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This chapter explores Christian theology’s relationship to the literary and the rhetorical to demonstrate the shifts that theology and biblical studies have made in light of David Jasper’s lament that they have “never really accepted the need” to come to terms with postmodern reflections on textuality.It does so through examining an underlying rhythm, vibration or attunement that Christian theology, literature and rhetoric share, one characterized as kenotic. The appeal to the primordiality of rhythm is well documented in postmodern philosophy, following in the wake of Nietzsche. It has surfaced as a theological category in the work of Erich Pryzwara, and the publication of Raimon Panikkar’s Gifford Lectures. The analysis begins with remarks from Roberto Calasso on rhythm and form in, and as, defining literature. It then explores the ‘kenotic’ nature of the operation of imagination. Some of the most important Christian theologians of the past were trained in rhetoric, and so in examining the imagination in both theological and the literary production, the chapter turns to why rhetoric is important for theological discourse, despite the dangers of ideological persuasion.
Especially in the Zusätze and the 1827/8 Lectures on the Philosophy of Spirit, Hegel notes that cultivation is associated with minimizing the effects of natural determinations on one’s body. Insofar as nature is associated with particularity and reason with universality, idiosyncratic embodiments may seem incompatible with the kind of mastery of the body Hegel envisions. However, given that the “Anthropology” focuses on development of the soul rather than on the body, various compatible bodily possibilities may exist. This raises the question of how much the body’s comportment ought to correspond to an ideal, and of the implications for those whose embodiment marks them out (in Hegel’s system) as closer to nature. Since coming to own our natural determinations is an ongoing process throughout a lifetime, despite the location of the “Anthropology” in the Encyclopedia, it is important to consider the role of our free decision-making in the transformation of our body. Attending to the story of the body within the “Anthropology” helps us appreciate it more fully as a crucial link between the Philosophy of Nature and the rest of the Philosophy of Spirit.
This chapter considers the complex relationship between the amateur British ethnographic movement, Mass-Observation, officially inaugurated in 1937, and surrealist methods, ideas, and images. Surrealism influenced Mass-Observation protagonists such as Humphrey Jennings, Charles Madge, David Gascoyne, and Julian Trevelyan, although their formal connections with the surrealist movement in poetry and art and their associations with Mass-Observation overlap only partially. After considering these biographical connections, the chapter goes on to discuss the Mass-Observation–Surrealism connection through two complementary but distinct lenses of scholarly discussion: cultural and social science scholars who discern surrealist inspiration in Mass- Observation’s methodological approach to everyday phenomena; and literary and art-historical scholars who trace the intertwining of Surrealism with other 1930s artistic and literary trends, such as British documentary film and I. A. Richards’s critical meditations on science and poetry, in the work of Jennings, Madge, and other Mass-Observation principal figures.
This volume addresses current concerns about the climate and environmental sustainability by exploring one of the key drivers of contemporary environmental problems: the role of status competition in generating what we consume, and what we throw away, to the detriment of the planet. Across time and space, humans have pursued social status in many different ways - through ritual purity, singing or dancing, child-bearing, bodily deformation, even headhunting. In many of the world's most consumptive societies, however, consumption has become closely tied to how individuals build and communicate status. Given this tight link, people will be reluctant to reduce consumption levels – and environmental impact -- and forego their ability to communicate or improve their social standing. Drawing on cross-cultural and archaeological evidence, this book asks how a stronger understanding of the links between status and consumption across time, space, and culture might bend the curve towards a more sustainable future.
When Richard Wright read deeply in the social sciences, he became informally trained in the Chicago school of sociology led by Robert Park. Chicago sociology was an antidote to the idea of race. It replaced the dominant view of group-based identity as determined by race with a truer view of group-based identity determined by culture and environment: a paradigm of culture as not immutable, genetically inherited, natural, and hierarchical, but rather as malleable, learned, conventionally arbitrary, and relative. This social science vision undergirded his fiction, especially his most famous novel Native Son. But while Chicago sociology denied white racial superiority, it tended to accept white cultural supremacy, a contention shared by the legal strategy that led to Brown v. Board of Education and desegregation. Critics have frequently misunderstood Wright as a progenitor of late twentieth-century multicultural literature. That recognition more properly belongs to Wright’s rival Zora Neale Hurston, who had a different social-science-inspired model of minority culture that allowed her to see African American culture as healthy, continually creative, adaptive, and long-enduring.
