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In classical toxicology, speciation of carbon is taken for granted and the carbon compounds responsible for toxicity are always described with the appropriate chemical nomenclature. By contrast, speciation of other elements is largely ignored and elements other than carbon are often condemned as toxic because of evidence relating toxicity to only a few of the chemical species in which they occur. In some cases, such as chromium, the distinction between oxidation states (chromium III and chromium VI) may be recognized as important. The fact that chromium VI may only be a toxicological problem in certain well defined forms, such as specific chromate salts that may cause nasal and lung cancer, and then only by the respiratory route of exposure, is largely ignored. Failure to consider properly chemical speciation of elements other than carbon can lead to poor use of our resources. Laws and regulations based on simple elemental analysis may wrongly condemn environmental media or products as toxic and prevent the use of important resources.
The composition of magmas proposed as parental to the layered suite of the Bushveld Complex, and some models for the manner of their emplacement, are reviewed briefly. Included are some contributions published in South Africa, with which overseas readers might be less familiar. Emphasis is given to the broader features of the cumulates, and the contradictions raised by whole-rock compositional, Sr-isotopic, and trace-element data that cloud their correlation with proposed parental magmas. It is concluded that the Lower, Critical and Main Zones are the derivatives of only two primary magmatic lineages, while a third was added to residual liquids from which the layered rocks above the Pyroxenite Marker were formed. Excessive amounts of olivine and chromium in the cumulates of the Lower and Lower Critical Zones in the northern sector of the Western Limb can seemingly not be accounted for by the composition and volume of the putative magmas. This is attributed to (1) this sector being a proximal facies located close to the original feeder, and/or (2) crystal-charged magma batches, expelled from a lower magma chamber, being periodically injected into and dispersed within the liquids already in place in the Bushveld chamber. Thus, ongoing changes in the bulk composition of the liquids within the chamber would not be reflected in the rinds of earlier, chilled-facies rocks. The expulsion of significant volumes of liquid residua from the chamber during cumulate deposition is not ruled out.
The Outokumpu region of Finland is notable for the large number of Cr-rich silicate and oxide phases associated with the massive sulphide deposits. In this paper analyses of Cr-rich phases in the epidote-clinozoisite and muscovite groups are presented. The muscovite-type phase shows a maximum 80% substitution of Cr for A1 on octahedral sites with a maximum 24.7 wt.% Cr2O3. Apparent complete solid solution between this extreme composition and the fuchsitic muscovites is indicated. The clinozoisite type phase has a maximum 15.4 wt.% Cr2O3, with a composition close to Ca2CrAl2Si3O12(OH). As with the micas, complete solid solution of Cr for Al in the clinozoisite structure is indicated.
Some of the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of Portland cement and related materials relevant to nuclear waste immobilization are defined. The ability to condition and maintain a high aqueous pH is undoubtedly the most important factor: it precipitates many species as hydrous oxides or hydroxides. However, in the longer term, many species – cationic as well as anionic – react with one or more cement components forming solubility-limiting phases. Progress on characterization of these phases is outlined. Many of the host phases have natural equivalents and this gives comfort in respect of their likely persistence over geological time. The emerging picture of immobilization in cement suggests that cement compositions can be tailored in terms of pH, Eh and internal chemistry so as to maximize immobilization potential. Nickel, uranium and chromium and chloride are used as examples.
Studies have shown that dietary chromium (Cr) supplementation beneficially affects physiological functions such as cell preservation, antioxidant activity and immune response that are of utmost importance to animal homeostasis and thermoregulatory capacity under heat stress conditions. For instance, Cr is essential for the synthesis of the specific low molecular weight Cr-binding-substance (LMWCr) that upon conversion to chromodulin, activates the insulin signalling cascade. This results in greater cell permeability to insulin, with a subsequent positive effect on the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Furthermore, Cr has antioxidant properties which help to attenuate the negative effects of oxidative stress. With regards to meat quality, Cr decreases lipid peroxidation. It has been suggested that Cr supplementation increases antibody responses and lymphocyte counts in broiler chickens exposed to high environmental temperatures. In addition, trivalent Cr supplementation increases growth performance and decreases the circulating levels of undesirable metabolites and hormones such as cholesterol and corticosterone in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. The aim of this review was to report the effects of Cr supplementation as a nutritional strategy to increase growth performance, immune response, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broilers produced under hot conditions. This knowledge may contribute to improve the productivity and sustainability of broiler production in a context of global warming and development of livestock production in hot climate areas.
