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The utility of a norm is central to its adoption and this utility is generative of a norm’s adherents: the ‘norm circle’. Regional organisations provide excellent arenas to witness normative contestation between norm circles, as well as to understand how a ‘successful’ norm is selected. Within a regional organisation, specific domain rules apply, and these provide the criteria for the successful passage of a normative proposal. The three broad criteria suggested are the control of the initiative, the mastery of existing shared norms, and ‘metis’, the ability to identify opportunities for influence and expand the norm circle. The chapter ends with a review of suitable cases in the OAU/AU and ASEAN.
This chapter reviews the model set out in the theoretical framework to examine the degree of congruence the six cases had with the relevant factors of controlling the initiative, the mastery of shared norms, and opportunities for influence, particularly the ability to bring other states into the favoured norm circle. It also examines the model’s inferences against the observed outcomes to examine the degree of significance each factor had in the respective regional organisation.
Prebiotic supplements and high-protein (HP) diets reduce body weight and modulate intestinal microbiota. Our aim was to elucidate the combined effect of an inulin/oligofructose (FOS) and HP diet on body weight gain, energy metabolism and faecal microbiota. Forty male C57BL/6NCrl mice were fed a control (C) diet for 2 weeks and allocated to a C or HP (40 % protein) diet including no or 10 % inulin/FOS (C + I and HP + I) for 4 weeks. Inulin/FOS was added in place of starch and cellulose. Body weight, food intake, faecal energy and nitrogen were determined. Indirect calorimetry and faecal microbiota analysis were performed after 3 weeks on diets. Body weight gain of HP-fed mice was 36 % lower than HP + I- and C-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Diet digestibility and food conversion efficiency were higher in HP + I- than HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅01), while food intake was comparable between groups. Total energy expenditure (heat production) was 25 % lower in HP + I- than in C-, HP- and C + I-fed mice (P < 0⋅001). Carbohydrate oxidation tended to be 24 % higher in HP- than in HP + I-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Faecal nitrogen excretion was 31–45 % lower in C-, C + I- and HP + I- than in HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Faecal Bacteroides–Prevotella DNA was 2⋅3-fold higher in C + I- and HP + I- relative to C-fed mice (P < 0⋅05), but Clostridium leptum DNA abundances was 79 % lower in HP + I- than in HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). We suggest that the higher conversion efficiency of dietary energy of HP + I but not C + I-fed mice is caused by higher digestibility and lower heat production, resulting in increased body mass.
Personal autonomy and control are major concepts for people with life-limiting conditions. Patients who express a wish to die (WTD) are often thought of wanting it because of loss of autonomy or control. The research conducted so far has not focused on personal beliefs and perspectives; and little is known about patients’ understanding of autonomy and control in this context. The aim of this review was to analyze what role autonomy and control may play in relation to the WTD expressed by people with life-limiting conditions.
A systematic integrative review was conducted. The search strategy used MeSH terms in combination with free-text searching of the EBSCO Discovery Service (which provides access to multiple academic library literature databases, including PubMed and CINAHL), as well as the large PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science library literature databases from their inception until February 2019. The search was updated to January 2021.
After the screening process, 85 full texts were included for the final analysis. Twenty-seven studies, recording the experiences of 1,824 participants, were identified. The studies were conducted in Australia (n = 5), Canada (n = 5), USA (n = 5), The Netherlands (n = 3), Spain (n = 2), Sweden (n = 2), Switzerland (n = 2), Finland (n = 1), Germany (n = 1), and the UK (n = 1). Three themes were identified: (1) the presence of autonomy for the WTD, (2) the different ways in which autonomy is conceptualized, and (3) the socio-cultural context of research participants.
Significance of results
Despite the importance given to the concept of autonomy in the WTD discourse, only a few empirical studies have focused on personal interests. Comprehending the context is crucial because personal understandings of autonomy are shaped by socio-cultural–ethical backgrounds and these impact personal WTD attitudes.
This chapter begins by explaining the pleading requirements of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Next, this chapter explores how Supreme Court caselaw has shaped those rules, emphasizing the Court’s recent decisions in Twombly and Iqbal. Then, this chapter outlines the results of numerous research studies that examine the current state of employment discrimination in our society. Building on this research, this book proposes a unified analytical framework for pleading intent in employment discrimination claims brought under Title VII. The chapter then explains how the proposed pleading model comports with the federal rules, as interpreted by Twombly and Iqbal. The chapter further explores the best approach to pleading claims arising in the technology-sector context.
This chapter argues that the classification of workers as independent contractors or employees should be shaped by an overarching question: How much flexibility do individuals have in determining the time, place, price, manner, and frequency of their work? Those who have more control of these variables are more independent than those who must conform to a business owner’s schedule. This approach provides an objective basis for resolving classification disputes, particularly those that arise in the context of the technology-based economy. By minimizing legal uncertainty, a focus on worker flexibility would ensure both that workers receive appropriate protections under existing law and that companies are able to innovate without fear of unknown liabilities.
