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Business history is expanding to include a greater plurality of contexts, with the study of Chinese business representing a key area of growth. However, despite efforts to bring China into the fold, much of Chinese business history remains stubbornly distal to the discipline. One reason is that business historians have not yet reconciled with the field's unique origins and intellectual tradition. This article develops a revisionist historiography of Chinese business history that retraces the field's development from its Cold War roots to the present day, showing how it has been shaped by the particular questions and concerns of “area studies.” It then goes on to explore five recent areas of novel inquiry, namely: the study of indigenous business institutions, business and semi-colonial context, business at the periphery of empire, business during socialist transition, and business under Chinese socialism. Through this mapping of past and present trajectories, the article aims to provide greater coherence to the burgeoning field and shows how, by taking Chinese business history seriously, we are afforded a unique opportunity to reimagine the future of business history as a whole.
Challenging transitions, increased stress and mental ill health can affect students’ academic performance and their capacity to remain in higher education. Prevention and early treatment of mental health problems in college students is therefore a key public health priority, nationally and internationally. Developing a range of evidence-based interventions targeting the mental health of students is critical. We examined the feasibility and acceptability of a new universal time use and well-being intervention, the ‘Everyday Matters: Healthy Habits for University Life’ digital badge (EMDB), a co-curricular micro-credential for first-year college students.
This study used a single-arm, pre–post design for first-year undergraduate students. The EMDB comprised eight 1-hour lunchtime sessions on brain development and time-use habits across the 24 hours of the day including sleep, self-care, leisure, study and work. Validated measures of occupational competence and value, mental well-being, sleep health, mindset, self-compassion and gratitude were completed, along with an evaluation questionnaire.
Eight first-year undergraduate students completed the demographic questionnaire and pre- and post- measures, with one additional student completing only the evaluation questionnaire. There was significantly improved levels of well-being, self-compassion and growth mindset following the intervention. Many of the challenges reported by participants related to occupational issues such as managing finances and having a satisfying routine. Participants appreciated the practical relevance and scientific underpinnings of the programme content. The sense of belonging within the group and having insightful conversations with other group members were particularly valued by participants.
This study offers preliminary evidence that an occupational therapy based universal time-use and well-being intervention was feasible to deliver and acceptable to first-year undergraduate students. The results of this study and the participant acceptability support further development and evaluation of the EMDB intervention.
Multiple transitions across care settings can be disruptive for older adults with dementia and their care partners, and can lead to fragmented care with adverse outcomes. This scoping review was conducted to identify and classify care trajectories across multiple settings for people with dementia, and to understand the prevalence of multiple transitions and associated factors at the individual and organizational levels. Searches of three databases, limited to peer-reviewed studies published between 2007 and 2017, provided 33 articles for inclusion. We identified 26 distinct care trajectories. Common trajectories involved hospital readmission or discharge from hospital to long-term care. Factors associated with transitions were identified mainly at the level of demographic and medical characteristics. Findings suggest a need for investing in stronger community-based systems of care that may reduce transitions. Further research is recommended to address knowledge gaps about complex and longitudinal care trajectories and trajectories experienced by sub-populations of people living with dementia.
The material conditions of the years between 1800 and 1830 rendered Black authors and much of African American literature “out of bounds.” Contributors engage literature by people of African descent outside of slavery’s fetters, or Black cultural producers creating work deemed untoward, or literatures developed outside the covers of bound books. In this period, the idea of Black literature was plagued not only by prohibitions on literacy and circumscription on Black people’s mobility, but also by ambivalence about what in fact would have been acceptable public discourse for people of African descent. This volume explores African American literature that elided the suppression of African American thought by directly confronting the urgencies of the moment, especially themes related to the pursuit and the experience of freedom. Transitions in the social, political, and cultural conditions of the decades in question show themselves in literary production at the turn of the nineteenth century. This volume focuses on transitions in organizational life (section 1), in mobility (section 2), in print circulation (section 3), and in visual culture (section 4).
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide an integrated and ambitious roadmap for sustainable development by 2030. National implementation will be crucial and there is an urgent need to understand the scale and pace of transformations to achieve the goals. There is also concern that achieving socio-economic objectives will undermine longer-term environmental sustainability. This study uses modelling to explore how different policy and investment settings can enable the necessary transformations, adopting Fiji as a use-case. Modest investment over the coming decade can deliver improved performance. However, far more ambitious actions are needed to accelerate progress while managing long-term trade-offs with environmental objectives.