An assessment of topsoil (5–20cm) metal/metalloid (hereafter referred to as metal) concentrations across Glasgow and the Clyde Basin reveals that copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony and zinc show the greatest enrichment in urban versus rural topsoil (elevated 1.7–2.1 times; based on median values). This is a typical indicator suite of urban pollution also found in other cities. Similarly, arsenic, cadmium and lead are elevated 3.2–4.3 times the rural background concentrations in topsoil from the former Leadhills mining area. Moorlands show typical organic-soil geochemical signatures, with significantly lower (P<0.05) concentrations of geogenic elements such as chromium, copper, nickel, molybdenum and zinc, but higher levels of cadmium, lead and selenium than most other land uses due to atmospheric deposition/trapping of these substances in peat. In farmland, 14% of nickel and 7% of zinc in topsoil samples exceed agricultural maximum admissible concentrations, and may be sensitive to sewage-sludge application. Conversely, 5% of copper, 17% of selenium and 96% of pH in farmland topsoil samples are below recommended agricultural production thresholds. Significant proportions of topsoil samples exceed the most precautionary (residential/allotment) human-exposure soil guidelines for chromium (18% urban; 10% rural), lead (76% urban; 45% rural) and vanadium (87% urban; 56% rural). For chromium, this reflects volcanic bedrock and the history of chromite ore processing in the region. However, very few soil types are likely to exceed new chromiumVI-based guidelines. The number of topsoil samples exceeding the guidelines for lead and vanadium highlight the need for further investigations and evidence to improve human soil-exposure risk assessments to better inform land contamination policy and regeneration.
The isothermal oxidation experiments were carried out on several new γ/γ′-strengthened cobalt-base alloys Co–Al–W–4Cr–0.02X (X = La, Ce, Dy, Y) at 900 and 800 °C. Due to an appropriate content of additional elements, the change in the morphology occurred and it significantly improved the oxidation resistance compared with those without Cr, among which the one with La elements shows the best oxidation resistance. Multiple oxide layers are also formed during the oxidation process, with CoWO4 and CoAl2O4 phases in the outer layer, and Cr, Al, W, and Co (e.g., Cr2O3) in the middle layer. The inner layer consists of some Al2O3 oxides, while more protective Al2O3 oxide was formed, esp. at the temperature of 800 °C. Both Cr2O3 and Al2O3 oxides were effectively protective oxides, which can prevent the intrusion of oxygen into the alloy substrate. Moreover, a phase transformation (γ/γ′ to γ/Co3W) was observed at the interface between oxide layer and substrate.
This experiment compared insulin sensitivity parameters, milk production and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows consuming excessive energy, and receiving in a 2×2 factorial arrangement design: (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n=13) or citrus pulp (PLP; n=13), and (2) supplemented (n=14) or not (n=12) with 2.5 g/day of chromium (Cr)-propionate. During the experiment (day 0 to 182), 26 multiparous, non-pregnant, lactating Gir×Holstein cows (initial days in milk=80±2) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily requirements of net energy for lactation. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded weekly. Milk production was recorded daily and milk samples collected weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly before the morning concentrate feeding. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW) were performed on days −3, 60, 120 and 180. Follicle aspiration for in vitro embryo production was performed via transvaginal ovum pick-up on days −1, 82 and 162. No treatment differences were detected (P⩾0.25) for BW and BCS change during the experiment. Within weekly blood samples, concentrations of serum insulin and glucose, as well as insulin : glucose ratio were similar among treatments (P⩾0.19), whereas CRN had less (P<0.01) non-esterified fatty acid concentrations compared with PLP (0.177 v. 0.215 mmol/l; SEM=0.009). During the GTT, no treatment differences were detected (P⩾0.16) for serum glucose concentration, glucose clearance rate, glucose half-life and insulin : glucose ratio. Serum insulin concentrations were less (P=0.04) in CRN supplemented with Cr-propionate compared with non-supplemented CRN (8.2 v. 13.5 µIU/ml, respectively; SEM=1.7), whereas Cr-propionate supplementation did not impact (P=0.70) serum insulin within PLP cows. Milk production, milk fat and solid concentrations were similar (P⩾0.48) between treatments. However, CRN had greater (P<0.01) milk protein concentration compared with PLP (3.54% v. 3.14%, respectively; SEM=0.08). No treatment differences were detected (P⩾0.35) on number of viable oocytes collected and embryos produced within each aspiration. In summary, feeding a citrus pulp-based concentrate to lactating dairy cows consuming excessive energy did not improve insulin sensitivity, milk production and reproductive outcomes, whereas Cr-propionate supplementation only enhanced insulin sensitivity in cows receiving a corn-based concentrate during a GTT.
