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This chapter treats the life-span development of creative genius. The treatment is divided into three main sections. First, developmental experiences in childhood and adolescence are examined, with special focus on family background and education or training. Second, adulthood career trajectories are discussed, including such issues as output quantity and quality in creative products. Third, discussion turns to career termination, with special emphasis on the differential life expectancies of creators attaining eminence in different domains. The chapter concludes by addressing the question of whether creative development in the highly eminent is comparable to that seen in more everyday forms of creativity. Although some similarities are apparent, congruence cannot be assumed without considerably more research on both extremes of the phenomenon.
Family is one of the major principles of welfare state redistribution. It has, however, rarely been at the centre of welfare state research. This contribution intends to help remedy the research gap in family-related redistribution. By examining the German welfare state which is known to be both redistributive and family-oriented, we want to answer the question of how and how far the German welfare state institutionalises family as a redistributive principle. Our case-study of German welfare state regulations in terms of family is based on the tax-benefit microsimulation model EUROMOD and its Hypothetical Household Tool (HHoT). We differentiate 54 family forms to adequately reflect our three theoretical assumptions, which are: (1) redistributive logics differ across family forms, and in part markedly; (2) these differences are not the result of one coherent set of regulations, but of an interplay of partially contradictory regulations; (3) family as a redistributive principle manifests itself not only in terms of additional benefits to families, but also in terms of particular obligations of families to financially support family members before they are entitled to public support. These aspects have hardly been analysed before and combining them allows a clear evaluation of family-related redistribution.
Suetonius’ Lives of the Caesars usually begin with a family tree. These family trees are often rhetorical, foreshadowing in the ancestors character traits that will be themes of the rest of the Life. This particular rhetorical strategy relies upon an older phenomenon of ‘family identity’—namely, the literary application of similar characteristics to people in the same family—such as the one that tells us that the Claudii are proud and the Domitii Ahenobarbi are ferocious. Gary Farney studied ‘family identity’ as a phenomenon of the Republic. There, it was the association of a family with a certain characteristic, a kind of ‘branding’. It would be perfectly obvious for Suetonius to use the family identities already in use for well-known families, but, as I show here, Suetonius’ selection of ancestors creates different family identities rather than simply using the traditional ones he would have found in other sources. In this study I concentrate on Nero and Tiberius. I focus on these two emperors because they are individuals where there is a known family identity in other sources and they also have the most detailed and elaborate ancestry sections in Suetonius’ Caesars. Family identity seems to be most interesting to Suetonius when it goes against expectations, and that is when Suetonius’ family trees are most elaborate.
This chapter begins by arguing that a complete view of substance use disorders needs to take into account the focal client’s wider family and social network, as members of this network are both potential sources and recipients of help. Evidence is presented to suggest that the impacts of alcohol, drugs and other addiction problems on others may constitute a major neglected public health problem. Two methods are then described in detail – the 5-Step Method and Social Behaviour and Network Therapy (SBNT). Both incorporate a fuller conceptual understanding of these problems, embedding the primary substance use disorder within a wider social context. Both the 5-Step Method and SBNT can be used within an integrated pathway for service users, where affected family members can be identified and engaged in 5-Step Method help if necessary while also supporting the user in SBNT-type sessions. Both interventions can be offered as stand-alone or in combination.
This chapter examines the struggles confronted by the women of Matsu. I take three women, born between 1950 and 1980, who lived through the era of military rule and beyond, as examples of the rise of a new female self and for the changing meanings of contemporary family and marriage.
This integrative literature review aimed to identify the religious and spiritual experiences of family members and caregivers of children and adolescents with cancer. Through systematized searches in the databases/libraries CINAHL, PsycINFO, Pubmed, SciELO, and Lilacs, 69 articles produced between 2010 and 2020 were retrieved. There was a predominance of studies with parents developed in hospital facilities. The caregivers’ religious and spiritual experiences helped them to cope with childhood cancer, especially in maintaining hope, reducing stress and anxiety symptoms, as well as in providing psychological and social support. Negative outcomes such as questioning faith, the feeling of punishment, and disruption with the religious and spiritual group were also perceived. It is recommended to include religiosity and spirituality for the provision of more humanized and comprehensive care, as well as further investigation of the negative experiences regarding religiosity and spirituality in this public.
