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This article examines the soldiering body in relation to the increasing prevalence of genitourinary injuries in military personnel. Feminist scholars have demonstrated that the idealised masculine soldiering body are central to the workings of international politics. The article shows that US militarised masculinity operates through the selective distribution of bodily capacities. The article draws upon critical disability studies, particularly Jasbir Puar's work on capacity and debility, to argue that treatments for genitourinary injuries revolve around the production of seminal capacity. Queer and trans bodies are debilitated in these arrangements through the denial of heterosexual and cisgender capabilities to them. To unpack this argument the article analyses treatments for genitourinary injuries. The article shows that genitourinary injuries destabilise the gender identity of US service members. Through an exploration of surgical treatments, including penis transplants and reconstructive surgeries, and fertility treatments, the article shows how masculine capacitation is achieved for some US service members through the debilitation of others; in particular, queer and trans bodies, and the bodies of Iraqi and Afghan civilians.
This Element explores the role of public managers as designers. Drawing from systems-thinking and strategic management, a process-tracing methodology is used to examine three design processes whereby public managers develop strategies for adapting to climate change, build the requisite capabilities and evaluate outcomes. Across three cases, the findings highlight the role of managers as 'design- oriented' integration agents and point to areas where additional inquiry is warranted. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
This chapter turns to the judicial bureaucrats’ review of the facts and evidence on the record. As all soon discover, it is impossible to reconstruct the historical or objective truth behind a case, but only to come up with a persuasive factual narrative that obscures as much as it reveals. What may appear a structured and logical task proves more akin to bricolage. As they parse through the record, bureaucrats are bound to select the facts they deem most salient, ascribe varying weight to the scraps of information they come across, and use whatever is at hand to stitch up an assessment able to withstand scrutiny. Things get even trickier – and more uncertain – where technical or scientific evidence is involved. Some courts are better equipped to engage in extensive factual review than others. These differences notwithstanding, most international judges tend to have little patience for complex evidentiary issues, which they happily delegate to their legal assistants.
In this article, we focus on the definition and application of the sliding scale of capacity. We show that the current interpretations of the sliding scale confound distinct features of the medical decision, such as its urgency, its severity, or its complexity, that do not always covary. We propose that the threshold for assessing capacity should be adjusted based solely on the cognitive complexity of the decision at hand. We further suggest that the complexity of a decision should be identified based on a patient’s particular cognitive deficits. We utilize the current research on the types of deficits that characterize amnestic dementias and examine which types of medical decisions might be most complex for patients with that type of dementia. We conclude that applying the sliding scale based on individualized judgments of cognitive complexity will improve accuracy of assessment of capacity and enable capable patients to participate in medical decision making.
The provision and practice of healthcare is subject to a broad legal framework of accountability. Healthcare professionals must develop a sound understanding of their legal responsibilities and the underpinning ethical, professional and legal reasons for them. Ultimately, healthcare law is about people, their bodies, and those entrusted to care for them. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to rationalise and offer insight into the link between legal accountability and quality of patient care. This chapter has been written to support all perioperative practitioners in developing their legal knowledge in the context of the operating theatre.
Chapter 6 closely analyses the operation of investment treaty clauses promising full protection and security. The chapter shows how armed conflict affects both dimensions of this standard significantly. It suggests that the duty to not cause unlawful harm to foreign investors and their invesments should be interpreted as a duty to comply with international humanitarian law standards when applied to the conduct of hostilities. This approach, deriving from the interaction of human rights with humanitarian rules, avoids normative inconsistencies. The due diligence obligation to protect foreign investors and their investments from third-party harm, on the other hand, should be understood as inherently sensitive to prevailing conditions. The state’s (constructed) knowledge of threats to foreign investments, its capacities and resources to counteract these threats, and the notion of reasonableness should guide the analysis under the due diligence standard. The latter element introduces a corrective balancing exercise, opening the way to factor in overriding military or humanitarian concerns.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenged health care systems in an unprecedented way. Due to the enormous amount of hospital ward and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, regular care came to a standstill, thereby overcrowding ICUs and endangering (regular and COVID-19-related) critical care. Acute care coordination centers were set up to safely manage the influx of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, treatments requiring ICU surveillance were postponed leading to increased waiting lists.
