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Access to information about candidates' performance has long stood as a key factor shaping voter behaviour, but establishing how it impacts behaviour in real-world settings has remained challenging. In the 2018 Brazilian presidential elections, unpredictable technical glitches caused by the implementation of biometrics as a form of identification led some voters to cast ballots after official tallies started being announced. In addition to providing a source of exogenous variation of information exposure, run-off elections also enable us to distinguish between different mechanisms underlying the impact of information exposure. We find strong support for a vote-switching bandwagon effect: information exposure motivates voters to abandon losing candidates and switch support for the frontrunner – a finding that stands in the second round, when only two candidates compete against each other. These findings provide theoretical nuance and stronger empirical support for the mechanisms underpinning the impact of information exposure on voter behaviour.
The São Francisco river crosses some of the driest parts of the Brazilian Semi-arid Region and brings life to ecosystems and to millions of people. Droughts are a recurrent problem in the basin. Since the second part of the twentieth century, several dams, irrigation projects, and water and sanitation systems have been built, and these developments have impacted river conditions, such as stream flows, sedimentation, silting, and water quality. The development of the river, and its engineering solutions, have prioritized the hydroelectric and agricultural sectors. This has started to change with the new water law of 1997 and the creation of the National Water Agency (ANA) in 2000. This chapter reviews current water management and use in the basin as well as the scenarios, which indicate that, in the future, precipitation and stream flows may be reduced significantly due to climate change while water demand will increase due to population growth and development.
Looking into these times of neoconservatism in Brazil, marked by a far-right agenda and populism, this Article explores the role of vulnerability (as a legal theory, a legal principle or factual consideration) in the litigation prompted by the pandemic in Brazil. The usages of vulnerability as a form of resistance to the denial of their identity and vulnerable condition show that vulnerability can take different forms through litigants and may have an independent meaning to what is defined in legal theory or law. This is most evident by the fact that litigants dispute government policies based on ideologies that contest their identities (and not merely their vulnerability). Four case studies substantiate this Article with lawsuits brought to higher courts by judicially active groups: prisoners, indigenous people, Afro-Brazilian ethnic communities and gig economy drivers. They are what I call “undeserving vulnerables”, groups discriminated from a legally recognized vulnerable group through attacks to their identity.
Prose was both a fascination and a bugbear for Bishop. It fascinated her as a concept aligned with a wished-for sane worldliness, powers of empathy rather than self-expression, and an outward gaze inclusive of modern materials, that could outpace the narcissism encoded (it might seem) within the structures of old-style metrical verse. (She’d have liked to write more fiction, but worried she wasn’t good enough at entering other people’s minds.) Considering – finding exemplarily stylish sentences in – her undergraduate essays, her Time-Life book on Brazil, her introduction to The Diary of “Helena Morley,” her short story “In Prison,” and her memoir “Memories of Uncle Neddy,” I examine Bishop’s approach to prose as a literary form we perhaps still don’t know how to analyze. Doing so, I look closely at the sounds and syntax of individual sentences, finding in her writing moments of caution related to cross-cultural anxieties, and as well as experiences of stylistic liberation.
This chapter places Elizabeth Bishop’s work within the cross currents of the aesthetic and poetic movements that constituted modernism. While it might be expected that Bishop and her contemporaries such as Randall Jarrell, John Berryman and Robert Lowell would form part of the generation that would inherit the sensibilities of modernism, what quickly becomes clear, particularly in relation to Bishop, is both her reticence at being identified with any one particular school or movement and her agility in moving between the definitions produced by, and for, modernism. In part her singular position on the peripheries of modernism was a self-selected one, Bishop is happier to stand apart from the categorizing and theorizing impulses of her time. In addition, the fact that she was a gay woman
This chapter considers Elizabeth Bishop’s published and republished uncollected work focusing on her figuration of racial difference in both South and North America. It will engage with existing scholarship on Bishop’s Brazil poetry, as well as her problematic 1965 New York Times Magazine article on Rio’s 400th Carnival. Bishop’s poems engaging with racialised figures (“Manuelzinho,” “Faustina, or Rock Roses,” “Cootchie,” “Songs for a Colored Singer”) will be read against her engagement with and definition of a particular kind of whiteness, often in contrast to the primitive, exotic or native, as observed “In the Waiting Room.” This chapter ultimately maps Bishop’s cartography of racial otherness as a way of exploring the interiority (and integrity) of the self.
