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With the 2016 Charity Law, Chinese legislators created a public-private hybrid model for the governance of charitable trusts. By endowing private actors with greater rights in the creation and management of charitable trusts, this hybrid model demonstrates the State’s intention of changing the functioning of the charitable trust sector from complete dependence on the State to a partnership. However, embedded in China’s particular institutional environment, the partnership relationship still bears the mark of strict government control, which is secured by granting extensive powers to regulators. This article analyzes the newly established regulatory framework for charitable trusts and outlines how regulators exercise their power in practice. The findings show that the tradition of regulators being subject to intense administrative pressures remains unchanged and that political concerns permeate every aspect of the regulation of charitable trusts.
Transforming global food systems to meet sustainability and justice outcomes under climate change requires engaging with complex multi-level governance while appreciating specific local contexts. As such, climate change and food security are ‘messy’ policy issues; policies need to be effectively shaped and fit for purpose across different scales, geographic areas, and sectors. Policy implementation necessitates coordination across multiple perspectives towards a common goal, and an anticipatory governance approach can enable this. Working against the status quo is not easy but can be achieved through truly engaged and inclusive stakeholder processes. Redistribution of power entails employing a gendered, socially inclusive lens in the development of food system transformation policies. Establishing an enabling policy environment for transforming food systems requires diverse approaches and multiple perspectives. The appropriate facilitation and coordination of multi-stakeholder engagements is key to clear communication between participants and to support learning.
For many years, suggestions to 'geoengineer' the climate occupied a marginal role in climate change science and politics. Today, visions of massive carbon drawdown and sunlight reflection have become reasonable additions to conventional mitigation and adaptation. Why did researchers start engaging with ideas that were, for a long time, considered highly controversial? And how did some of these ideas come to be perceived worthy of research funding and in need of international governance? This Element provides an analysis of the recent history and evolution of geoengineering as a governance object. It explains how geoengineering evolved from a thought shared by a small network into a governance object that is likely to shape the future of climate politics. In the process, it generates a theory on the earliest phase of the policy cycle and sheds light on the question why we govern the things we govern in the first place.
The objective of this study is to show how contract-intensive economic institutions can promote diversity and inclusion of social and political groups in economic and business opportunities provided by governments. Building on the interdisciplinary political economy and governance literatures, two types of economic institutions are identified: rent-seeking and contract-intensive. It is argued that rent-seeking economic activities can reinforce in-group norms, gift-giving practices, and governments' discrimination of groups. However, when contract-intensive activities increase in an economy, they can enhance diversity and inclusion of groups in the marketplace creating opportunity structures outside the state and as businesses press governments toward greater impartiality. Analyses of 165 countries from 1961 to 2011 show that a one standard deviation increase in contract-intensive economic activity is associated with a substantial 18 percent increase in the equality of access to state business opportunities for both social and political groups in the long run.
Competing claims of authority and persistent instability have had a profound impact on national politics in Libya. Yet despite national fragmentation, efforts to empower local governance bodies through a process of decentralization could contribute to what will be a long-term process of rebuilding the Libyan state. In the absence of capable and unified national institutions, local authorities, primarily municipal councils, have emerged as among the most trusted governing bodies in Libya. Such reliance on local solutions to national problems should not be interpreted as a rejection of the national state but rather a rejection of the centralized state. The challenge facing Libya’s political elites is how to accommodate this trend while acknowledging the long-term necessity of an efficient national state capable of managing and redistributing national resources and overseeing a responsible system of local governance. While this chapter argues that tangible progress toward decentralization could play a major role contributing to the stabilization of Libya, it recognizes that local processes are likely to remain that way – localized rather than systematic – absent a unified national stabilization effort that can integrate small-scale successes into a comprehensive political agreement. For all its promise, local governance alone cannot carry the burden of stabilization in Libya.
The first section (‘Centralisation’) traces the consolidation of authority in the hands of the benchers, whose internal supremacy appears to have been of fairly recent origin, and the growing interest of Elizabethan governments in the societies, with the effect of strengthening the benchers’ powers. Before the great expansion of membership, most of the routine administrative chores necessary to keep the societies operating on a day-to-day basis were undertaken by members themselves. But thereafter there was increasing reliance on salaried officers or servants (‘Bureaucratisation’), especially the creation of full-time administrative positions to assist the nominal temporary head of each society, the treasurer. On-going provision of catering and lodging depended on a continuously expanding domestic establishment. However the inns had both a ‘Servant Problem’, and a ‘Management Problem’. Servants depended for much of their income on tips and perquisites, leading to various conflicts of interest, while much of the responsibility for overseeing the societies’ affairs was shouldered by a small minority of benchers. The chapter concludes with a glance at difficulties experienced in managing the societies’ finances, which encouraged the commutation of former academic requirements into cash payments.
The first section of this chapter, ‘The Scope of Discipline’ traces the fashion in which the benchers initially sought to impose disciplinary constraints on members’ behaviour and demeanour. The growth of the inns after 1550 made it increasingly difficult to police the personal lives of junior members. But the benchers became more anxious to maintain and enhance their own authority, establishing sumptuary regulations on apparel, long hair and beards which emphasised the subordinate status of those below the bench, and sharply escalating measures against casual interpersonal violence within the societies.