Jeffrey Hammond outlines a biblical theology of conscience. A Christian conscience is an ever-growing, recalibrating capacity of the regenerated (converted) person. Then, through the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit, the Christian can seek to fulfill the great commands of the New Testament: to love God and love the neighbor. Working out these commands involves judgment of what to do in any given situation. However, in making any difficult judgment, the Christian is always aided by the “still, small” voice of the Holy Spirit, counselors, prayer, and the certain knowledge that the conscientious decision will always line up with the will of God as revealed in the Word of God. The redeemed conscience is one that is both bound and freed. The Christian is bound to follow the moral instruction in the New Testament, but at the same time, she is also freed to do it. The redeemed conscience is one that judges and will be judged by the God who perceives the deliberations of all consciences. The Christian, however, sensitive to the Spirit in both deciding and acting, can rest upon her decisions with a sense of equanimity and peace, knowing that she has faithfully exercised her conscience.
This paper sets out to briefly explore the definitions of two interrelated subfields of cultural anthropology; psychological anthropology and medical anthropology. This exploration will argue that culture and the individual are intimately intertwined. The theoretical evolution within psychological anthropology will be presented, from the bio-moral classifications of the ‘primitive’ to modern ‘experience near’ ethnographies, and fluid understanding of personhood. Theoretical and methodological approaches to mental health will be discussed briefly. Finally, the conclusion will ask the question: what is the future for medical and psychological anthropology?
Religious and traditional healers remain the main providers of mental healthcare in much of Africa. Collaboration between biomedical and traditional treatment modalities is an underutilised approach, with potential to scale up mental healthcare.
To report the process and feasibility of establishing a collaboration between religious healers and psychiatrists in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. To gain insight into the collaboration through studies of patient demographics, help-seeking patterns, nature of illness and receptivity of the project.
This case study describes the process and challenges in establishing a collaborative psychiatric clinic for patients who are simultaneously receiving treatment with holy water, including an examination of basic clinical records of 1888 patients over a 7-year period.
The collaboration is feasible and has been successfully implemented for 8 years. A majority (54%) of the clinic's patients were seeing biomedical services for the first time. Patients were brought in largely by families (54%); 26% were referred directly by priest healers. Most patients had severe mental illness, including schizophrenia (40%), substance misuse (24%) and mood disorders (30%). A vast majority (92.2%) of patients reported comfort in receiving treatment with holy water and prayers simultaneously with medication, and 73.6% believed their illness was caused by evil spirit possession.
A cross-system collaborative model is a feasible and potentially valuable model to address biomedical resource limitations. Provider collaboration and mutual learning are ultimately beneficial to patients with severe mental illness. Open-minded acceptance of cultural benefits and strengths of traditional healing is a prerequisite. Further study on outcomes and implementation are warranted.
Critical trends in psychiatry are abundant today. Their impact on how psychiatry is currently practised is considerable. Yet what deserves close examination is the extent to which these modes of critique (anti-psychiatry, liberation movements, activism, existential, narrative or hermeneutic approaches, theories of values, psychoanalysis) inherently belong to or have become part of the very system that they criticise. Despite their political, social or scientific influence, which is undeniable, their critical power is often limited by their inability to radically challenge the deeper anthropological and philosophical presuppositions on which mainstream psychiatry rests. It can be argued that Foucault offers such a challenge. Implementing his historico-philosophical method, Foucault is sceptical of the anti-psychiatric quest for non-oppressive modes of psychiatric power and the humanist and postmodern efforts to moralise or relativise psychiatric truth. All these modes of critique rest on preconceived notions of nature, power and truth and have been integrated by the pluralism of the psychiatric universe. Yet Foucault's critique seeks precisely the opposite: to explore a new anthropological conception of insanity that has the power to challenge the legal, moral or reductionist constraints under which medical truth currently operates.
