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In a 100 percent WWS world, air and water heating and air conditioning in buildings will be provided either by district heating and cooling systems or by individual heating and cooling systems. In both cases, heating and cooling will be provided primarily by electric heat pumps, where the electricity comes from WWS sources and the heat or cold is extracted from the air, ground, water, or a waste stream of hot or cold air or water. The heat and cold may be stored or used immediately. Additional heat may come from geothermal and solar heat. The remaining energy used in buildings is for electric appliances and gadgets, such as lights, televisions, computers, and phone chargers. This chapter discusses how WWS will power district and individual-building heating and cooling systems, including hot and cold storage options for both. It also discusses electric appliances and machines that will replace natural gas ones in buildings and their gardens. The chapter also examines energy efficiency in buildings and techniques to reduce building energy use. Finally, it discusses a modern district heating and cooling system and an all-electric home.
Electric vertical take-off and landing aircraft (eVTOLs) have been accessed on various configurations over the past decade. This literature review deals with the issue of determining the appropriate design for an Autonomous Passenger Drone (APD). APDs have been compared with VTOLs on their pros and cons. The authors analysed aerodynamics and propulsion systems of multiple APDs. Further, the comparative analysis aids in designing the best framework for the exterior form of APDs based on human capacity, flying technology, fuel type, travel distance, door type, size, material, safety, cost, etc.
Residential energy efficiency programs play an important role in combating climate change. More precise quantification of the magnitude and timing of energy savings would bring large system benefits, allowing closer integration of energy efficiency into resource adequacy planning and balancing variable renewable electricity. However, it is often difficult to quantify the efficacy of an energy efficiency intervention, because doing so requires consideration of a hypothetical counterfactual case in which there was no intervention, and randomized control trials are often implausible. Although quasi-experimental econometric evaluation sometimes works well, we find that for a set of energy efficiency rebate programs in Northern California, a naïve interpretation of econometric measurement finds that rebate participation is associated with an average increase in electricity consumption of 7.2% [4.5%, 10.1%], varying in magnitude and sign depending on the type of appliance or service covered by the rebate. A subsequent household survey on appliance purchasing behavior and analysis of utility customer outreach data suggest that this regression approach is likely measuring the gross impact of buying a new appliance but fails to adequately capture a counterfactual comparison. Indeed, it is unclear whether it is even possible to construct a suitable counterfactual for econometric analyses of these rebate programs using data generally available to electric utilities. We view these results as an illustration of a limitation of econometric methods of program evaluation and the importance of weighing engineering modeling and other imperfect methods against one another when attempting to provide useful evaluations of real-world policy interventions.
The 2030 District program encourages commercial building owners to make 50% cuts in building energy use, water use, and transportation emissions by 2030. Twenty cities across North America have joined to date. Participating cities agree to the overall goals but each city develops its own method for monitoring progress and encouraging compliance. I analyzed the 2030 Districts using the “club theory” of voluntary programs and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework. Club theory suggests that moderate standards and enforcement are more likely to attract participants and achieve the program’s goals than either strict or lenient approaches. Analysis of 2018 progress reports suggests that 2030 Districts have strict standards but low to moderate levels of monitoring and enforcement. Three districts already achieved the interim energy target of a 20% reduction in building energy use by 2020. One-third of districts submitted progress reports in 2018, suggesting that shirking could be a problem. Districts that failed to meet basic membership requirements were demoted to “emerging district” status. “Beyond compliance” programs like 2030 Districts can be important complements to climate change policies at local and national scales.