This paper presents the results from a national scenario modelling study for Fiji with broader relevance for other countries seeking to achieve the SDGs. We develop and simulate a business-as-usual and six alternative future scenarios using the integrated (iSDG-Fiji) system dynamics model and evaluate their performance on the SDGs in 2030 and global planetary boundaries (PBs) and the ‘safe and just space’ (SJS) framework in 2050. Modest investment over the coming decade through a ‘sustainability transition’ scenario accelerates SDG progress from 40% to 70% by 2030 but fails to meet all SJS thresholds. Greatly scaling up investment and ambition through an SDG transformation scenario highlights possibilities for Fiji to accelerate progress to 83% by 2030 while improving SJS performance. The scale of investment is highly ambitious and could not be delivered without scaled-up international support, but despite this investment progress still falls short. The analysis highlights where key trade-offs remain as well as options to address these, however closing the gap to 100% achievement will prove very challenging. The approach and findings are relevant to other countries with similar characteristics to increase the understanding of the transformations needed to achieve the SDGs within PBs in different country contexts.
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How can countries accelerate progress on the SDGs by 2030 while ensuring longer-term coherence with climate and sustainability thresholds?
This study explored the coping strategies and social comparisons used by older adults on different loneliness trajectories (decreased loneliness, stable loneliness and degenerating loneliness). The adaptive consequences of social comparison in later life are recognised as an important strategy for preserving life satisfaction regardless of age-related losses. Coping strategies are also important in managing loneliness. Narrative interviews were conducted with lonely older adults (N = 11) who had participated in Wave One of the Maintaining Function and Well-being in Later Life Study Wales (CFAS Wales). The study found key differences in the coping strategies employed by older adults on different loneliness trajectories. Differences in coping styles between those who reported decreased loneliness and those who were chronically lonely stemmed from perceptions as to whether loneliness was modifiable or not. Different types of social comparison were also found to modulate the loneliness experience. The findings indicate that higher-order strategies (problem, emotional and meaning focused) are not distinct entities but are part of a dynamic process. The management of loneliness in later life may be dependent on several factors, including older adults’ interpretations of the cause of loneliness. These interpretations will have implications for interventions aimed at alleviating chronic loneliness, where the focus may have to be on changing older adult's perceptions of unmodifiable loneliness.
Chapter 6 covers the post-uprisings period. Whatever the poor harvest in terms of democratic advances nine years later, many Arab states have witnessed an unprecedented wave of changes and reactions (counterrevolutionary moves) similar in importance to the revolutions of the 1950s–1960s. The term revolution (thawra) was first widely used, with the Tocquevillian caveat about the relevance of the state and the power structures of old regimes both for the breakdown and then regime re-formation – and the effect of huge social mobilization should not be assessed only with the notion of a unified outcome (success or failure) at the macro-level in the short term. This chapter shows the tentative deployment of the military's institutional power with different outcomes. Notwithstanding the enduring Tunisian exception and the case of full civil war in Syria, the picture is mixed with reinforced militarism in Egypt, attempts elsewhere in a context of acute threats and boiling regional context, yet with inherent weaknesses and risks of fragmentation.
Chapter 5 focuses on the 2011 uprisings. In the complex interplay of factors involved, armies have played a crucial role, either by keeping cohesive or by disappearing or by fracturing. When the Ben Ali system crumbled, the small Tunisian military revealed itself as the only institution keeping afloat, until other dynamics of civil society took back the upper hand in channeling political transition. The veiled and unspoken power of the armed forces in the Egyptian political system came back to open light and might. The Yemeni model of enduring authoritarian power was severely shaken by the uprising that also unleashed parallel power struggles. The 2011 transition revealed how crucial the Libyan army was, with its specificities, furthermore in a transition eased out by an eight-month civil war and international intervention. The use (and abuse) of the Syrian army was pushed further as it was pulled by the (Bashar al-Assad) regime into heavy-handed repression then full-scale civil war.
More than 67% of current high school completers attend some form of higher education, with the current college population reflecting increased diversity, with greater numbers of first-generation college students and individuals with handicapping conditions. Although transitions are for the most part positive in the emerging adult population, they also bring opportunities and challenges. Identity consolidation, striving for independence, leaving home, self-advocacy, and the ability to engage in prosocial coping become significant issues. The school psychologist can be a vital facilitator in preparing students for this critical transition and building the foundation for successful adulthood for all students, but particularly those with special needs.
