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This chapter identifies and discusses key themes that can confound resilience, retention, and inclusion among African-American faculty in higher education. A conceptual framework of protections and risks to retention, inclusion, and the resilience of faculty is provided to guide practices of diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI). The theoretical underpinning of the conceptual framework derives from intersectionality and postulates resilience in the face of adversity and defiance in the face of opposition. Recommendations for higher education leaders and faculty for retention and inclusion are provided.
This chapter will explore the narratives and experiences of a Black male full-time faculty member at a community college. The chapter will delve into my experiences as a Black faculty in part-time (adjunct) positions and my current full-time tenure-track faculty position. This chapter will examine my challenges and successes as a Black man who teaches, call out the structural issues that need to be addressed, and call in the folks who seek opportunities to aid in the fight for accountability, equity, and peace. Lastly, this chapter will provide strategies that would be helpful to both Black and non-Black faculty, with some intentional recommendations for administration to aid in the fight for equity and peace.
This chapter highlights what the authors call programs with promise. The focus is not on perfection as much as potential. Whether it is a small initiative or a large-scale program, if it makes an impact on the retention, inclusion, and/or mental wellness of Black or diverse faculty, then it is worth sharing with others. The chapter provides readers with examples of initiatives and programs that they can replicate, utilize a modified version of, or simply be inspired by. According to Barnett (2020), peer institutions are excellent sources from which to draw on successful integration of diversity and equity issues. This chapter will only share a handful of the numerous programs that focus on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) for faculty in higher education.
A vaccine that overcomes scientific, funding, and R&D constraints and enters the market may still not become available to everybody who needs it. The public health goal of preventing or lessening disease through the administration of vaccines is not fulfilled at the point of market entrance. Rather, it requires that populations indicated for a particular vaccine are able to receive it. A separate dimension of investigating how well the vaccine innovation ecosystem functions is thus the problem of access to existing vaccines.
There has been an increasing effort to integrate behavioral insights into public policy. These insights are often reliant on social psychological research and theory. However, in this relatively young field, policy interventions and behavioral insights are often built on laboratory-based psychological research with effects that can prove to be unstable in the 'real world'. In this Element, the author provides a brief history of how behavioral insights have been applied to complex policy problems. The author describes ways in which behavioral insights have been successful and where they have fallen short. In addition, the author examines unintended negative consequences of nudges and provides a more nuanced examination of their impacts on behavior change. Finally, the author concludes with a set of recommendations for generating more effective practical applications of psychology to the field of public policy.
An injunction is typically characterised as the primary remedy to prevent a continuing interference with a claimant's property rights. It can be easier to obtain such a remedy against a cynical defendant who knowingly interfered with those rights, as opposed to a naïve or unwitting party who was unaware of them. It is not obvious, however, why the defendant's state of mind should affect what remedy the claimant is afforded in vindicating their property rights. This paper examines the role played by the defendant's state of mind when considering whether to grant an injunction. It argues that a defendant who knowingly infringes a property right in respect of land for material gain assumes the risk that an injunction will be granted to stop that infringement. As a consequence, the question of whether such an order will create hardship or oppression is either diminished or eliminated as a factor. This approach also vindicates the proprietary nature of such rights, which may be difficult to assess in financial terms.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected people with mental health conditions.
We investigated the association between receiving psychotropic drugs, as an indicator of mental health conditions, and COVID-19 vaccine uptake.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of the Northern Ireland adult population using national linked primary care registration, vaccination, secondary care and pharmacy dispensing data. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses investigated the association between anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and hypnotic use and COVID-19 vaccination status, accounting for age, gender, deprivation and comorbidities. Receiving any COVID-19 vaccine was the primary outcome.
There were 1 433 814 individuals, of whom 1 166 917 received a COVID-19 vaccination. Psychotropic medications were dispensed to 267 049 people. In univariable analysis, people who received any psychotropic medication had greater odds of receiving COVID-19 vaccination: odds ratio (OR) = 1.42 (95% CI 1.41–1.44). However, after adjustment, psychotropic medication use was associated with reduced odds of vaccination (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI 0.89–0.91). People who received anxiolytics (ORadj = 0.63, 95% CI 0.61–0.65), antipsychotics (ORadj = 0.75, 95% CI 0.73–0.78) and hypnotics (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI 0.87–0.93) had reduced odds of being vaccinated. Antidepressant use was not associated with vaccination (ORadj = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.03).
We found significantly lower odds of vaccination in people who were receiving treatment with anxiolytic and antipsychotic medications. There is an urgent need for evidence-based, tailored vaccine support for people with mental health conditions.
Economic incentives are in widespread use to stimulate the development of the electric vehicle industry. However, the distributional effects of such incentives have been subject to little empirical inquiry. This study examines how California’s electric vehicle rebate program impacts different income groups financially. Two effects are considered: the income distribution of rebate beneficiaries and the income distribution of the rebate payers. The results reveal that the overall net financial impacts of the electric vehicle rebate program are regressive: the benefit distribution is highly regressive while the cost distribution is slightly progressive. Recent efforts to improve the fairness of the rebate program do not alter our findings. Policy implications are discussed.