An introduction to the theory and engineering practice that underpins the component design and analysis of radial flow turbocompressors. Drawing upon an extensive theoretical background and years of practical experience, the authors provide descriptions of applications, concepts, component design, analysis tools, performance maps, flow stability, and structural integrity, with illustrative examples. Features wide coverage of all types of radial compressor over many applications unified by the consistent use of dimensional analysis. Discusses the methods needed to analyse the performance, flow, and mechanical integrity that underpin the design of efficient centrifugal compressors with good flow range and stability. Includes explanation of the design of all radial compressor components, including inlet guide vanes, impellers, diffusers, volutes, return channels, de-swirl vanes and side-streams. Suitable as a reference for advanced students of turbomachinery, and a perfect tool for practising mechanical and aerospace engineers already within the field and those just entering it.
This chapter explores the various responses of enslaved individuals to slavery, ranging from accommodation to full scale rebellion and everything in-between. It also examines the ways that slave-owners attempted to control their slaves, including brutal mistreatment (whipping) and positive incentives to loyal service such as the promise of liberation.
Sentences like They tricked him into believing them and They charged him with abandoning them raise interesting issues for selection and control. We show that these two sentences exemplify two distinct classes, subsuming P-gerund constructions that are formed with seven distinct prepositions: implicative vs. nonimplicative constructions. The first class displays a cluster of restrictions, both syntactic and semantic, which are absent from the second class: It resists partial control or embedded lexical subjects, and it bans object drop and movement of the P-gerund phrase. The existence of these two classes, as well as their empirical profiles, follow from Landau’s (2015) theory of control and challenge alternative approaches.
At one point or another, most of us have been accused of not trying our hardest, and most of us have leveled similar accusations at others. The disputes that result are often intractable and raise difficult questions about effort, ability, and will. This essay addresses some of these questions by examining six representative cases in which the accusation is leveled. The questions discussed include (1) what trying one's hardest involves, and (2) the conditions under which complaints about lack of effort are true, and (3) how much their truth matters. One conclusion that emerges is that both the relevant form of effort and the impediments to making it can vary greatly, while another is that trying one's hardest is less important than trying as hard as one could reasonably be expected to try.
We began with the observation that technology law, as defined by this text, is now an important field in its own right. This importance will continue to grow as the progress of technology and its application in society continues to create gaps in the legal framework that require regulation. No-one can predict exactly what new technologies are coming, what their implications will be, or what laws will be needed, but by studying theoretical approaches to ethics and regulation and the legal problems that have arisen to date, and how these have been responded to, we are better prepared to deal with future challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 provides a stark reminder that unanticipated events can change the societal landscape in a matter of weeks and provide compelling reasons for technologies to be quickly applied in new ways. This concluding chapter will consider the future directions of technology law by reflecting on technology and society, noting the areas of law and regulation that have been covered, and reflecting on themes that have arisen.
Due to the high incidence of COVID-19 case numbers internationally, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of global relevance, advising countries to follow protocols to combat pandemic advance through actions that can reduce spread and consequently avoid a collapse in the local health system. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of the evolution of new community cases, and mortality records of COVID-19 in the State of Pará, which has a subtropical climate with temperatures between 20 and 35 °C, after the implementation of social distancing by quarantine and adoption of lockdown. The follow-up was carried out by the daily data from the technical bulletins provided by the State of Pará Public Health Secretary (SESPA). On 18 March 2020, Pará notified the first case of COVID-19. After 7 weeks, the number of confirmed cases reached 4756 with 375 deaths. The results show it took 49 days for 81% of the 144 states municipalities, distributed over an area of approximately 1 248 000 km2 to register COVID-19 cases. Temperature variations between 24.5 and 33.1 °C did not promote the decline in the new infections curve. The association between social isolation, quarantine and lockdown as an action to contain the infection was effective in reducing the region's new cases registration of COVID-19 in the short-term. However, short periods of lockdown may have promoted the virus spread among peripheral municipalities of the capital, as well as to inland regions.
Research on purpose is based on the fact that the behavior of organisms is a control process. What we call “behavior” are controlled results of an organism's actions. Controlled results are consistent results produced in the face of disturbances that should prevent such consistency. The ability to produce controlled results is explained by control theory, which shows that the behavior of living systems is organized around the control of perceptual variables. Thus, the application of control theory to understanding the behavior of organisms has come to be called Perceptual Control Theory or PCT. PCT shows that in order to understand purposeful behavior it is necessary to determine the perceptual variables that organisms control: controlled variables. So the main goal of research on purpose is the discovery of the variables that organisms control. The next chapters explain how to do research on purpose.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a parasite causing cyclosporiasis (an illness in humans). Produce (fruits, vegetables, herbs), water and soil contaminated with C. cayetanensis have been implicated in human infection. The objective was to conduct a scoping review of primary research in English on the detection, epidemiology and control of C. cayetanensis with an emphasis on produce, water and soil. MEDLINE® (Web of ScienceTM), Agricola (ProQuest), CABI Global Health, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts (EBSCOhost) were searched from 1979 to February 2020. Of the 349 relevant primary research studies identified, there were 75 detection-method studies, 40 molecular characterisation studies, 38 studies of Cyclospora in the environment (33 prevalence studies, 10 studies of factors associated with environmental contamination), 246 human infection studies (212 prevalence/incidence studies, 32 outbreak studies, 60 studies of environmental factors associated with non-outbreak human infection) and eight control studies. There appears to be sufficient literature for a systematic review of prevalence and factors associated with human infection with C. cayetanensis. There is a dearth of publicly available detection-method studies in soil (n = 0) and water (n = 2), prevalence studies on soil (n = 1) and studies of the control of Cyclospora (particularly on produce prior to retail (n = 0)).