Hamilton Carroll considers shifting trends across nearly two decades of post-9/11 novels from early works grappling with the unrepresentability of terror to recent narratives by Susan Choi, Mohsin Hamid, Joseph O’Neill, and Jess Walter that depict the everyday experiences of racialized precarity in a period of perpetual warfare, nuclear proliferation, migration catastrophes, and neo-ethnonationalisms. Political turmoil and violence by state and non-state entities remain central to twenty-first century life, even as the events of September 11, 2001, have shifted from recent trauma to historical retrospection.
In this paper, we critically explore the discourse of change post brain injury and challenge the dominant discourse of negative change, which alone leaves little room for other perspectives to exist. These negative changes pose a considerable risk to the well-being of families who may benefit from engaging in richer accounts making room for a more coherent and connected sense of self and family post-injury. We explore how narrative approaches provide opportunities for all practitioners to expand their professional scripts and support families to move towards a future which is not dominated by a discourse of loss. While loss and negative change is an important and very real consequence, of brain injury, focusing purely on stories of loss is life limiting for family members and can cause psychological distress. The life thread model is offered as a visible tool for all practitioners to engage with and use while working with families, providing a concrete focus for reflection and discussion of narratives relating to change which otherwise can feel quite abstract in everyday practice. We argue that one way we can humanise our professional practice is to support all practitioners to engage in a narrative understanding of family change following ABI.
What does privatization mean in the context of domains that have long been considered quintessentially private? Family, marriage, sexuality: each of these spheres of intimate life has been cast as private. Feminist and sexuality scholars have sought to reveal the artificiality of the public/private distinction and the many ways that intimate life is deeply political. Family, marriage and sexuality are spheres of life constituted through cultural, political and legal discourses. Each is deeply implicated in governance, past and present. Yet, the ideology of the private is enduring, and the idea of privatizing the private tautological. Indeed, the intimate sphere of family and sexuality has not featured prominently in the privatization literature, which has tended to focus on reconfiguring the relationship between the market and the state.
Resilience is a dynamic, multi-level, multi-systemic process of positive adaptation at the individual, family and community levels. Promoting resilience can be a cost-effective form of preventive and early intervention, offering significant health advantages for young people throughout their lives. Developing resiliency interventions for youth and their families in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly in the context of the ongoing pandemic, is especially important given a lack of services and trained specialists, and poor levels of public spend on mental health, alongside marked and clustered psychosocial disadvantages and adverse childhood experiences. We propose a ‘hybrid’ model targeting 10- to 17 year-old children and their families, and options to engage through communities, schools and the family unit. These options will enhance individual and family resilience, and possibly buffer against adversity. The adaptations respect cultural and health beliefs, take account of structural drivers of inequalities and are suitable for LMICs.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Market to MyPlate (M2MP) program on fruit and vegetable consumption and cooking behaviours. Secondary objectives were to examine factors that affected participant retention and program completion, and analyse program feedback provided by participants.
This study conducted a mixed methods evaluation embedded within a cluster randomised controlled trial of the M2MP intervention. Adult participants completed a pre- and post-program survey reporting on their fruit and vegetable consumption and cooking behaviours. A subsample participated in structured interviews, providing feedback about M2MP and the impact of the program.
Seven weekly classes took place in community centres and extension offices in central Illinois.
120 adults and their families participated. Class cohorts were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) nutrition education and cooking classes with produce allocations (PAE, n 39); (2) nutrition education and cooking classes only (EO, n 36) or (3) control group (n 45).
Compared to control, PAE participants reported larger increases from pre- to post-intervention in fruit (P = 0·001) and vegetable consumption (P = 0·002), with no differences in cooking frequency. Interview analyses identified key themes in behaviour changes due to M2MP, including reported increases in dietary variety, cooking self-efficacy and children’s participation in cooking.
PAE participants who received an intervention that directly increased their access to fresh produce (via produce allocations) increased their reported fruit and vegetable consumption. Though participants’ cooking frequency did not change, interviewees reported increased variety, cooking confidence and family participation in cooking.
