under circumstances that pre-enact the removal of the Davidic monarchy and Solomonic temple – precisely the situation in which the book of Kings resolves (2 Kings 25). The Elijah narratives therefore declare that Yhwh maintains his interest in Israel’s life and land even under such conditions; in so doing, they contribute to a “life typology” in Kings that signals hope for David’s (and thus Israel’s) future in the open-ended aftermath of destruction.
Must we ascribe hope for better times to those who (take themselves to) act morally? Kant and later theorists in the Frankfurt School tradition thought we must. In this article, I disclose that it is possible – and ethical – to refrain from ascribing hope in all such cases. I draw on two key examples of acting irrespective of hope: one from a recent political context and one from the life of Jean Améry. I also suggest that, once we see that it is possible to make sense of (what I call) ‘merely expressive acts’, we can also see that the early Frankfurt School was not guilty of a performative contradiction in seeking to enlighten Enlightenment about its (self-)destructive tendencies, while rejecting the (providential) idea of progress.
In this book, Daniel J. D. Stulac brings a canonical-agrarian approach to the Elijah narratives and demonstrates the rhetorical and theological contribution of these texts to the Book of Kings. This unique perspective yields insights into Elijah's iconographical character (1 Kings 17-19), which is contrasted sharply against the Omride dynasty (1 Kings 20-2 Kings 1). It also serves as a template for Elisha's activities in chapters to follow (2 Kings 2-8). Under circumstances that foreshadow the removal of both monarchy and temple, the book's middle third (1 Kings 17-2 Kings 8) proclaims Yhwh's enduring care for Israel's land and people through various portraits of resurrection, even in a world where Israel's sacred institutions have been stripped away. Elijah emerges as the archetypal ancestor of a royal-prophetic remnant with which the reader is encouraged to identify.
This chapter explores vulnerability, courage, and grit in turn, considering their relationship to one another and to the task of educating for emotional virtues and for social justice. Resilience and mindfulness in education are often recommended to make vulnerable or at-risk youth less vulnerable, to mental or emotional disturbance, poor academic achievement, drop out, and related concerns. Yet this chapter argues that there is a bright side to vulnerability, and good reason to question common conflations of it with entirely negative experiences and feelings. There can be a positive role for particular kinds of experiences of vulnerability, generally within communities, and particularly in education. On the other hand, courage is normally prized in society, and has been promoted in education. However, to be understood as a virtue, courage must be tempered, so that it is not reckless, careless, or brash. Grit is a combination of passion and perseverance.