Dynamic spatial theory has been a fruitful approach to understanding economic phenomena involving time and space. However, several central questions still remain unresolved in this field. The identification of the social optimal allocation of economic activity across time and space is particularly problematic, not been ensured yet in economic growth. Developing a monotone method, we study the optimal solution of the spatial Ramsey model. Under fairly general assumptions, we prove the existence of unique social optimum. Considering a numerical implementation of our algorithm, we study the role played by capital mobility in the neoclassical growth environment. With capital irreversibility and economic openness, space allows for transitional dynamics. Moreover, in this context, capital mobility is beneficial as well in terms of social welfare and inequality. We also consider an application of our method to an extension of the spatial Ramsey model for optimal land-use planning.
We have introduced a new low-Reynolds-number microrobot with high 3D maneuverability. Our novel proposed microrobot has a higher rank of the controllability matrix with respect to the previous microswimmers which makes it capable of performing complex motions in space. In this study, governing equations of the microswimmer’s motion have been derived and simulated. Subsequently, we have proposed a cascade optimal control technique to control the swimmer trajectory. In the proposed control scheme, the actuation is provided in a way that an exponential stability on the system trajectory error as well as minimum fluctuations of control signals are achieved.
This chapter describes the economic incentives that are present in the private equity paradigm, and contrasts those with other ownership structures. It uses those incentives, combined with theories of the firm described in Chapter 1, to make some predictions about the behaviours of private equity investors and the mechanisms they will design for their portfolio companies.
Force feedback is often beneficial for robotic teleoperation, as it enhances the user’s remote perception. Over the years, many kinesthetic haptic displays (KHDs) have been proposed for this purpose, which have different types of interaction and feedback, depending on their kinematics and their interface with the operator, including, for example, grounded and wearable devices acting either at the joint or operational space (OS) level. Most KHDs in the literature are for the upper limb, with a majority acting at the shoulder/elbow level, and others focusing on hand movements. A minority exists which addresses wrist motions. In this paper, we present the Wearable Delta (W$ \Delta $), a proof-of-concept wearable wrist interface with hybrid parallel–serial kinematics acting in the OS, able to render a desired force directly to the hand involving just the forearm–hand subsystem. It has six degrees of freedom (DoFs), three of which are actuated, and is designed to reduce the obstruction of the range of the user’s wrist. Integrated with positions/inertial sensors at the elbow and upper arm, the W$ \Delta $ allows the remote control of a full articulated robotic arm. The paper covers the whole designing process, from the concept to the validation, as well as a multisubject experimental campaign that investigates its usability. Finally, it presents a section that, starting from the experimental results, aims to discuss and summarize the W$ \Delta $ advantages and limitations and look for possible future improvements and research directions.
Obesity is an epidemic associated with many diseases. The nutraceutical Zingiber officinale (ZO) is a potential treatment for obesity; however, the molecular effects are unknown. Swiss male mice were fed a high-fat diet (59 % energy from fat) for 16 weeks to generate a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model and then divided into the following groups: standard diet + vehicle; standard diet + ZO; DIO + vehicle and DIO + ZO. Those in the ZO groups were supplemented with 400 mg/kg per d of ZO extract (oral administration) for 35 d. The animals were euthanised, and blood, quadriceps, epididymal fat pad and hepatic tissue were collected. DIO induced insulin resistance, proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and DNA damage in different tissues. Treatment with ZO improved insulin sensitivity as well as decreased serum TAG, without changes in body weight or adiposity index. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were lower in the liver and quadriceps in the DIO + ZO group compared with the DIO group. ZO treatment reduced the reactive species and oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA in blood and liver in obese animals. The endogenous antioxidant activity was higher in the quadriceps of DIO + ZO. These results in the rat model of DIO may indicate ZO as an adjuvant on obesity treatment.
The aim of this paper is to further develop an existing data model for mass-gathering health outcomes.
Mass-gathering events (MGEs) occur frequently throughout the world. Having an understanding of the complexities of MGEs is important to determine required health resources. Environmental, psychosocial, and biomedical domains may be a logical starting point to determine how data are being collected and reported in the literature; however, it may be that other factors influencing health resources are not identified within these domains.
Based on an exhaustive literature synthesis, this paper is the final paper in a series that explores the collection of variables that impact biomedical presentations associated with attendance/participation in MGEs.
The authors propose further evolution of the Arbon model to include the addition of several domains, including: event environment; command, control, and communication (C3); public health; health promotion; and legacy when reporting the health outcomes of an event.
Including a variety of domains that contribute to an MGE allows for formal evaluation of the event, which in turn informs future knowledge and skill development for both the event management group and the wider community.