This chapter focuses on the poet and her archive, offering a brief history of archival acquisition and practice and a discussion of how the expanding archive and changes in literary scholarship have influenced our reading of Bishop as a queer poet. Hicok argues that Bishop’s extensive archive enriches our understanding of mid-century poetry and poetics and provides important documentary evidence of Bishop’s creative process and the various social forces that help to shape a career. Moreover, Hicok argues that Bishop’s poetic practice is itself archival, representing a kind of curatorial poetics that can serve as a case study for understanding the value of archival research for teaching and scholarship in the humanities. Finally, Hicok argues that Bishop’s career, reputation as a poet, and poetic craft cannot be fully understood unless we consider it in the context of her expanding archives and how that has influenced how we read her.
Alagoas is one of the poorest states of Brazil and its HDI is the country’s worst.
Present the epidemiological profile of suicides that occurred in the State of Alagoas from 2008 to 2018.
This research is epidemiological, descriptive and transversal. In this sense, data from the Universal Health System Informatics Department (DATASUS) were used to analyze the age range, marital status, race, sex, education and cause of death of the suicide victims.
1245 people committed suicide in Alagoas in the period of 10 years, they were 951 men (76%) and 294 women (24%). The main cause of death was self-harm caused by hanging, strangulation and suffocation (ICD X-70), occurring in approximately 67% of cases (836 people), followed by self-poisoning by drugs and medication (ICD X-64) 140 people, and pesticides (CID X-68) 92 people. The auto injuries caused by firearms (ICD X-72 to X-74) totalled 45 victims, while the self-inflicted injuries intentionally caused by precipitation from a high place (ICD X-80) totalled 38 victims. Most of those who took their lives were single (57%), brown (88%), had between 15 and 39 years old (55%) and did not have their education level informed (75%).
Thus, the present study demonstrated that there is a compromise of important statistical data on education level and there is the inexistence of data on family income and sexual orientation, which may help to understand the phenomenon of suicide in Alagoas. Despite all this, it was possible to identify a group of risk for suicide in the State: brown, single and young men.
To estimate the prevalence of anaemia in Brazilian children up to 83·9 months old.
Systematic review and meta-analysis, using databases PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, Lilacs, Google Scholar, Periódicos Capes, Arca, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Microsoft Academic Search and Cochrane Library using search terms: anaemia, prevalence, child and Brazil. PROSPERO Registration number: CRD42020208818.
Cross-sectional, cohort, case–control and intervention studies published between 2007 and 2020 were searched, excluding those who assessed children with an illness or chronic condition. The main outcome was anaemia prevalence. Random effects models based on the inverse variance method were used to estimate pooled prevalence measures. Sensitivity analyses removed studies with high contribution to overall heterogeneity.
From 6790 first screened, 134 eligible studies were included, totalling 46 978 children aged zero to 83·9 months analysed, with adequate regions representativeness.
Pooled prevalence of anaemia was 33 % (95 % CI 30, 35). Sensitivity analyses showed that withdrawal of studies that contributed to high heterogeneity did not influence national average prevalence.
Childhood anaemia is still a serious public health problem in Brazil, exposing 33 % of Brazilian children to the anaemia repercussions. The main limitation of the study is the estimation of national prevalence based on local surveys, but a large number of studies were included, with representation in all regions of the country, giving strength to the results. In Brazil, more public policies are needed to promote supplementation, fortification and access to healthy eating to reduce the high level of anaemia among children.
As part of the roundtable “The Responsibility to Protect in a Changing World Order: Twenty Years since Its Inception,” this essay examines the issue of norm entrepreneurship as it has been used in conjunction with the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP), twenty years after the emergence of The Responsibility to Protect report produced by the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS). It examines norm entrepreneurs with enough drive, motivation, and resources to keep RtoP on the international agenda in a changing world order, after Western middle powers, such as Canada and some European Union member states, had previously acted as indispensable norm entrepreneurs. An examination of both Western and non-Western entrepreneurship efforts to date reveals three key observations. First, RtoP champions are now facing additional challenges in today's transitional global order, where nationalistic foreign policy agendas are replacing liberal agendas, such as RtoP. Second, the drive and adaptability of non-Western norm entrepreneurs with regional ambitions mean that small states can emerge as rather-unexpected RtoP champions. Third, giving non-Western states a visible regional or international platform allows them to display leadership in reframing prevention under the RtoP framework. The last two observations point to the increasing role of non-Western states in global governance and in the promotion of prevention measures to protect the most vulnerable, which in turn increases the legitimacy of the RtoP norm itself.
Programs, policies, and technologies — particularly those concerned with health equity — are often designed with justice envisioned as the end goal. These policies or interventions, however, frequently fail to recognize how the beneficiaries have historically embodied the cumulative effects of marginalization, which undermines the effectiveness of the intended justice. These well-meaning attempts at justice are bounded by greater socio-historical constraints. Bounded justice suggests that it is impossible to attend to fairness, entitlement, and equity when the basic social and physical infrastructures underlying them have been eroded by racism and other historically entrenched isms. Using the case of Brazil’s National Health Policy for the Black Population, this paper proposes that bounded justice can contribute to justice discourses by serving as a concept, a proffering to a multi-disciplinary conceptual framework, and a potential analytic for those interested in the design of policy, technology, and programmatic interventions towards health equity.