With the growing importance of global legal institutions, new forms of global law, and transnational social movements around legal issues, anthropologists are studying the multiplicity of sites where international law operates. By drawing on anthropological literature and applying ethnographic tools in their own analysis, legal scholars can gain insights into how international law is produced and operates in practice. An anthropological approach can be applied to study a range of legal phenomena, including the organizational behavior of international institutions, the internalization of international legal norms in local communities, and regulatory tools of global governance. It can uncover the reasons why certain laws are adopted and internalized, the process by which laws are enforced, the interaction between legal and non-legal norms, and the internal decision-making of legal institutions. This chapter analyses the unique insights that anthropology contributes to our understanding of international law behavior and illustrates the value of an anthropological approach by providing a case-study of the culture of the World Bank, based on extensive ethnographic research.
This article explores questions of decolonization, in part through analyzing Belgium’s Africa Museum. Bernal considers the role of academia and knowledge production, as well as the technological developments that may create new concentrations of power faster than decolonial projects can dismantle established hierarchies. She concludes that decolonization must address material questions of reparations and restitution, and that digital media have been transformative in ways that bring northern models of social existence closer to African ones. Having lived under colonizers, despots, and states of exception, Africans bring important knowledge and experience to twenty-first-century global struggles.
Kant's anthropological works represent a very different side of his philosophy, one that stands in sharp contrast to the critical philosophy of the three Critiques. For the most part, Kantian anthropology is an empirical, popular, and, above all, pragmatic enterprise. After tracing its origins both within his own writings and within Enlightenment culture, the Element turns next to an analysis of the structure and several key themes of Kantian anthropology, followed by a discussion of two longstanding contested features - viz., moral anthropology and transcendental anthropology. The Element concludes with a defense of the value and importance of Kantian anthropology, along with replies to a variety of criticisms that have been levelled at it over the years. Kantian anthropology, the author argues, is 'the eye of true philosophy'.
Thomas Simpson provides an innovative account of how distinctive forms of colonial power and knowledge developed at the territorial fringes of colonial India during the nineteenth century. Through critical interventions in a wide range of theoretical and historiographical fields, he speaks to historians of empire and science, anthropologists, and geographers alike. The Frontier in British India provides the first connected and comparative analysis of frontiers in northwest and northeast India and draws on visual and written materials from an array of archives across the subcontinent and the UK. Colonial interventions in frontier spaces and populations were, it shows, enormously destructive but also prone to confusion and failure on their own terms. British frontier administrators did not merely suffer 'turbulent' frontiers, but actively worked to generate and uphold these regions as spaces of governmental and scientific exception. Accordingly, India's frontiers became crucial spaces of imperial practice and imagination throughout the nineteenth century.
India’s frontiers were areas of extraordinary human interest for agents of empire and men of science throughout the nineteenth century. This chapter investigates the production, dissemination, and reception of British knowledge of frontier inhabitants. Widespread recognition among personnel in colony and metropole alike that frontier people were important did not, however, emanate from or lead to settled knowledge of their origins or significant characteristics. Doubts over the validity of particular informants and modes of representation, disputes over competing theoretical frameworks, and controversies over the nature of frontier communities were at the heart of colonial ethnography. Frontier ethnography was a diverse field with complex relations to state power. Examining sketches and photographs as well as written material, the chapter demonstrates how processes of reproduction, adaptation, and circulation generated influential but highly unstable knowledge of human diversity.
The history and philosophy of human growth and development in the field of anthropology are studied. Examples of the Maya people of Guatemala and Mexico are given to place human growth in its biocultural framework.