From the establishment of a coherent doctrine on sacramental marriage to the eve of the Reformation, late medieval church courts were used for marriage cases in a variety of ways. Ranging widely across Western Europe, including the Upper and Lower Rhine regions, England, Italy, Catalonia, and Castile, this study explores the stark discrepancies in practice between the North of Europe and the South. Wolfgang P. Müller draws attention to the existence of public penitential proceedings in the North and their absence in the South, and explains the difference in demand, as well as highlighting variations in how individuals obtained written documentation of their marital status. Integrating legal and theological perspectives on marriage with late medieval social history, Müller addresses critical questions around the relationship between the church and medieval marriage, and what this reveals about both institutions.
The forces creating a writer’s life and work are myriad and not always obvious. In Elizabeth Bishop’s case, some of these forces existed before she was born: ancestors and historical events affected and influenced her throughout her entire life. Bishop’s parents, especially her mother, and her maternal family are vital elements in her development, as was the place where she spent key years of her childhood: Great Village, Nova Scotia, Canada. This chapter explores aspects of Bishop’s childhood in Great Village and with her maternal family, revealing some of their many impacts.
Television is an innately Gothic medium, bringing immaterial figures and stories of the horrors of the past and present into the family home. Across the development of television it has engaged with the Gothic in style, technologies and narratives, embracing the medium’s potential to suggest horror, while occasionally daring to embrace the graphic with developments in effects and visual clarity. In this way the Gothic aspects of television have engaged multiple audiences in different ways. Current television particularly presents a gothicisation of history, informing viewers of the traumas of the past through factual and fictional programming, from Who Do You Think You Are? to Peaky Blinders. As this chapter argues, we can therefore find the Gothic not just in the expected places, but throughout the medium of television.
The entire family is affected when a parent is severely ill. Parents often need and appreciate professional support when talking to children about illness and death. The family talk intervention (FTI) is family-centered and intends to promote communication about the illness and its consequences, support parenting to enhance family coping and help family members share experiences with each other to create a shared family history. This study aimed to explore potential effects of FTI in specialized palliative home care, as reported by parents.
This pre-post test intervention pilot was conducted in specialized palliative home care. A convergent mixed-method design was used to analyze interview and questionnaire data. Twenty families with dependent children were recruited from two specialized palliative home care units in Stockholm, Sweden.
Parents reported that family communication improved after participation in FTI as family members learned communication strategies that facilitated open sharing of thoughts and feelings. Increased open communication helped family members gain a better understanding of each other's perspectives. Parents reported that relationships with their partner and children had improved as they now shared several strategies for maintaining family relationships. Parents were also less worried following participation in FTI. The ill parents stated that they gained a sense of security and were less worried about the future.
Significance of results
This study adds to the evidence that FTI may be a useful intervention for families with dependent children and an ill parent in a palliative care setting. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03119545.
The relevance of studying the characteristics of the home environment of a person with mental health problems is determined by the need to identify the resources of the individual and the family to form multilevel adaptive competencies aimed at maintaining mental health.
The present study was conducted to obtain standardized assessments of attitudes towards the home environment, towards the home as a place of functioning of the family with mental patients.
The study involved 12 patients aged 21-60 years diagnosed according to ICD-10 F2 with the disease duration of more than 1 year and readmission. Methods used were experimental psychological questionnaire “My home” (Reznichenko, Nartova-Bochaver, Kuznetsova, 2016), mathematical statistics
The test results showed that the average score for the “strength of significance of the home for its inhabitants” across the data set was 4.14, which differed from the average value of 3.73.
The psychological foundations of attachment can be associated with a variety of facts, including the frequent absence of patients outside the home environment during readmission periods. The home environment can be a complex of positive feelings and experiences in relation to the home as a personally significant place. The study revealed some of the psychological traits of the subjective attitude to home, which can become indicators of psychological adaptation in persons with mental disorders in the future. Reznichenko S.I., Nartova-Bochaver S.K., Kuznetsova V.B. (2016) Home Attachment Assessment Method. Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics. 13(3): 498-518.