To examine the association between economic residential segregation and food environment.
Ecological: Food stores categorised according to the NOVA classification were geocoded, and absolute availability was calculated for each neighbourhood. Segregation was measured using local Gi* statistic, a measure of the sd between the economic composition of a neighbourhood (the proportion of heads of households in neighbourhoods earn monthly income of 0 to 3 minimum wages) and larger metropolitan area, weighted by the economic composition of surrounding neighbourhoods. Segregation was categorised as high (most segregated), medium (integrated) and low (less segregated or integrated). A proportional odds models were used to model the association between segregation and food environment.
Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
After adjustment for covariates, neighbourhoods characterised by high economic segregation had fewer food stores overall compared with neighbourhoods characterised by low segregation (OR = 0·56; 95 % CI (0·45, 0·69)). In addition, high segregated neighbourhoods were 49 % (OR = 0·51; 95 % CI (0·42, 0·61)) and 45 % (OR = 0·55; 95 % CI (0·45, 0·67)) less likely to have a high number of food stores that predominantly marketed ultra-processed foods and mixed food stores, respectively, as compared with their counterparts.
Economic segregation is associated with differences in the distribution of food stores. Both low and high segregation territories should be prioritised by public policies to ensure healthy and adequate nutrition as a right for all communities. The former must continue to be protected from access to unhealthy commercial food outlets, while the latter must be the locus of actions that limit the availability of unhealthy commercial food store.
Between June 1959 and March 1964, the democratic governments of Brazilian presidents Juscelino Kubitschek (January 1956 – January 1961), Janio Quadros (January–August 1961), Ranieri Mazzilli (August–September 1961) and João ‘Jango’ Goulart (September 1961 – April 1964) received no support from the World Bank (WB), which refused to fund even a single new project during this period. During this same period, and, more specifically, between July 1958 and January 1965, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the WB's twin institution, granted financial assistance to Brazil only twice: a controversial and highly conditional Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) signed in May 1961; and a non-conditional and automatically approved Compensatory Financial Facility (CFF), granted in May 1963 to compensate Brazil for the decrease in coffee prices on the international market.
This attitude towards Brazil changed significantly following the military coup of March 1964. Money flowed into the country and by 1970 Brazil had become the largest receiver of WB funds and a chronic borrower from the IMF, signing two SBAs in 1965, and one per year between 1966 and 1972. We use recently disclosed material from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank archives to analyse the relationship of these two institutions with Brazil and to foster the debate on their political neutrality, arguing that the difference in the IMF's and especially the WB's relations with the military regime reflected, more than anything else, the existence of an ideological affinity between the parties with regards to the ‘right’ economic policy.
There is an inverse association between bioactive compounds intake and disease risk. The knowledge of its consumption according to socio-economic strata is important, which allows identification of potential intervention targets. Thus, we aimed to investigate bioactive compounds intake according to income level in Brazilian population. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, a cross-sectional survey which included data on individual food intake of 34,003 subjects aged 10 years and over collected using two 24-h dietary records. Polyphenol and carotenoid content of foods was identified using published databases. Total polyphenol and carotenoid intake were determined according to per capita income, as well as main food sources. Total polyphenols and flavonoids intake increased with income level, and subjects with lower income showed higher phenolic acids intake than individuals in highest income (p = 0.0001). Total carotenoids and classes intake (with exception to β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin) were higher among subjects in highest income quartile, compared to the lowest quartile (p = 0.0001). Coffee was major source to total polyphenols and phenolic acids intake, and orange juice was main flavonoid provider in individuals from all income levels. In the upper income quartile, total carotenoid was supplied mainly by tomato and kale, and fruits had important contribution to carotenoid intake in the lowest income quartile. There is important influence of income level on diet quality regarding intake of foods with bioactive compounds, and individuals with lower income may experience lower quality diets due to less availability of foods with bioactive compounds.
The TPNW was welcomed at the UN General Assembly, under the participation of a wide range of humanitarian groups and civil society organizations, supported by a groundswell of nations around the world. The Treaty firmly implants new law into the international legal landscape for states who wish to ratify it, sowing the seeds of potentially new normative behavior within the global community more generally. Indeed, the TPNW purports to strive for universality, raising significant questions regarding its ambitions in achieving legal unity within the wider international legal order. The dedication to the spirit of the Treaty cannot be ignored, nor can the optimism to ban nuclear weapons.