A coordination center organizing patient transfers and admissions could reduce overcrowding and optimize in-hospital capacity.
The acute lack of hospital capacity urged the region West-Netherlands to form a new regional system for patient triage and transfer: the Regional Capacity and Patient Transfer Service (RCPS). By combining hospital capacity data and a new method of triage and transfer, the RCPS was able to effectively select patients for transfer to other hospitals within the region or, in close collaboration with the National Capacity and Patient Transfer Service (LCPS), transfer patients to hospitals in other regions within the Netherlands.
From March 2020 through December 2021 (22 months), the RCPS West-Netherlands was requested to transfer 2,434 COVID-19 patients. After adequate triage, 1,720 patients with a mean age of 62 (SD = 13) years were transferred with the help of the RCPS West-Netherlands. This concerned 1,166 ward patients (68%) and 554 ICU patients (32%). Overcrowded hospitals were relieved by transferring these patients to hospitals with higher capacity.
The health care system in the region West-Netherlands benefitted from the RCPS for both ward and ICU occupation. Due to the coordination by the RCPS, regional ICU occupation never exceeded the maximal ICU capacity, and therefore patients in need for acute direct care could always be admitted at the ICU. The presented method can be useful in reducing the waiting lists caused by the delayed care and for coordination and transfer of patients with new variants or other infectious diseases in the future.
This chapter focuses on a description of a novel UNCD film-based technology enabling a new generation of Li-ion batteries (LIB) with orders of magnitude longer stable specific capacity vs. charge/discharge cycles and safer performance than current devices, to power a new generation of miniaturized defibrillators/pacemakers to improve the quality of life of people receiving them. The UNCD film technology provides three new key components of the LIB, namely: 1) Electrically conductive Nitrogen atoms-grain boundary incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) films encapsulating natural graphite (NG)/copper composite LIB anodes, providing order of magnitude superior cycle performance and capacity retention than for NG/Cu anodes (the N-UNCD layer suppresses reactions of NG with the electrolyte and the development of insulating solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) on the anode, which retards anode conductivity and induces stresses, leading to cracks in the NG particles inducing loss of contact between them); 2) UNCD-coated Si-based membranes with orders of magnitude higher resistance to chemical attack than membranes in current LIBs; and 3) UNCD coatings for the inner walls of battery cases to enable use of less expensive case materials than current ones.
Chapter 1 introduces the capacity challenge faced by modern wireless communication systems and presents ultra-dense wireless networks as an appealing solution to address it. Moreover, it provides background on the small cell concept – the fundamental building block of an ultra-dense wireless network – describing its main characteristics, benefits and drawbacks. This chapter also presents the structure of the book and the fundamental concepts required for its systematic understanding.
We present an experimental study on the end-to-end capacity of PLC links. We discuss the variability of PLC capacity over space, frequency, and time by using a testbed on a realistic enterprise environment. These measurements are used for characterizing end-user performance, for establishing practical link-metric guidelines, and for facilitating future deployment of hybrid networks that comprise PLC technologies. We present link-metric guidelines that use metrics proposed by IEEE 1905.1 standard.
The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia presents clinical specificities and difficulties for its early diagnosis in the initial stages due to the overlap of symptoms with other psychiatric pathologies. The delay in diagnosis places the subject in a state of vulnerability because the treatment will not be adequate and the alteration in the psycho-functional capacity can expose him to risks.
The objective of this research was to describe the importance at the forensic and health level of the neuropsychological evaluation of social cognition in people with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and to correlate the results with the clinical manifestations of the patients.
Materials and Methods
Forty-five patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia were studied with social cognition tests (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas Tests) and staged with standardized scales (CDR [Clinical Dementia Rating], GDS [Global Deterioration Scale], and the FTD-FRS [Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale]). The results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistical tests and the current ethical-legal requirements were met (requirement of informed consent, reservation of the identity of the participants, compliance with the GCP-Good clinical practice-, ANMAT provision 6677/10 and adherence to the Ethical Principles derived from the Declaration of Helsinki).