They seem to have had some success in eliminating armed assaults, if not other forms of physical violence, while traditional violent behaviour outside the walls of the inns appears to have waned towards the end of our period. However, as ‘The Range of Defiance’ illustrates, collective defiance of and disobedience to the bench became a feature of life from the 1610s onwards, with sporadic outbreaks continuing until the end of the century and beyond, over sumptuary regulations, gambling at Christmas commons, and other issues.
The final section, ‘Authority and Revolt’ proposes that outbreaks of protest and rebellion in the latter half of our period were closely related to the major institutional changes examined in the preceding chapters.
‘Governance’ in its simplest form is the way that an organisation is directed and controlled, but the concept of governance also incorporates systems of rules, relationships, and processes to achieve that end. This article focuses on governance of sporting organisations in Australia. Sport in Australia is organised in a singular fashion when compared to other organisations and to sport in other countries. This has significant implications for assumptions about corporate structure, law and governance. The article examines governance of sporting organisations from a number of perspectives and draws distinctions between standard assumptions about governance and the realities of sports governance in Australia. It concludes that a number of assumptions made about organisations in law and governance theory do not apply to Australian sporting organisations. It asks how these anomalies in assumption and execution affect ultimate good governance in sport and impact on the way directors approach their duties.
Major reforms in education, globally, have focused on increased accountability and devolution of responsibility to the local school level to improve the efficiency and quality of education. While emerging research is considering implications of these changed governance arrangements at both a school and system level, little attention has been afforded to teacher union responses to devolutionary reform, despite teaching being a highly union-organised profession and the endurance of decentralising-style reforms in education for over 40 years. Drawing upon a power resources approach, this article examines union responses in cases of devolutionary reform in a populous Australian state. Through analysing evolving policy discourse, from anti-bureaucratic, managerialising rhetoric to a ‘post-bureaucratic, empowerment’ agenda, this article contributes to understandings of union power for resisting decentralising, neoliberal policy agendas by exposing the limits of public sector unions mobilising traditional power resources and arguing for strengthening of discursive and symbolic power.
Pharmaceutical systems are a core part of health systems, and their failure to work adequately severely undermines the performance of the entire health system. The view that medicines are mere commodities managed for technical aspects by the national regulatory authority, disregards the role and need for a comprehensive and multidisciplinary system to ensure access to essential medicines. This has serious consequences, as it leaves key functions underfunded and under-represented in national and international platforms where decisions related to health care systems and for achievement of UHC are made. Key strategies to strengthen pharmaceutical systems have been extensively described, but their effective implementation requires political commitment, institutional oversight and adequate financial allocation to each function, including quality assurance, financing, supply and transparency among others. Assessing pharmaceutical systems is often neglected but essential for promoting an effective health system as well as population health. The Chapter presents some key performance measures that countries should routinely apply to measure and report on the performance of pharmaceutical systems and on their good governance.
Just as there are determinants of health of individuals and communities, there are determinants of health system organization and performance which we term structural determinants. This chapter focuses on a set of such determinants considered key in understanding and strengthening health systems in low- and middle-income countries (L&MICs). These determinants include politics and governance; the economy, livelihoods and poverty; climate change, environmental degradation and natural disasters; social and organizational culture; wars and conflicts. Each of these determinants has its own set of issues. For example, with regards to politics and governance, it is intersection of the form of authority, institutional arrangements, political values, citizen participation, corruption, and informal governance channels that determine health system performance. While the influence of structural determinants on health systems is acknowledged, there is still limited attention to integrating work on structural determinants in health system thinking, policies and practice. This chapter argues for a multi-pronged strategy to address this gap: focusing on tackling inequities; removing misconceptions about health determinants among health workers; easing the path to health system work on health determinants; engaging concerned communities; evaluating innovations to address health determinants; and strengthening intersectoral collaboration.
Private hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies, and the doctors, nurses, and other medical personnel who staff them provide a large portion of healthcare services in low- and middle-income countries (L&MICs). In some, the private sector delivers much more care than the government. Understanding the scale, capacity, quality, constraints and motivations of private providers and private facilities – whether for-profit, non-profit, formal or informal – is critical to assuring that health services and medicines support and expand the goals of access to quality health care for all. This chapter sets out what is known regarding private care provision, from world-class hospitals to unlicensed and untrained village drug-sellers and summarizes the experience and frameworks being applied around the world to measure, regulate, and assure the efficient and effective provision of private health care as part of mixed-health-systems in L&MICs. In many settings the challenges of private sector governance are complicated by limited data, minimal financial transfers, and weak regulatory systems. Despite this, advances have been made in L&MICs to defining and applying good governance strategies.
