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Multiculturalism affects institutions crucial to our daily lives: government, workplaces, schools, historical records, the media, laws, and art. It justifies who can participate in politics and whether those such as Asian Americans who have been historically excluded and voiceless will be heard and thus influence policies and resource distribution. This political terrain affects the literary marketplace that may incorporate authors and communities of color who have been historically ignored or rejected for their criticism of Eurocentrism or failure to uphold white norms. Working within a field coming into prominence alongside and because of multiculturalism, Asian American writers understand themselves and their texts to be part of reclaiming forgotten experiences and histories as well as diversifying the imaginative landscape of US literature. As unintended consequences of multiculturalism’s emphasis on Asian cuisine, holidays, or other cultural traditions, Asian Americans are perceived as having a culture that benefits and disadvantages them in terms of citizenship and spheres of agency, denying them full citizenship, upward mobility, equal pay, or artistic capabilities.
A foundational tenet of a healthy abundant community is that all of us have gifts – of the head, the heart, or the hand. For gifts to have meaning, they must be exchanged. When we create spaces for capacities and vulnerabilities to be shared, we give life to a sense of belonging. We bring our full person to the table. Associations afford people an opportunity to exchange strengths and weaknesses, sorrow and joy, resilience and fallibility. Friendship and trust emerge in communities where people balance association with similar and different people. Robert Putnam from Harvard captured this dual need in the distinction between bonding and bridging social capital. The former refers to association with like-minded people. The latter to connections with people from other backgrounds. Communities that balance bridging with bonding are healthier and stronger. They achieve better outcomes in terms of population health, education, and safety. Discrimination and inequality erode mattering in the community. Inequality of worth can be created by a number of social identifiers: money, race, class, education, disability, gender orientation, looks, language or ethnic origin.
Chapter 3 looks at how contemporary studies of public banks have tended to bypass the historical dynamism of public banks, preferring to see the diverse legacies of public banks through narrow concepts like ‘market failure’ or ‘additionality’. This can impoverish rather than enrich how we think of contemporary public banks and constrain how we imagine their future. This chapter argues that the histories of public banks are more diverse than typically recognised within mainstream economics. Nevertheless, the transition to neoliberalism has tended to narrow the reproductive options for public banks towards more corporatised and marketised logics.
Much of the history of the idea of Europe has played out in Western Europe, with the important exception of Russia in the nineteenth century. However, in the twentieth century, there were a number of influential reflections on the idea of Europe in both Central and Eastern Europe, notably by writers and thinkers including Czesław Miłosz, Milan Kundera, and Julia Kristeva. Chapter 9 focuses on these reflections from Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the complex view of Europe from Turkey, particularly through the work of the pro-European Turkish writer Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar and the Nobel Prize-winning novelist Orhan Pamuk, as well as those from former European colonies in North Africa and South America, with key figures in this regard including the violently anti-European Frantz Fanon as well as the philosopher Jacques Derrida and the writer Jorge Luis Borges. This chapter considers some of the ways in which the traditional center/periphery conception of Europe might be rethought, while also revealing the extent to which Eurocentric and Euro-supremacist assumptions are far from being limited to the Western European discourse on the idea of Europe. It also reflects on the abiding idea of Europe as essential a Christian culture.
Despite more than a decade of repeated recommendations by international human rights bodies to enact comprehensive antidiscrimination legislation, South Korea has not done so. This raises fundamental questions about the conditions under which international human rights mechanisms can affect domestic human rights legislation. This chapter argues that despite the apparent lack of legislative change, Korea’s movement for antidiscrimination legislation successfully brought the international human rights norms of equality and nondiscrimination into Korean society. South Korea has long been regarded as a homogeneous society in which assimilationist forces dominate policymaking and culture. Strong opposition to comprehensive antidiscrimination legislation from conservative Protestant groups paradoxically exposed Korean society’s prevalent but hidden intolerance of diversity, energizing the antidiscrimination movement and increasing the visibility of minorities. This process of “discovering” diversity has catalyzed significant changes in social norms and values, which constitute a critical step toward enacting comprehensive antidiscrimination legislation that embraces all forms of diversity.
This study presents a novel configuration of a cuboidal quad-port ultra-wideband multiple-input and multiple-output antenna with WLAN rejection characteristics. The designed antenna consists of four F-shaped elements backed by a partial ground plane. A 50 Ω microstrip line is used to feed the proposed structure. The geometry of the suggested antenna exhibits an overall size of 23 × 23 × 19 mm3, and the antenna produces an operational bandwidth of 7.6 GHz (3.1–10.7 GHz). The notched band characteristic at 5.4 GHz is accomplished by loading a pair of spiral electromagnetic bandgap structures over the ground plane. Besides this, other diversity features such as envelope correlation coefficient, and diversity gain are also evaluated. Furthermore, the proposed antenna system provides an isolation of −15 dB without using any decoupling structure. Therefore, to validate the reported design, a prototype is fabricated and characterized. The overall simulated performance is observed in very close agreement with it's measured counterpart.