This chapter synthesises insights from the Deep Decarbonisation Pathways Project (DDPP), which provided detailed analysis of how 16 countries representing three-quarters of global emissions can transition to very low-carbon economies. The four ‘pillars’ of decarbonisation are identified as: achieving low or zero-carbon electricity supply; electrification and fuel switching in transport, industry and housing; ambitious energy efficiency improvements; and reducing non-energy emissions. The chapter focuses on decarbonisation scenarios for Australia. It shows that electricity supply can be readily decarbonised and greatly expanded to cater for electrification of transport, industry and buildings. There would be remaining emissions principally from industry and agriculture, these could be fully compensated through land-based carbon sequestration. The analysis shows that such decarbonisation would be consistent with continued growth in GDP and trade, and would require very little change in economic structure of Australia’s economy. Australia is rich in renewable energy potential, which could re-enable new industries such as energy-intensive manufacturing for export
The energetic advantages of series and parallel elastic actuators have been characterized in the literature considering different elastic systems and different tasks. These characterizations usually determine the energy consumption of a specific system during a specific task and generalize poorly. This paper proposes an energetic characterization of elastic actuators, following an analytical approach, rather than a data-driven one. In particular, this work analyzes the energy consumption of elastic actuators during resonant motion and introduces a novel efficiency index. This index characterizes energy consumption as a function of inherent actuator parameters only, generalizing over the specific tasks. The proposed analysis is validated using simulations and experiments, demonstrating its coherence with analytical results.
Agriculture is one of the high input energy using sectors which ultimately produces the output energy for the survival of human beings. Wheat is an important cereal in the agriculture production system. It is a major food crop and staple food for many countries in the world. Higher population growth has increased demand for wheat, and this demand has been met through the adoption of modern agricultural practices which are heavily dependent on energy. The current study was planned to examine the input energy use efficiency of rainfed wheat growers in Pakistan and Turkey (countries among the top 10 global wheat producers). A total of 119 wheat growers from the rainfed areas of both countries were randomly selected. The data envelopment analysis was executed to estimate the input energy use efficiency score of the growers. The results of the study revealed that almost a similar source of input energy is used in both countries in wheat cultivation. The largest input energy consumption in Turkey was nitrogen fertilizer (10,531.50 MJ ha−1), while in Pakistan was farmyard manure (12,837.32 MJ ha−1). The Turkish growers have higher energy use efficiency 2.42 as compared to Pakistani growers, whose energy use efficiency was 1.09. Results further revealed that there is a substantial potential for energy savings in both countries by optimizing energy use. The study concluded that the exchange of energy-efficient practices between both countries can significantly reduce energy use and improve the yield of wheat.
Edge-caching has received much attention as an efficient technique to reduce delivery latency and network congestion during peak-traffic times by bringing data closer to end users. Existing works usually design caching algorithms separately from physical layer design. In this chapter, we analyze edge-caching wireless networks by taking into account the caching capability when designing the signal transmission. Particularly, we investigate multi-layer caching, where both base station (BS) and users are capable of storing content data in their local cache and analyze the performance of edge-caching wireless networks under two notable uncoded and coded caching strategies. We first calculate backhaul and access throughputs of the two caching strategies for arbitrary values of cache size. The required backhaul and access throughputs are derived as a function of the BS and user cache sizes. Then closed-form expressions for the system energy efficiency (EE) corresponding to the two caching methods are derived. Based on the derived formulas, the system EE is maximized via a precoding vectors design and optimization while satisfying a predefined user request rate. Two optimization problems are proposed to minimize the content delivery time for the two caching strategies.
The climate crisis – the worsening climate crisis described in Chapter 2 – and the failure of governments and other actors to govern it effectively are very largely a consequence of the pathologies of international relations, national politics and human nature described in Chapters 3–7. These interacting, overlapping and self-reinforcing pathologies are extraordinarily persistent because they have deep historical, institutional and psychosocial roots. What is more, they are premised on anachronistic assumptions and perceptions of the interests of the actors whose behaviors cause and exacerbate the climate crisis, and whose changed behaviors are needed to mitigate climate change. As such, alleviating the pathologies of climate governance requires a variety of prescriptions, as considered and outlined in Chapters 8 and 9. The prescriptions point to the types of policies and approaches to climate governance that will be required. This chapter outlines what some of those policies might look like and considers the potential prospects for climate governance going forward.
The work aims to realize energy-efficient bipedal walking by employing the three-mass inverted pendulum model (3MIPM) and compare its energy performance with linear inverted pendulum model (LIPM). To do this, a general optimal index on center of mass (CoM) acceleration is first derived for energetic cost evaluation. After defining the equivalent zero moment point (ZMP) motion, an unconstrained optimization approach for CoM generation is extended for 3MIPM, which can track different ZMP references and address the height variation as well. To make use of the allowable ZMP movement, a constrained optimization method is also employed, contributing to lower energetic cost. Simulation and hardware experiments on a humanoid robot demonstrate that the 3MIPM could achieve higher energy efficiency.