A grounded theory approach, consistent with the work of Strauss and Corbin, was used to undertake semi-structured interviews with 17 older people, to explore their experiences of living in a care home, during the four- to six-week period following the move. Purposive sampling was initially adopted, thereafter, theoretical sampling was employed to recruit individuals identified by care managers within older peoples’ community teams and care home managers within a large Health and Social Care Trust in the United Kingdom. Consistent with grounded theory methodology, data collection and analysis occurred simultaneously. Constant comparative analysis underpinned data analysis and data management techniques. Data analysis revealed five distinct categories that captured these experiences. These were: (a) wanting to connect – ‘I am so lost here’, (b) wanting to adapt – ‘Well mentally you have to make the best of it’, (c) waiting for assistance – ‘it's a frustration for me’, (d) ‘waiting on the end’ – I am making no plans’ and (e) wanting to re-establish links with family and home – ‘I love getting home and I like getting out to the town’. Together these five categories formed the basis of the core category, ‘Waiting and Wanting’, which encapsulates the initial adaptation experiences of the men and women in the study. Findings indicate that individuals were dependent on others to create a sense of belonging, independence and wellbeing. Moreover, risk aversive practices were perceived as a threat to individuals’ independence and autonomy. Recommendations include the need to amend policy and practice for the development of a bespoke induction programme for each resident facilitated by a senior member of the care home staff working in partnership with individuals and families, in addition to the health and social care team, to support a more positive transition for new residents, relatives and care home staff.
The fifth chapter elaborates how and why, in the Western Balkans – and more specifically in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH) – pressure imposed by the international community (and the EU in particular) was a given from the very beginning. Following the wars of the 1990s, these countries all formally committed to the Europeanisation process. Each state's entrance into the EU was supposedly conditioned upon, among other things, facing its criminal past of human rights abuses. The main request made to Croatia, Serbia and BiH by the EU was cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY). In the cases of Croatia, Serbia and BiH, the post-conflict institutionalisation of human rights, as defined and enforced by EU bodies and institutions, created several mechanisms, different in their purposes and efficiency, to implement and impact memorialisation processes and practices. Addressing the post-Yugoslav, post-socialist and post-war legacies, together with the Europeanisation process, this chapter discloses the ways in which the memorialisation agenda in the Western Balkans has been shaped, and the tensions between the human rights and nationalist-centred memorialisation processes embedded in this agenda.
The concluding chapter pulls together key elements of a Green vision for global politics. It summarises the basis o a Green alternative in each of the areas covered in the book: security, economy, the state, global governance, development and sustainability. Recognising diversity of views and multiple theories of change, it suggests critical areas where this vision can be taken forward around the renewal of democracy and subsidiarity, by recommoning and economic democracy, by building new alliances and pursuing just transitions. The politics of the twenty-first century are and will be the politics of sustainability. The question for all of us is: whose politics and on whose terms?
The conviction after communism’s overthrow in 1989–1992 that the regions’ countries would rapidly evolve into liberal democracies with reciprocally helpful media systems was unfounded. The expectations that the process of socio-political democratization would unfold in tandem with the professionalization of the media, i.e., the adoption and application of Western-like journalistic ethics and practices, was a highly idealized hope, lacking a realistic assessment of its contextual possibilities. In the aggregate, Western media and journalism models have not taken hold, even if, as pointed out, some individual exceptions to the rule are discernible.
A growing body of qualitative literature globally describes post-hospital experiences during early recovery from a traumatic brain injury. For Indigenous Australians, however, little published information is available. This study aimed to understand the lived experiences of Indigenous Australians during the 6 months post-discharge, identify the help and supports accessed during transition and understand the gaps in service provision or difficulties experienced.
Methods and Procedure:
Semi-structured interviews were conducted at 6 months after hospital discharge to gain an understanding of the needs and lived experiences of 11 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians who had suffered traumatic brain injury in Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.
Five major themes were identified within the data. These were labelled ‘hospital experiences’, ‘engaging with medical and community-based supports’, ‘health and wellbeing impacts from the injury’, ‘everyday living’ and ‘family adjustments post-injury’.
While some of the transition experiences for Indigenous Australians were similar to those found in other populations, the transition period for Indigenous Australians is influenced by additional factors in hospital and during their recovery process. Lack of meaningful interaction with treating clinicians in hospital, challenges managing direct contact with multiple service providers and the injury-related psychological impacts are some of the factors that could prevent Indigenous Australians from receiving the supports they require to achieve their best possible health outcomes in the long term. A holistic approach to care, with an individualised, coordinated transition support, may reduce the risks for re-admission with further head injuries.