The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of complementary and integrative health (CIH) use among adults with a racial/ethnic minority background and a mental illness. A secondary data analysis of 2017 National Health Interview Survey (N = 793) was conducted using chi-square, multivariate logistic regression, and multinomial logistic regression. Overall, Black/African Americans and Hispanic/Latinx groups remained the least proportional of CIH therapies utilization. Being a male, Black/African American or Latinx/Hispanic and had work experience were predictors of the least use of the CIH therapies. Research is needed to bridge the gaps on the CIH use among a racial/ethnic minority with mental illness and to enhance the equitable and collaborative mental health care in the community.
In this research communication we report on the diversity of yeast and mould species in 69 samples of milk and different dairy products from three plants located in Umbria, central Italy. Isolates were characterised both macroscopically and microscopically and then identified by PCR and genome sequencing of the ITS region and the D1–D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene for filamentous fungi and yeasts, respectively. Out of the 69 samples analysed, 51 (73.9%) tested positive for the presence of yeasts, whereas moulds were detected in 25 (36.2%) samples. A total of 9 yeast species belonging to 8 different genera and 13 mould species belonging to 6 different genera were isolated. The most common genera isolated were Debaryomyces and Kluyveromyces among the yeasts and Penicillium and Galactomyces among the moulds. Microbiota play a key role in the formation of flavour, aroma, texture and appearance of dairy products. This complex microbial ecosystem includes both cultured and external bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Some of them have an important role in the production of cheeses, whereas others are responsible for dairy product spoilage, resulting in significant food waste and economic losses. Some species can produce mycotoxins, representing a potential hazard for the consumer's safety. This study provides interesting information on the diversity of fungi species in dairy products from central Italy that can be of major importance to identify these products and to develop adequate strategies for fungal spoilage control and consumer safety.
Value is a generalization of diversity. In ecological terms, it allows measurement of a community when its species are assigned a worth that need not be related to how distinctive they are. Mathematically, the characterization theorem for value measures that we prove here allows us to prove a characterization theorem for the Hill numbers (hence, in principle, the Rényi entropies).
We give an overview of the whole book. We explain the problem of measuring diversity, summarizing the mathematical concepts with which it connects (including entropy and measures of size such as cardinality, volume and Euler characteristic). We indicate some of the branches of mathematics that will be involved (information theory, geometry, probability theory, abstract algebra) and the techniques that will be used (functional equations and a little category theory).
The salt marsh response to a changing climate may be more complex than that of either terrestrial or marine ecosystems because salt marshes exist at the interface of land and sea and both bring changes to the marsh. Climate change may exacerbate anthropogenic-related stresses that salt marsh plants are already experiencing, limiting their resilience (Keddy 2011). In this chapter we discuss major climate change impacts likely to affect salt marshes including temperature, sea level rise (SLR), salinity, CO2, freshwater flow, sediment, and nutrients, and consider how salt marsh plants respond to these impacts and potential interactions of these impacts. Specifically, we explore changes in plant productivity and decomposition rates, aboveground and belowground biomass, and stem density as they are central to understanding marsh responses on a larger scale, with implications for species composition, elevation change, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, food webs, and ultimately marsh survival. Although this chapter is focused on salt marshes, examples from tidal fresh and brackish marshes are also included to a limited extent where relevant.
We introduce finite probability distributions and their use as a model of an ecological community. We define Shannon entropy, give examples, and establish its basic properties. We interpret Shannon entropy in terms of both coding and diversity, and prove that it is uniquely characterized by the chain rule.
The global biodiversity crisis is one of humanity's most urgent problems, but even quantifying biological diversity is a difficult mathematical and conceptual challenge. This book brings new mathematical rigour to the ongoing debate. It was born of research in category theory, is given strength by information theory, and is fed by the ancient field of functional equations. It applies the power of the axiomatic method to a biological problem of pressing concern, but it also presents new theorems that stand up as mathematics in their own right, independently of any application. The question 'what is diversity?' has surprising mathematical depth, and this book covers a wide breadth of mathematics, from functional equations to geometric measure theory, from probability theory to number theory. Despite this range, the mathematical prerequisites are few: the main narrative thread of this book requires no more than an undergraduate course in analysis.