Magical realism, primitivism and ethnography are historically and theoretically interrelated discourses. Mavellous folk and fairy tales, legends and myths are remote origins that received renewed attention with the rise of the avant-grade and American archaeology in the early twentieth century. In the Hispanic tradition, antecedents date back to medieval lore, which inspired chivalric and pastoral romances as well as the picaresque novel, finding a seminal synthesis in Don Quixote. In the New World, the Chronicles of the Indies, with their outlandish tales of discovery, drew not only from medieval and early Renaissance worldviews, but also from marvellous sources as varied as John Mandeville, Marco Polo, Ptolemy, Pliny and the Bible. Latin American authors have consistently cited these sources of magical realism, yet they looked at them through the prism of the avant-garde. Alejo Carpentier conceived of his seminal concept of lo real maravilloso americano as an answer to the Surrealists’ artificial merveilleux. Carpentier and Miguel Ángel Asturias, with his Surrealist view of the ancient Maya, coincided in late 1920s Paris with avant-garde primitivism and another magic realist, Venezuelan Arturo Uslar-Pietri, a close associate of Massimo Bontempelli, whose version of magical realism became their true spark, whereas Franz Roh’s influence in Latin America was negligible. Later authors like Juan Rulfo and Gabriel García Márquez significantly developed magical realist narratology, consolidating the Latin American trend and making it indispensable for understanding its international expansion based on the allegorical reinterpretation, and subversion, of dominant history – a crucial postcolonial endeavour for cultures around the world.
Chapter 2 covers the key figures in the history of virtue ethics, including Socrates, Aristotle, Aquinas, and Alasdair MacIntyre. For each figure, several conceptions integral to moral philosophy are examined, such as the definition of virtue, its source and cultivation, anthropology, the human problem, and theology. This chapter consequently provides an introduction to virtue ethics, one tailored to my purposes, and may be dispensable for readers fluent in the subject. Nevertheless, debates and questions are raised here that shape the rest of the study, contributing to the bank of philosophical resources necessary for establishing the book of Proverbs as a moral tradition, and for that reason are indispensable to its argument.
This first chapter in Part II, which deals with colonial and postcolonial implementation of the development episteme into policies and practices, traces early colonial development investments in “scientific” studies of Africa. Furnished with their own mission to modernize, the scientific development experts of the twentieth century supplanted the Christian missionary as the moral and intellectual authority on progress for Africa. Despite its humanitarian origins, the majority of development funding during the early colonial era was designed to jump-start the decimated economies of post–World War I Europe – not Africa, especially during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Development policies of the interwar period focused on large-scale infrastructure, industrialization, and agricultural projects that would generate sizeable returns for the metropoles and employment opportunities for Europeans. Colonial development funding bolstered the budgets of colonial departments of public health, agriculture, forestry, mining, commerce, and, education. Colonial administrations also relied on social scientists such as anthropologists and sociologists to investigate development problems and offer solutions they hoped would be both profitable for the state and beneficial to African communities. Scientific studies of development issues were not merely imposed on Africa and Africans but were often the product of Western engagement with African systems of knowledge.
Heritage Justice explores how far past wrongs can be remedied through compensatory mechanisms involving material culture. The Element goes beyond a critique of global heritage brokers such as UNESCO, the ICC and museums as redundant, Eurocentric and elitist to explore why these institutions have become the focus for debates about global heritage justice. Three broad modes of compensatory mechanisms are identified: recognition, economic reparation and return. Arguing against Jenkins (2016) that museums should not be the site for difficult conversations about the past, Heritage Justice proposes that it is exactly the space around objects and sites created by museums and global institutions that allows for conversations about future dignity. The challenge for cultural practitioners is to broaden out ideas of material identity beyond source communities, private property and economic value to encompass dynamic global shifts in mobility and connectivity.
In this article, we trace shifting narratives of trauma within psychiatric, neuroscience, and environmental epigenetics research. We argue that two contemporary narratives of trauma – each of which concerns questions of time and psychopathology, of the past invading the present – had to be stabilized in order for environmental epigenetics models of suicide risk to be posited. Through an examination of these narratives, we consider how early trauma came to be understood as playing an etiologically significant role in the development of suicide risk. Suicide, in these models, has come to be seen as a behavior that has no significant precipitating event, but rather an exceptional precipitating neurochemical state, whose origins are identified in experiences of early traumatic events. We suggest that this is a part of a broader move within contemporary neurosciences and biopsychiatry to see life as post: seeing life as specific form of post-traumatic subjectivity.