This article investigates the history of coffee culture across three continents during the Fascist ventennio (1922–45.) By using the novel framework of coffee, from the bean in the field to the machine in the caffè, it connects interwar histories that previously have been explored independently. Specifically, it examines the transnational economics of coffee bean trade routes and the colonial imagery of coffee advertising to argue that caffès emerged as key sites for promoting the Fascist imperial projects in East Africa – an architectural and artistic legacy that remains in place today. Ultimately, this trajectory broadens the way that we understand how food and farming became politicised during the Fascist period. By untangling the interwar trade of beans and bodies between Italy, Brazil, and Ethiopia, this article brings to light an untold story of caffeinated imperial aggression and resistance.
Behind the social and environmental destruction of modern palm oil production lies a long and complex history of landscapes, cultures, and economies linking Africa and its diaspora in the Atlantic World. Case Watkins traces palm oil from its prehistoric emergence in western Africa to biodiverse groves and cultures in Northeast Brazil, and finally the plantation monocultures plundering contemporary rainforest communities. Drawing on ethnography, landscape interpretation, archives, travelers' accounts, and geospatial analysis, Watkins examines human-environmental relations too often overlooked in histories and geographies of the African diaspora, and uncovers a range of formative contributions of people and ecologies of African descent to the societies and environments of the (post)colonial Americas. Bridging literatures on Black geographies, Afro-Brazilian and Atlantic studies, political ecology, and decolonial theory and praxis, this study connects diverse concepts and disciplines to analyze and appreciate the power, complexity, and potentials of Bahia's Afro-Brazilian palm oil economy.
The Afro-Brazilian religion of Candomblé arose during the Atlantic slave trade and has unmistakable Yorùbá influences. In the city of Salvador, the term nação ketu [Ketu nation] is used among the oldest temples in describing Yorùbá heritage. This has led some scholars to assume that the founders came from the Yorùbá kingdom by that name. This paper critically examines the idea of Kétu origins, taking as a case study the temple Ilê Axé Iyá Nassô Oká, a national historic heritage site in Brazil that is recognized by UNESCO as a site of diasporic memory. The paper shows that the first generations of leadership were dominated by people from Ọ̀yọ́ and that the term ketu emerged not as an allusion to ethnic origins but perhaps as a metaphor for a heterogeneous cultural context in which Yorùbá speakers from disparate regions lived in close coexistence.
Tropical forest hotspots have a high diversity of species but have lost > 70% of their original vegetation cover and are characterized by a multitude of small and isolated fragments. Paradoxically, conservation actions in these areas are still mainly focused on protection of large tracts of forests, a strategy now infeasible because of the small area of forest remnants. Here we use the Vulnerable black-handed titi monkey Callicebus melanochir as a model to study the effects of habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation on arboreal mammals and to provide insights for science-driven conservation in fragmented landscapes in tropical forest hotspots. We surveyed 38 Atlantic Forest fragments in Bahia State, Brazil and assessed the effects of patch area, quality and visibility, and landscape connectivity on the occurrence of our model species. Patch area was the single best model explaining species occurrence. Nonetheless, patch quality and visibility, and landscape connectivity, positively affect occurrence. In addition to patch area, patch quality, patch visibility and landscape connectivity are useful for predicting the occurrence of arboreal mammals in the fragments of tropical forest hotspots. We encourage the assessment of habitat quality (based on remotely sensed vegetation indices) and habitat visibility (based on digital elevation models) to improve discoverability of arboreal mammal populations and selection of fragments for conservation purposes across fragmented landscapes of tropical forest hotspots. Large remnants of tropical forest hotspots are scarce and therefore we require baseline data to support conservation actions and management in small forest fragments.
The prevailing paradigm of modern art in Brazil still revolves around the Modern Art Week of 1922, in São Paulo, and the self-professed avant-gardes that derived from that event. What came immediately before it is usually relegated to a limbo status, as neither modern nor non-modern. The introduction casts doubt upon the widely accepted category pre-modernism, questioning its validity as a historical construct. Evidence demonstrates that alternate modernisms existed in the Brazilian context prior to 1922. Chief among these is a variant of modernism linked to the rising urban culture of music, dance, theatre, humour, graphics and cinema in Rio de Janeiro. The relative lack of scholarly interest in mass culture has led to a tendency to overstate the impact of erudite expressions in literature, fine art and architecture. Other arenas of cultural production have been systematically overlooked, including ones to which Afro-Brazilian artists made important contributions. This skewed perspective subtly elides how elite practitioners often appropriated subaltern identities to reinforce their own claims to modernity, vis-à-vis their European counterparts. The book proposes to examine the conflicts between primitivism and nationalism, modernism and archaism. Rethinking these tensions in the Brazilian context helps make sense of divergent models of modernism elsewhere.