We found a significant prevalence of alterations in social cognition tests, mainly in Faux Pas Test, from the initial stages of the disease, which were correlated with the clinical stage of the patient.
The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia is a condition with significant diagnostic complexity in its initial stages that affects decision-making, the type of treatment to be instituted and presents the consequences for the subject and their environment. Early detection with a deep assessment of social tools will provide clinical tools for pharmacological treatment, as well as to know the capacity and safeguard the rights of the subject and implement the necessary support measures. It was confirmed that the alterations in the social cognition tests were correlated with the clinical stage in the FTD-FRS scale and high implication in the results of the Faux Pas Test mainly, and secondarily in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test.
Based on the findings of the empirical chapters, Chapter 6 recapitulates the impacts that rich mineral resources generate on the state–capital–labor triad in China. It analyzes in detail the Chinese state’s coping strategies to mitigate the resource curse at local levels. Moreover, it explains why the Chinese state is able and willing to take the observed strategies to contain the resource curse. The key lies in the Chinese Communist Party-state’s strong capacity to penetrate into the economy and the society and also in its top-down monitoring and tight control of the local agents. In the end, this chapter critically evaluates the successes and pitfalls of the China model of resource management.
Contemporary conservation professionals are part of a workforce focused on overcoming complex challenges under great time pressure. The characteristics of conservation work, and in particular the evolving demands placed on the workforce, mean that to remain effective these professionals need to enhance their skills and abilities continually. Currently, there are no sector-wide guidelines to promote systematic professional development that addresses both individual and organizational learning. This study builds upon existing knowledge from other sectors by examining professional development in conservation through an in-depth qualitative thematic analysis of interviews with 22 conservation professionals, resulting in an effectiveness framework for professional development in the conservation sector. Our findings indicate how individuals’ motivation to learn, proactivity, open-mindedness towards alternative information and views were considered preconditions for effective professional development. A balance between organizational goals and career ambitions was found essential to maintain this motivation to learn and vital for staff retention and preservation of institutional knowledge. Professional development plans may help distinguish between individual career aspirations and organizational objectives and aid a discussion between staff and management on how to balance the two. Leaders have the opportunity to remove barriers to effective professional development. We discuss solutions to overcome specific barriers, to promote an inclusive approach for diverse learners through provision of opportunities, effective learning design, and resource distribution for professional development. This effectiveness framework can be used by conservationists and conservation organizations to plan and decide on professional development.
We study nonlinear measure data elliptic problems involving the operator of generalized Orlicz growth. Our framework embraces reflexive Orlicz spaces, as well as natural variants of variable exponent and double-phase spaces. Approximable and renormalized solutions are proven to exist and coincide for arbitrary measure datum and to be unique when for a class of data being diffuse with respect to a relevant nonstandard capacity. A capacitary characterization of diffuse measures is provided.
Although the nature, organisation and behaviours of ‘non-State armed groups’ (NSAGs) are issues of increasing concern for the international community, in particular due to the participation of these entities in the majority of armed conflicts, relatively little is known about them within the legal realm. When compared to other actors affecting or being affected by different regimes, normative studies dealing with the way in which these non-State entities behave seem to be scarce. This chapter examines NSAGs’ limited position within the international legal architecture. This is because understanding what these actors are allowed to do, or rather are restricted from doing, is determined by a set of rules, the creation and further development on which NSAGs had, at least a priori, no say. This basis serves to assess later in the chapter how international law, political sciences, and different institutions and bodies address NSAGs. A typology of these actors is provided for the purposes of this book.
I present an overview of On the Soul, Aristotle’s investigation into how psuchē (soul) explains biological phenomena in a unified way. This principle serves as a final, formal, and efficient cause of living activities. Soul needs specific consideration because it is a unique sort of form. It is responsible not just for giving living things their capacities, but also for when and how they exercise these capacities. Soul orders the ways in which living things grow, reproduce, move, and cognize the world. It accounts for all the more specific capacities and activities of the living thing. Studying soul thus gives Aristotle the opportunity to make some of his most subtle distinctions about kinds of capacity and activity. Aristotle’s discussion of soul as cause also prepares the way for considering how it works together with body, as Aristotle does in the Parva Naturalia and biological works. I then present synopses of the chapters in this guide and discuss how they relate to one another.