This chapter discusses the IPCC’s performance as a ‘learning’ organisation. The Panel has responded to novel challenges by adjusting its governance structure and its underlying objectives and principles. Building on a heuristic of organisational learning, we reconstruct and map these past learning processes. We find that most of these challenges resulted in the IPCC adopting an adaptive mode of learning by incrementally adjusting procedures. There were only a few moments of reflexive learning. Against this backdrop, the chapter discusses future challenges for the IPCC emerging from the Paris Agreement and the call for a ‘solution-oriented assessment’. The IPCC has faced demands in the past for greater political relevance, geopolitical representation, scientific integrity, transparency, and accountability. In the post-Paris world, the Panel has to cope with its role in the polycentric architecture of the climate regime and its role as ‘mapmaker’ in the assessment of pathways to achieve the Paris ambition. We conclude by discussing how the IPCC can best use its learning capacities in responding to these challenges.
Governments and the markets in Europe have traditionally failed to adequately address environmental and ecological issues such as the access to clean and drinkable water and pollution of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. However, social enterprises across Europe have demonstrated that social entrepreneurship can play a role in providing creative and efficient solutions to social, environmental and ecological problems while employing inclusive and participatory governance models, which involve stakeholders and the affected society. Research in this chapter focuses on social enterprises in the Netherlands, which country also suffers from ecological porblems. Through a case study analysis of the Dutch social enterprise Dopper, which organisation aims to contribute to solving the problem of plastic waste, creating awareness about this problem as well as about access to drinking water, the contribution of value creation is analysed. Against the backdrop of a discussion concerning the emergence of social enterprises in the Netherlands despite the existence of a supportive legal framework, this chapter also illustrates examples of legal and participatory governance structures employed in Dutch social enterprises’ organisational structure and function. These can serve as illustrations of sustainable business structures in the Netherlands and in Europe.
The Intergovernmental Science–Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) has played an important role in assessing knowledge and raising awareness of biodiversity loss, and it is now also mandated to assess and support processes of transformative change. This perspective paper argues that the transformative change assessment entails key elements of transformative agency, which, along with the performative role of IPBES, makes it relevant to re-conceptualize the organization as a transformative agent. This new role will change IPBES and brings attention to risks related to undermining the credibility, relevance and legitimacy of IPBES, but it also brings opportunities for innovations that may strengthen the organization, including furthering public reasoning, acknowledging ambiguities and disagreements, ensuring scientific autonomy and balancing governmental power in the organization. As IPBES takes on the fundamental challenge of transformative change, critical scrutiny and democratic debate regarding its function as a political actor are more important than ever.
This research investigates the role of public sector innovation outcomes, e.g. trademark innovation, information and communication technology (ICT), renewable energy, and governance, in the sustainable development of Bangladesh during 1980–2019. Utilising the dynamic autoregressive distributed lag (DARDL) simulation approach, this study divulges a favourable long-term influencing profile of public sector innovation outcomes, i.e. trademark innovation, ICT, and renewable energy on sustainable development, while governance has a heterogeneous impact. Besides, the findings from the DARDL simulations area plots display 10% counterfactual shocks to the public sector innovation outcomes on sustainable development. Furthermore, the Kernel-based regularised least square machine learning algorithm approach used in the study examines the marginal effects of the public sector innovation outcomes on sustainable development for robust findings. Therefore, the policy suggestions are solely concerned with the public sector’s adoption of more innovation dynamics through appropriate policy formulation.
Canga, or ironstone, ecosystems are hotspots of old-growth plant diversity and highly specialized cave invertebrates. These ancient metalliferous habitats are amongst the most threatened ecosystems because of the destruction caused by large-scale iron ore mining. International debate on biodiversity offsets is increasing because these mechanisms are seen as tools for potentially balancing economic development with conservation biodiversity. Leading mining companies worldwide, including some of the largest iron ore producers in Brazil, are signatories to offset principles and best practices that aim to achieve no net loss of habitats, species or ecosystem functions. We aimed to analyse whether Brazilian legal requirements for biodiversity offsets result in the achievement of conservation outcomes or in elevated threat of extinction in canga ecosystems. We evaluated technical reports that support decision-making related to environmental licensing for iron ore mining and specific offset proposals linked to the Atlantic Forest Act. We found a relevant net loss in canga ecosystems and observed shortcomings related to the equivalency and transparency of offset principles. These deficiencies are mainly related to lax norms and regulations and the absence of an integrated database for accessing information on environmental licensing processes. We argue that both policy flaws and low engagement by the Brazilian mining industry in implementing offset principles have increased the threat of extinction in canga ecosystems.
This chapter offers a theoretical framework to understand the variation of ecolabel design based on the content, governance, and context of the label. Drawing upon green clubs and signaling theories, we suggest that ecolabels vary based on the stringency of the certification program, measured by the number and criticality of required standards, and the extent to which the requirements of these certifications incentivize the provision of public goods. We characterize important dimensions of ecolabels such as their impact, the value of the signal, and the extent to which they address externalities and information asymmetries. To illustrate these concepts, we take a closer look at GreenCo, a business sustainability rating system in India, and a sample of over 50 different agricultural ecolabels. This examination shows the important variation in factors like types of requirements, stringency, and institutional processes that govern the labels. Perhaps unsurprisingly, broader stakeholder engagement is associated with more emphasis on public benefits, while more surprisingly industry sponsorship does not tend to be found among the more lax labels with less public benefit.