Legal, medical, and public health professionals have been complicit in creating and maintaining systems that drive health inequities. To ameliorate this, current and future leaders in law, medicine, and public health must learn about racism and its impact along the life course trajectory and how to engage in antiracist practice and health equity work.
In Abbey National Building Society v Cann, the House of Lords held that a mortgagee who has funded the purchase of the mortgaged title to land (an “acquisition creditor”) has a right over the land that binds any other grantee of the purchaser. This article considers the basis for and limits of this principle, in light of its origins. It argues that the cases treat the lender's financial contribution as an independent source of an equitable interest in the purchased asset, rather than as a reason why the grant in favour of the lender takes effect earlier in time than the grant in favour of any third party. This has important and desirable consequences for the scope of the principle, rendering it more coherent with general principles of English property law and allowing for an apportionment solution in some situations involving co-contributors to acquisition.
Renewable energy, including wind and solar, has won the support of state governments by offering cost-competitive electricity, revenue to rural landowners and job opportunities. Utility companies and private companies are shifting to renewable energy that is already cheaper than coal and natural gas generation in many locations, while retaining their systems’ reliability and resilience. The Trump administration’s attempts to counter market forces that favored cheaper wind and solar largely failed to impede the progress of renewable energy. The United States, as documented in several studies, can achieve 80 percent renewable energy in its electric grid by 2035, up from 20 percent in 2020, using existing technologies, but that transition calls for a variety of supportive policies. Strategies that share the benefits from renewable energy adoption with communities that host renewable energy projects and transmission lines can help accelerate that transition, while securing broad political support. These strategies include assistance to rural electricity cooperatives to shift out of coal, developers’ benefit-sharing agreements with local communities and strategies to enhance project ownership by local communities. Likewise, targeting renewable energy projects at communities hosting fossil fuel power plants and fossil fuel generation can help achieve a more equitable energy transition.
To review existing publications using Household Consumption and Expenditure Survey (HCES) data to estimate household dietary nutrient supply to (1) describe scope of available literature, (2) identify the metrics reported and parameters used to construct these metrics, (3) summarise comparisons between estimates derived from HCES and individual dietary assessment data and (4) explore the demographic and socio-economic sub-groups used to characterise risks of nutrient inadequacy.
This study is a systematic review of publications identified from online databases published between 2000 to 2019 that used HCES food consumption data to estimate household dietary nutrient supply. Further publications were identified by ‘snowballing’ the references of included database-identified publications.
Publications using data from low- and lower-middle income countries.
In total, fifty-eight publications were included. Three metrics were reported that characterised household dietary nutrient supply: apparent nutrient intake per adult-male equivalent per day (n 35), apparent nutrient intake per capita per day (n 24) and nutrient density (n 5). Nutrient intakes were generally overestimated using HCES food consumption data, with several studies finding sizeable discrepancies compared with intake estimates based on individual dietary assessment methods. Sub-group analyses predominantly focused on measuring variation in household dietary nutrient supply according to socio-economic position and geography.
HCES data are increasingly being used to assess diets across populations. More research is needed to inform the development of a framework to guide the use of and qualified interpretation of dietary assessments based on these data.
Legal fictions are falsehoods that the law knowingly relies on. It is the most bizarre feature of our legal system; we know something is false, and we still assume it. But why do we rely on blatant falsehood? What are the implications of doing so? Should we continue to use fictions, and, if not, what is the alternative? Legal Fictions in Private Law answers these questions in an accessible and engaging manner, looking at the history of fictions, the theory of fictions, and current fictions from a practical perspective. It proposes a solution to what to do about fictions going forward, and how to decide whether they should be accepted or rejected. It addresses the latest literature and deals with the law in detail. This book is a comprehensive analysis of legal fictions in private law and a blueprint for reform.
This chapter examines seven (alleged) modern fictions of private law: (i) the equitable maxim that equity treats as done that which ought to be done; (ii) estoppel; (iii) volenti non fit injuria; (iv) the single meaning rule in defamation; (v) the common intention constructive trust; (vi) remoteness in negligence; and (vii) reading down exclusion clauses. I establish whether each of these devices is a Hard Fiction, a Soft Fiction or no fiction (the Nature Classification). I classify each device in terms of the Effect Classification developed in Chapter One. If a device has been found to be a Hard or a Soft Fiction, I go on to consider whether it should be retained or abolished in favour of a specific alternative. These evaluations of individual fictions lead to general insights, which are used in the development of the Acceptance Test in Chapter Four.
Sustainment refers to continued intervention delivery over time, while continuing to produce intended outcomes, often with ongoing adaptations, which are purposeful changes to the design or delivery of an intervention to improve its fit or effectiveness. The Hispanic Kidney Transplant Program (HKTP), a complex, culturally competent intervention, was implemented in two transplant programs to reduce disparities in Hispanic/Latinx living donor kidney transplant rates. This study longitudinally examined the influence of adaptations on HKTP sustainment.