It is large known that Coronavirus outbreak has had a psychological impact on the general population, specifically on those with a mental disease as Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and their relatives.
The aim of the study is to identify and examine the individual and familiar impact of the coronavirus outbreak on patients diagnosed with BPD and their parents.
A qualitative research design using focus groups was selected to identify and discuss participants’ experiences, beliefs, perceptions and attitudes. The target population consisted of patients with BPD and their parents. Participants were recruited from the BPD psychiatric service from the Hospital Universitari de la Vall de Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). Data was collected via two focus groups, one with patients with BPD and other with their parents. Content analysis was used to determine categories and themes.
The qualitative analysis of participants’ perceptions are presented using the following themes: changes and difficulties during lockdown, after lockdown concerns and challenges, general learning, and future needs. Results identify factors associated with the COVID-19 outbreak and other factors already present as family dynamics and individual difficulties.
Findings have been discussed focusing on individual and familiar impact, and allows us to consider challenges precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The study evidence that a family intervention approach is essential to enhance BPD treatment.
Lockdown resulting from the experienced pandemic has had a great influence on the emotional and social well-being of the general population. Specifically, it is known that those with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their caregivers had to overcome several challenges during this period. Moreover, this situation has influenced the professionals who work in this field.
The aim of this study is to describe the impact, the learnings and the challenges that have arisen for the patients with ASD, their families and professionals during the coronavirus outbreak through progenitors’ and professionals’ perceptions.
A qualitative research design using focus groups was selected to identify and discuss participants’ experiences, beliefs, perceptions and attitudes. The target population consisted on parents with children with ASD and professionals who work with them. Data was collected via two focus groups. A content was made using the program Atlas.ti to determinate the principal categories and themes that describe the COVID-19 impact.
Findings widely describe the problems faced and difficulties experienced by this population during lockdown and after it. As well as the challenges, opportunities and learning that this situation has offered.
Reflections derived from the study manifest the need of thinking about new models of intervention with children with ASD and their families. Greater attention must be paid to parents’ experiences in order to attend to the actual demands of patients and their caregivers contextualized within our current changing situation.
Chapter 5 focusses on the gendered history of the Copperbelt. It explains the centrality of female migration to the region, explores the roles imposed on women by companies and policy-makers as housewives and makers of ‘modern’ nuclear families and analyses the actual economic and social activity of women in Copperbelt society. The chapter shows how official anxiety about custom, marriage and female sexuality led to sustained social welfare intervention by mine companies and states. It equally demonstrates how African women and men themselves sought to make urban marriages and families and how they understood the changing nature of family life. The chapter explains how social historians highlighted the role of Zambian ‘women as workers’ and Congolese ‘women as wives’ and, using interviews, contrasts this to a sustained analysis of ‘women’s work’ encompassing housework, farming, trading and (occasionally) paid employment. Using interviews with community development officers, it also explains how post-independence mine companies managed familial and social conflict in mine townships and the understandings of family, production and custom that underwrote them.
Psychosocial difficulties, including changed relationships are among the most pervasive and concerning issues following stroke. This study aimed to collate and thematically analyse qualitative literature describing the experience of close personal relationships from the perspective of stroke survivors.
Using a scoping review methodology, four databases (CINAHL/EBSCO, MEDLINE/Pubmed, Embase, Psychinfo) were systematically searched, yielding 3100 citations. Following exclusion of duplicates and screening against inclusion criteria at title/abstract and full text levels, 53 articles were included in the review. Data were charted and thematically analysed.
While research has increased since 2000, longitudinal designs are few. Four overarching themes and 12 subthemes were identified. ‘Social disruption’ described changing social worlds, lost social opportunities and shrinking networks. ‘Changed relationships’ included changed family and spousal relationships and changed parenting relationships. The third theme ‘relationships help’ highlighted positive aspects including belonging, support and a life worth living. The final theme was ‘coping with an altered social world’ and described adjustment and emotional responses.
Relationships are an important aspect of life post stroke but are subject to changes and challenges. This article brings together a breadth of qualitative data to describe lived experiences. Further research, in particular, longitudinal research is required.