P ingestion has been found to alter energy balance, while regular physical exercise (E) was reported to be associated with energy compensation. However, it is not clear whether dietary P would affect energy compensation following structured E. Two experiments were performed, low P (LP) (0·1, 0·2 and 0·3 %P) and high P (HP) (0·3 , 0·6 and 1·2 %P) diets. In each experiment, male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n 8), in which a sedentary or a moderate-intensity exercise routine (30 min 5 d a week) was implemented. Energy intake (EI); efficiency and stores; body measures and total energy expenditure (TEEx) were monitored for 6 weeks. In the LP experiment, EI and weight gain were the lowest in the 0·1 and 0·2 %P as compared with the 0·3 %P. In the HP experiment, EI was highest in the high P (0·6 and 1·2 %P) groups, while weight gain was reduced. In both experiments, exercise was able to reduce body fat accumulation and to maintain a higher % lean body mass. In the LP diets experiment, the similarity in TEEx between the sedentary and exercising groups suggests the probability of a reduction in normal daily activities, which indicates the presence of compensation for the energy expended during exercise by a subsequent reduction in EE. In contrast, the elevated TEEx in the HP exercising groups (0·6 and 1·2 %P) argue against the presence of energy compensation. In conclusion, high dietary P decreases the body’s capability to compensate for the energy deficit induced by E, consequently maintaining an elevated TEEx.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) offers negligible NOx and SOx emissions as well as reductions in CO2 compared with other liquid hydrocarbons. LNG is a significant player in the global energy mix, with a projection of 40% increase in demand for the next two decades. It is anticipated that the expected rise in demand will cause the fleet of LNG carriers (LNGC) to expand. This work concentrates on steam-powered LNGC, which accounted for 47% of the LNGC fleet in 2018. It performs an empirical analysis of continuous monitoring data that provide high levels of accuracy and transparency. The analysis is done on data collected from 40 LNGCs for over a year to estimate the fleet's operational profile, fuel mix and energy performance. The findings of this work are relevant for bottom-up analysis and simulation models that depend on technical assumptions, but also for emission studies such as the upcoming Fourth International Maritime Organization Greenhouse Gases study.
In recent years, the overall network data traffic is dramatic increasing, a promising solution is the deployment of ultra dense networks (UDNs) combined with millimeter wave (mmWave) communication technology, which is expected to enhance the overall performance of the network in terms of energy efficiency and load balancing. In this chapter, user association and power allocation inmmWave-based UDNs is considered with attention to load balance constraints, energy harvesting by base stations, user quality of service requirements, energy efficiency, and cross-tier interference limits. This chapter not only establish the system utility optimal function model in the limitations of power and QoS, but also gives an iterative gradient user association and power allocation algorithm to resolve the optimization issue. This algorithm provides a best ratio of convergence and can get a near optimal scheme. In addtion, through utilizing Lagrangian dual decomposition, the dual optimization issue is disintegrated to two sub-problems, we can resolve them respectively. The simulation datum indicate that our method is effective.
Supplementing palmitic acid (C16 : 0) in combination with modifying the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio may benefit energy metabolism and milk responses of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows (70 (sd 11) days in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square and allocated to four low-fibre diets (18·5 % forage neutral-detergent fibre) supplemented with no FA (CON), or 2·4 % C16 : 0-enriched supplement (PAL), 2·4 % mixture (2:1) of C16 : 0 and n-6 FA (PW6), and mixture (2:1) of C16 : 0 and n-3 FA (PW3). The dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 was increased with PW6 (10:1) and decreased with PW3 (2·8:1), whereas PAL alone made no change in the ratio (about 7:1). Compared with CON, all FA-supplemented treatments increased milk yield. However, feed and energy intakes were higher in PAL than PW3 or PW6, resulting in greater feed efficiency for PW3 and PW6 than PAL. Dietary FA supplements decreased milk protein concentration but tended to increase protein yield. Compared with CON and FA mixtures, PAL increased milk fat content and tended to increase milk SFA and atherosclerotic index. The concentration of milk n-3 FA was similar between CON and PW3. Feeding PAL increased milk energy output and decreased energy partitioning towards body reserves (−4·2 %), while this measure was positive for other treatments. Blood TAG and NEFA concentrations, but not β-hydroxybutyrate, were increased by FA-supplemented treatments. Feeding C16 : 0 combined with either n-6 or n-3 FA enhanced feed efficiency, alleviated the negative impacts on body energy reserves, but lowering the dietary n-6:n-3 ratio improved the FA profile of milk.