We provide our perspective on the species-level taxonomy of notothenioid fishes, the dominant component of the fish fauna of Antarctica. There are 140 species in 45 genera, an increase of 15% since the previous summary in 2000. Biogeographically, 30 species are non-Antarctic, 33 are sub-Antarctic and 77 are Antarctic. The checklist is documented with footnotes that provide the rationale for our decisions. Supplementary Material provides additional details for our decisions on two species of Pogonophryne.
Previously, it was suggested that haemadipsid leeches represent an important vector of trypanosomes amongst native animals in Australia. Consequently, Chtonobdella bilineata leeches were investigated for the presence of trypanosome species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing and in vitro isolation. Phylogenetic analysis ensued to further define the populations present. PCR targeting the 28S rDNA demonstrated that over 95% of C. bilineata contained trypanosomes; diversity profiling by deep amplicon sequencing of 18S rDNA indicated the presence of four different clusters related to the Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri. Novy–MacNeal–Nicolle slopes with liquid overlay were used to isolate trypanosomes into culture that proved similar in morphology to Trypanosoma cyclops in that they contained a large numbers of acidocalcisomes. Phylogeny of 18S rDNA/GAPDH/ND5 DNA sequences from primary cultures and subclones showed the trypanosomes were monophyletic, with T. cyclops as a sister group. Blood-meal analysis of leeches showed that leeches primarily contained blood from swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolour), human (Homo sapiens) or horse (Equus sp.). The leech C. bilineata is a host for at least five lineages of Trypanosoma sp. and these are monophyletic with T. cyclops; we propose Trypanosoma cyclops australiensis as a subspecies of T. cyclops based on genetic similarity and biogeography considerations.
There is growing interest in bridging the gap between science and society. Fostering relationships between researchers and practitioners, such as partnering to conduct experiments, is an increasingly popular way to do that. Yet, despite the growing number of such partnerships, academics who are new to them often lack guidance about considerations to keep in mind and the steps involved. This chapter bridges the gap. I discuss the benefits, challenges, and goals of organizational partnerships as well as provide a step-by-step guide for academics beginning new ones. Throughout, I emphasize the fact that such partnerships entail building new working relationships with people who have diverse forms of knowledge. As a result, both a learning mindset as well as a relational mindset are necessary.
Engaging students with the far-distant past can be a challenge. We established Hands Up Education, a non-profit community interest company, in 2017 in recognition of the need for materials that reflect the priorities of today’s students and teachers. Writing a new textbook series provided an opportunity to reevaluate the traditional perspective and prioritise what is important for students learning Latin in the 21st century.
This chapter offers reflections on the results presented in the previous chapters. One section argues that while it is difficult to prove that teachings contribute to the development of international law, it seems probable that they do, including by influencing the ICJ when it contributes to the development of international law. The next section suggests how the Court's practice may be adjusted in potentially beneficial ways. The arguments are presented, in favour of increased transparency about the application of teachings, increased diversity in what teachings are applied, and increased regulation in how teachings are applied. These arguments must be balanced against significant counterarguments, and this must be done by the individual judge. A third section shows how the Court's practice compares with that of other international courts and tribunals. The Court's majority opinions are most similar to those of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, while its individual opinions sit roughly in the middle of a spectrum between various institutions. The final section has ideas for future research.
Epiphytic lichens are sensitive to deteriorating air quality, but levels of nitrogen and especially sulphur deposition have been in decline over most of Europe in recent decades. We assessed the response of epiphytic lichens to this decline, using data from long-term monitoring sites in Sweden. We analyzed 20 years of data to investigate temporal trends in lichen communities’ sensitivity to sulphur, nitrogen preference, species richness and alpha and beta diversity. We found only limited and partial evidence of recovery in the area that previously had high levels of deposition, and a decline in mean sulphur sensitivity at a northern site with low deposition levels throughout the monitoring period. The slow recolonization of sensitive species, even where environmental conditions are now suitable, is probably a result of impoverished regional species pools and the inherent limited dispersal capacity of many lichen species. We suggest due consideration of these factors in the use of epiphytic lichens as environmental indicators in a period of improving air quality.
Inclusive education workforce capability is the ability of the education workforce to meet individual student learning needs, regardless of educational context. In this study, we investigated the perceptions of 12 principals in Australian education settings on their views about roles and responsibilities related to the workforce’s preparedness for inclusive education. We used thematic analysis to identify 9 major themes and 3 subthemes across the 3 roles about which participants were asked: the principal’s role, the system’s role, and the teacher registration boards’ role. The findings indicated a number of areas of concern for these principals about ensuring the capability of the education workforce in the context of extensive student diversity. In summary, results indicated that principals, systems, and teacher registration boards each have a role in building inclusive education workforce capability, with a coordinated effort more likely to bring Australia closer to its pledge of inclusive education for all students.