To adjust future care policies for an ageing population, policy makers need to understand when and why older adults rely on different sources of care (e.g. informal support versus formal services). However, previous scholars have proposed competing conceptualisations of the link between formal and informal care, and empirical examinations have often lacked a dynamic approach. In this study, we applied an analytical method (sequence analysis), allowing for an exploratory and dynamic description of care utilisation. Based on 15 years of data from 473 community-dwelling older individuals in Denmark, we identified four distinct clusters of care trajectories. The probability of belonging to each cluster varied with predisposing factors (such as age and gender), needs factors (such as dependence in activities of daily living and medical conditions) and enabling factors (such as co-habitation and contact with adult children). A key finding was that trajectories characterised by sporadic use of informal care were associated with low needs and strong social relations, whereas trajectories characterised by reliance on formal care were associated with high needs and limited contact with children. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence on the associations between care use and multiple determining factors. The dynamic approach to studying care use reveals that sources of individual care utilisation change over time as the individual and societal determinants change.
Researchers note that the transitions of secondary students with disability in and out of the juvenile justice system are problematic for both the young person and leadership teams of their sending and receiving schools. Much of the literature focuses on barriers to successful transitions; however, there are some accounts of positive transition practices. In this article, we identify these positive practices and outline the steps school principals and executives involved in transitioning secondary school students with disability in and out of juvenile justice settings can take to smooth the way and improve student outcomes for this vulnerable population.
Informal carers, also referred to as partners in care, provide the bulk of care to people living with dementia across a range of community settings; however, the changing experiences and contexts of providing informal care for people with dementia in rural settings are under-studied. Drawing on 27 semi-structured interviews with former partners in care in Southwestern and Northern Ontario, Canada, we examine experiences of providing and accessing care over the course of the condition and across various settings. Our findings illustrate the challenges associated with navigating the system of care, finding people who understand dementia in the surrounding community, negotiating hours of home support, facing resistance to respite from the person with dementia, and feeling pressured into long-term care. We argue that partners' time, bodies and choices are spatially constrained within rural and small-town settings and the current systems of home, community and long-term care.
The decision to start a new career might seem an unusual one to make in later life. However, England has seen a steady rise in numbers of workers undertaking an apprenticeship in their fifties and sixties, through a government-funded policy initiative opening up training to adults at all stages of the lifecourse. At the same time, in most Western contexts, the amalgamation of ‘older’ and ‘apprentice’ presents a challenge to normative understandings of the ‘right age’ to undertake vocational training. What is it like to make a new start as an older worker? This paper draws on new qualitative research conducted in England with older apprentices, exploring how they found the experience and management of training ‘out of step’. Inspired by Elizabeth Freeman's temporalities approach, our findings reveal how powerful norms of age-normativity routinely structure understandings, experiences and identities of older-age training for both organisations and apprentices. While these norms demand careful negotiation by both apprentices and trainers, if managed successfully older workers gain significant benefits from their training. These findings have resonance not only for England, but for other international contexts considering expanding vocational training into older age. The paper concludes that if adult training schemes are to succeed, some fundamental changes may need to be made to understandings of age and ageing within contemporary workplaces.
Extra-care housing has been an important and growing element of housing and care for older people in the United Kingdom since the 1990s. Previous studies have examined specific features and programmes within extra-care locations, but few have studied how residents negotiate social life and identity. Those that have, have noted that while extra care brings many health-related and social benefits, extra-care communities can also be difficult affective terrain. Given that many residents are now ‘ageing in place’ in extra care, it is timely to revisit these questions of identity and affect. Here we draw on the qualitative element of a three-year, mixed-method study of 14 extra-care villages and schemes run by the ExtraCare Charitable Trust. We follow Alemàn in regarding residents' ambivalent accounts of life in ExtraCare as important windows on the way in which liminal residents negotiate the dialectics of dependence and independence. However, we suggest that the dialectic of interest here is that of the third and fourth age, as described by Gilleard and Higgs. We set that dialectic within a post-structuralist/Lacanian framework in order to examine the different modes of enjoyment that liminal residents procure in ExtraCare's third age public spaces and ideals, and suggest that their complaints can be read in three ways: as statements about altered material conditions; as inter-subjective bolstering of group identity; and as fantasmatic support for liminal identities. Finally, we examine the implications that this latter psycho-social reading of residents' complaints has for enhancing and supporting residents' wellbeing.