Intermittent food restriction (IFR) is used mainly for weight loss; however, its effects on adipose tissue are not known when alternating with an obesogenic diet. To demonstrate its effects on morphological dynamics of fat deposits, female Wistar rats were distributed into groups: standard control (ST-C), with commercial diet; DIO control (DIO-C), with a diet that induces obesity (DIO) during the first and last 15 d, replaced by a standard diet for thirty intermediate days; standard restricted (ST-R), with standard diet during the first and last 15 d, with six cycles of IFR at 50 % of ST-C; and DIO restricted (DIO-R), in DIO during the first and last 15 d, with six cycles of IFR at 50 % of DIO-C. At 105 d of life, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) deposits were collected, weighed and histology performed. The DIO-R group showed higher total food intake (DIO-R 10 768·0 (SEM 357·52) kJ/g v. DIO-C 8868·6 (SEM 249·25) kJ/g, P < 0·0001), energy efficiency during RAI (DIO-R 2·26 (SEM 0·05) g/kJ v. DIO-C 0·70 (SEM 0·03) g/kJ, P < 0·0001) and WAT (DIO-R 5·65 (SEM 0·30) g/100 g v. DIO-C 4·56 (SEM 0·30) g/100 g) than their respective control. Furthermore, IFR groups presented hypertrophy of WAT and BAT, as well as fibrosis in BAT. Thus, IFR can establish prospective resistance to weight loss by favouring changes in adipose tissue morphology, increased energy intake and efficiency. Finally, the DIO diet before and after IFR aggravates the damages caused by the restriction.
This chapter illustrates the strategic importance of energy efficiency in the built environment and in industrial and agricultural sectors. It discusses the major energy end-uses within the various sectors, and outlines the types of technologies that can improve efficiency. It describes the barriers that energy efficiency implementation faces, and outlines the strategies and policies to overcome them. The chapter also underlines the synergisms that can occur by integrating energy efficiency with distributed energy strategies, and the strategic importance of creating decentralized options for accessing electricity, heating, and cooling.
This paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the capabilities of the dual-input Doherty power amplifier (DPA) architecture to mitigate efficiency and output power degradations when used in a mismatched load environment. Following a simplified linear piecewise approach, an analytical demonstration is proposed to derive optimal radio frequency drives applied to the Auxiliary path of the DPA to restore power performances while avoiding large signal voltage clipping of active cells. The proposed analytical study is corroborated with harmonic balance simulated results of a C-band, 20-W GaN DPA prototype. The fabricated dual-input DPA prototype has been measured under 1.5-VSWR mismatch configurations to validate the proposed analysis.
Introducing irrigation to smallholder farms in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) can increase food security, improve nutrition, and reduce poverty. To explore the possibility of using drip irrigation on smallholder farms in SSA, we introduce a feasibility study that views the design space from both a user-centered lens, explaining how drip might be successful in the future, and from an engineering lens. With a first-order model, we compare estimated capital costs of drip and sprinkler systems for various farm profiles and show that drip has the potential to be a viable technology for many farms in SSA.
Electric vehicles are playing an increasingly important role in the agricultural sector. The selection of tyres for reducing energy loss due to rolling resistance is an important consideration in determining the viability of these vehicles. To date little is known about rolling resistance of small all-terrain vehicles. In this study a test rig was used to collect rolling resistance data for seven ATV tyres. The study verifies the relationship between normal load and rolling resistance and gives insight into some of the important considerations when selecting tyres for small off road vehicles.
The capacity of building services in many hospitals exceeds the requirements by significant amounts. Oversizing of building services has a direct impact on building efficiency and operational costs, ultimately impacting upon patient care, by diverting much needed funding. A key factor leading to the oversizing is the excessive and uncoordinated application of design margins across various project stages. Based on a hospital case study, this paper analyses the reasons for the overdesign of a replacement cooling system and raises the importance of managing margins activity to avoid overdesign.