Qualitative interviews, learning collaborative calls, and telephone meetings with physicians, administrators, and staff (n = 55) were conducted over three years of implementation to identify HKTP adaptations. The Framework for Reporting Adaptations and Modifications-Expanded was used to classify adaptation types and frequency, which were compared across sites over time.
Across sites, more adaptations were made in the first year (n = 47), then fell and plateaued in the two remaining years (n = 35). Adaptations at Site-A were consistent across years (2017: n = 18, 2018: n = 17, 2019: n = 14), while Site-B made considerably fewer adaptations after the first year (2017: n = 29, 2018: n = 18, 2019: n = 21). Both sites proportionally made mostly skipping (32%), adding (20%), tweaking (20%), and substituting (16%) adaptation types. Skipping- and substituting-type adaptations were made due to institutional structural characteristics and lack of available resources, respectively. However, Site-A’s greater proportion of skipping-type adaptations was attributed to greater system complexity, and Site-B’s greater proportion of adding-type adaptation was attributed to the egalitarian team-based culture.
Our findings can help prepare implementers to expect certain context-specific adaptations and preemptively avoid those that hinder sustainment.
This chapter traces the part the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) played in the development of a modern, robust, and efficient system of dispute resolution, looking at how international commercial arbitration developed from within the ICC – how it was institutionalized. The chapter is divided into two sections. The first traces the creation of the ICC dispute resolution system. It shows that some of the founders of the ICC and its Court of Arbitration were familiar with, and may have been inspired by, the arbitration rules of other organizations. Yet the ICC was also innovatory, codifying new rules and practices, as clearly reflected in the rules used to govern arbitral proceedings. This chapter refers to all fourteen versions of the ICC Rules of Arbitration – including the amendments – from 1922 to the present. The second section explores the evolution of the ICC dispute resolution system. It describes the major shifts the system underwent in the 1920s and 1930s: from conciliation to arbitration and from equity to law. These changes reflect the ICC’s increasingly important role in the administration of international disputes.
Redressing the growing economic and racial segregation in American higher education will require college and university leaders at all levels and at institutions of all types and sizes to implement multiple, intersecting interventions designed to promote student success. This chapter explores the Association of American Colleges & Universities’ Guided Pathways Project as a case study for approaches to closing persistent equity gaps through persistence among community college students. In the process, it details the critical importance of colleges serving as anchor institutions within their communities. It concludes with a series of policy recommendations intended to increase access to higher education for the most economically disadvantaged members of society.
In the face of limited resources during the COVID-19 pandemic response, public health experts and ethicists have sought to apply guiding principles in determining how those resources, including vaccines, should be allocated.
Este artículo, el primero de una serie de dos, analiza la investigación actual sobre el acoso en la arqueología que ha dado forma a la disciplina desde finales de 1800. A partir de la década de 1970, el acoso se reconoce como un factor significativo que afecta la equidad de género. Investigaciones cualitativas y cuantitativas recientes han verificado que el acoso ocurre a tasas epidémicas, en tanto les arqueólogues son acosades, principalmente por otres arqueólogues, y esto ocurre no sólo en entornos de investigación de campo, sino también en aulas, laboratorios, museos, lugares de trabajo y conferencias. Aunque las mujeres en la arqueología experimentan acoso con mayor frecuencia, las cifras de hombres como de mujeres informan de acoso en proporciones inquietantemente altas. Les arqueólogues de color, LGBTQIA+, no binarios y con discapacidades también son hostigades de manera desproporcionada. Como se refleja en las propias experiencias de la autora, el acoso crea una carga cognitiva para les sobrevivientes y reduce el acceso a oportunidades profesionales, impactando directamente en la diversidad dentro de la arqueología. Afortunadamente, existen intervenciones y políticas basadas en evidencia que pueden reducir esta práctica y apoyar a les sobrevivientes, lo que se analiza en el segundo artículo, “Contra las culturas del acoso en la arqueología: Enfoques socioambientales y basados en el trauma para la transformación disciplinaria”.
This paper analyses rural migrant children's access to public schools in urban China, focusing on the implications of the recent introduction of points systems for apportioning school places. This approach, first piloted by Zhongshan city in Guangdong province from 2009, has steadily been extended nationwide. Here, we analyse the reasons for its spread and for divergence in its implementation in various urban districts. Notwithstanding rhetorical claims that points systems promote “fairness” or “equality” in the treatment of migrants, our analysis suggests that they maintain or even exacerbate the stratification of urban society, lending new legitimation to the hierarchical differentiation of entitlements. This is consistent with the aim of the 2014 “New national urbanization plan” to divert urban growth from megacities towards smaller cities. However, we argue that the use of points systems should also be seen in the context of an evolving bureaucratic-ideological project aimed at more rigorously monitoring and assessing China's entire population, invoking the logic of meritocracy for the purpose of control.