Chapter 4 presents the basic formulation of the structural reliability problem. It starts with the so-called R-S problem with R denoting a capacity (resistance, supply, strength, etc.) value and S denoting a measure of the corresponding demand (load, stress, etc.), both modeled as random variables. Solutions in integral form are presented for the failure probability by conditioning on R or S, or using formulations in terms of the safety margin or safety factor that lead to the introduction of the concept of reliability index. Exact solutions are presented for specific distributions of R or S. This allows examination of the so-called tail-sensitivity problem, i.e., the sensitivity of the failure probability to the selected probability distributions. It is shown that small failure probabilities are sensitive to the shape of the selected distributions in the tail. The formulation of the structural reliability problem is then generalized and presented in terms of a limit-state function of basic random variables. Using this formulation, the probability of failure is expressed as a multifold integral over the outcome space of the basic random variables. Descriptions of several example applications of the generalized structural reliability formulation conclude the chapter.
The interaction of developing states with investment treaty law and arbitration constitutes an important part of the ongoing debate about the legitimacy of the investment treaty regime. However, the authors contend that the concern is often sidelined and that developing states and their concerns are frequently lumped together under the broader rubric of investment treaty law as a threat to national sovereignty and a constraint on regulatory autonomy. By focusing on the formal equality between contracting state parties and the reciprocal nature of international investment agreements (IIAs), the chapter contends that such narratives tend to mask the presence of power disparities, which considerably shape the involvement of developing states in the creation, diffusion and internalization of investment treaty law. The authors seek to counter these narratives by drawing on new empirical data to expose a range of structural, normative and institutional power inequalities. By using the optics of power and focusing on how developing states learn from and internalize investment treaty law, the chapter peers behind the formal structures of investment treaties and ISDS to identify the underlying processes and actors and to question the legitimacy of the prevailing norms and institutional arrangements.
Aristotle's On the Soul aims to uncover the principle of life, what Aristotle calls psuchē (soul). For Aristotle, soul is the form which gives life to a body and causes all its living activities, from breathing to thinking. Aristotle develops a general account of all types of living through examining soul's causal powers. The thirteen new essays in this Critical Guide demonstrate the profound influence of Aristotle's inquiry on biology, psychology and philosophy of mind from antiquity to the present. They deepen our understanding of his key concepts, including form, reason, capacity, and activity. This volume situates Aristotle in his intellectual context and draws judiciously from his other works as well as the history of interpretation to shed light on his intricate views. It also highlights ongoing interpretive debates and Aristotle's continuing relevance. It will prove invaluable for researchers in ancient philosophy and the history of science and ideas.
Meeting the complex demands of conservation requires a multi-skilled workforce operating in a sector that is respected and supported. Although professionalization of conservation is widely seen as desirable, there is no consistent understanding of what that entails. Here, we review whether and how eight elements of professionalization observed in other sectors are applicable to conservation: (1) a defined and respected occupation; (2) official recognition; (3) knowledge, learning, competences and standards; (4) paid employment; (5) codes of conduct and ethics; (6) individual commitment; (7) organizational capacity; and (8) professional associations. Despite significant achievements in many of these areas, overall progress is patchy, and conventional concepts of professionalization are not always a good fit for conservation. Reasons for this include the multidisciplinary nature of conservation work, the disproportionate influence of elite groups on the development and direction of the profession, and under-representation of field practitioners and of Indigenous peoples and local communities with professional-equivalent skills. We propose a more inclusive approach to professionalization that reflects the full range of practitioners in the sector and the need for increased recognition in countries and regions of high biodiversity. We offer a new definition that characterizes conservation professionals as practitioners who act as essential links between conservation action and conservation knowledge and policy, and provide seven recommendations for building a more effective, inclusive and representative profession.