Hidden hunger occurs in the presence of an otherwise nutritionally or energetically appropriate diet that is deficient in essential vitamins and minerals. Guatemala has the highest rate of child malnutrition in Latin America and the prevalence of hidden hunger is high. The aim of this study was to determine the Mn, Se and Cr dietary intakes in Guatemalan institutionalised children (4–14 years), a population group at high risk of mineral deficiency. For this purpose, the contents of Mn, Se and Cr were analysed in a duplicate diet (for 7 consecutive days) by electrothermal atomisation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry following acid digestion. Mn, Se and Cr intakes from the duplicate diets were in the range of 1·3–2·31 mg/d, 58·7–69·6 µg/d and 6·32–27·57 µg/d, respectively. Mn and Cr values were below current recommended daily intakes. A cereal- and legumes-based diet is habitually consumed by this population. Local vegetables, fruits and nutritional supplements are included daily, but the consumption of fish, meat, eggs and dairy products is very infrequent or negligible. Mean daily energy intake from the 7-d diet was 8418·2 kJ (2012 kcal), with a macronutrient energy distribution of carbohydrates 69·4 %, proteins 12·3 % and fats 18·3 %. Correlations between Mn, Se and Cr intakes and energy and other nutrient intakes were also evaluated. The present findings will help establish new nutritional strategies for this and similar population groups.
The study demonstrates the 100% repeated recyclability of hybrid membranes without any pretreatment. Composite membranes designed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and polysulfone (PSf) membranes were used for reduction of chromium (Cr) (VI) to Cr (III) under sunlight. Different concentrations of TiO2 NPs varying from 1.5% to 2.5% with the difference of 0.5% were incorporated into the membrane matrix. Increase in weight percentage of TiO2 particles enhances the reduction to 100% within 2.5 h with an increase in recyclable capacity as well. The effect of recycling on the surface of the membrane was studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The observations in general indicate an increase in roughness without affecting the catalytic efficiency up to six recycles. The study on surface membrane morphology and catalytic efficiency with reusability opens a scope for a feasible economical chromium reduction via a membrane process. Macro and micro structure of the membrane before reduction and after recycling were studied and compared with scientific evidence. Based on the results, the kinetic model was proposed for the reduction reactions.
The ordered L12-type Al3Ti–(8, 10, 15)% Cr intermetallic compounds, namely, Al67Ti25Cr8, Al66Ti24Cr10, and Al59Ti26Cr15, were prepared by induction melting followed by thermomechanical treatment. Their microstructure, compositional variation, and crystal structure were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The Al67Ti25Cr8 alloy consisted of the L12-Al3Ti matrix and precipitates of α2-Ti3Al, D022-Al3Ti, and γ-TiAl. The Al66Ti24Cr10 and Al59Ti26Cr15 alloys consisted of the L12-Al3Ti matrix and grains of α-TiAl and β-Cr.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and biotin supplementations in type 2 diabetic rats. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin. The rats were divided into five groups as follows: (1) non-diabetic rats fed a regular diet; (2) diabetic rats fed a HFD; (3) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with CrPic (80 μg/kg body weight (BW) per d); (4) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with biotin (300 μg/kg BW per d); (5) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with both CrPic and biotin. Circulating glucose, cortisol, total cholesterol, TAG, NEFA and malondialdehyde concentrations decreased (P< 0·05), but serum insulin concentrations increased (P< 0·05) in diabetic rats treated with biotin and CrPic, particularly with a combination of the supplements. Feeding a HFD to diabetic rats decreased PPAR-γ expression in adipose tissue and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (p-IRS-1) expression of liver, kidney and muscle tissues, while the supplements increased (P< 0·001) PPAR-γ and p-IRS-1 expressions in relevant tissues. Expression of NF-κB in the liver and kidney was greater in diabetic rats fed a HFD, as compared with rats fed a regular diet (P< 0·01). The supplements decreased the expression of NF-κB in diabetic rats (P< 0·05). Results of the present study revealed that supplementing CrPic and biotin alone or in a combination exerts anti-diabetic activities, probably through modulation of PPAR-γ, IRS-1 and NF-κB proteins.
The effects of chromium or nickel oxide additions on the composition of Portland clinker were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction associated with pattern analysis by the Rietveld method. The co-processing of industrial waste in Portland cement plants is an alternative solution to the problem of final disposal of hazardous waste. Industrial waste containing chromium or nickel is hazardous and is difficult to dispose of. It was observed that in concentrations up to 1% in mass, the chromium or nickel oxide additions do not cause significant alterations in Portland clinker composition.
The crystal structure of recently discovered chromium (III) dimagnesium trivanadate (V) Mg2CrV3O11 was refined using the Rietveld method. The crystal system of Mg2CrV3O11 is triclinic with space group P1− (Mg1.7Zn0.3GaV3O11 type) and lattice parameters a=6.4057(1) Å, b=6.8111(1) Å, c=10.0640(2) Å, α=97.523(1)°, β=103.351(1)°, γ=101.750(1)°, and Z=2. The characteristic feature of compounds in the A2BV3O11 (A=Mg, Zn and B=Ga, Fe, Cr) family is a strong tendency to share the octahedral M(1) and M(2) sites by both divalent A and trivalent B atoms, and the bipyramidal M(3) sites occupied by divalent A ions. In the present refinement, the only constraint assuming full occupancy of the M(1), M(2), and M(3) sites leads to the following Cr/(Cr+Mg) ratios: 0.70(2) at M(1), 0.24(2) at M(2), and 0.03(2) at M(3). These occupancies are discussed and compared to those of isotypic compounds. The values of interatomic distances are found to be comparable with those reported by R. D. Shannon in 1976. Electron paramagnetic resonance has been also analyzed. Two absorption lines with g≈2.0 (type I) and g≈1.98 (type II) have been recorded in the EPR spectra, and attributed to V4+ ions and Cr3+–Cr3+ ion pairs, respectively. The exchange constant J between Cr3+ ions has been calculated.
The objective of the present study was to determine total Cr and Fe content and the corresponding mineral dialysable fraction in a total of sixty-three duplicate meals. Samples of breakfast, lunch and dinner were taken over twenty-one consecutive days at a female university residence in Granada (Spain). Cr content in the duplicate daily meals ranged from 98·50 to 120·80 μg, with a mean of 110·00 μg, and Fe levels ranged from 9·50 to 40·00 mg, with a mean content of 18·50 mg. The mean Cr and Fe dialysable fractions ranged from 0·50 to 1·50 % and from 7·75 to 11·80 %, respectively. Possible correlations with energy and other nutrient intakes were also evaluated. Adherence of the meals to the Mediterranean dietary patterns was tested, and these findings reveal that a balanced and varied diet based on a Mediterranean-style diet plan provides adequate levels and bioaccessibility of Cr and Fe for young women, which is especially important to avoid mineral deficiencies.
Au cours du 19e siècle les gisements des métaux du groupe du platine en Russie ont été les gisements de type placers de platine de l’Oural. Ils furent entièrement exploités au milieu du XXe siècle À l’heure actuelle on doit considérer les dunites et les chromitites de l’Oural comme des matières premières prometteuses de platine . Dans la classification moderne les gisements des métaux du groupe du platine de l’Oural sont classés «non conventionnels» et sont considérés comme des gisements potentiellement prometteurs selon d’éminents chercheurs de la ceinture de Platine de l’Oural, N.K. Vysotsky et A.N. Zavaritsky (G.V. Petrov, T.N. Greyver, V.G. Lazarenko, L’état actuel et les perspectives technologiques de production des métaux de platine à partir de minerai de chromite, Saint-Pétersbourg, 2001 ). Aujourd’hui les dunites sont entièrement utilisées comme matières premières pour la production des matériaux réfractaires Les métaux du groupe du platine (MGP) ne sont pas extraits. C’est pour cela qu’il a été entrepris d’examiner dans le cadre de notre étude, les particularités techniques de différents types de dunites (minerais autochtone, alluvial et éluvial), pour contribuer au mieux à l’amélioration des connaissances sur la technologie d’extraction des M.G.P. et du chrome des dunites .
An experiment was conducted to exploit the immune-modulation effect of trivalent chromium (Cr) for augmenting immunity against peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in dwarf black Bengal goats (Capra hircus). The goats (n = 6 per treatment group) either received a basal diet devoid of supplemental Cr (control) or were supplemented with 0.5 mg Cr as chromic chloride (+Cr) for 60 days. Live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency improved (P < 0.05) in the +Cr dietary group. Supplemental Cr did not affect the total number of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils (P > 0.1) although total leukocytes increased (P < 0.05) and the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes narrowed down (P < 0.05) in the +Cr dietary group. The effect of Cr supplementation on variables of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was inconclusive. Compared to the control group, the basal concentration of glucose (P < 0.05) and insulin (P < 0.001) was higher, clearance rate was slower (P < 0.05) and serum half-life was greater (P < 0.05) in the +Cr dietary group during the IVGTT. Over the duration of the experiment, serum concentration of insulin increased (P < 0.001) and that of cortisol decreased (P < 0.01) in the +Cr group, which also showed a relatively higher primary antibody (Ab) response against PPR on days 10 (P < 0.01) and 20 (P < 0.05) post-vaccination. In conclusion, the experiment indicated that supplementation of Cr as CrCl3, in the diet of non-stressed goats, may improve primary Ab response against PPR and help confer an augmented immunity to the disease besides promoting growth and feed conversion.