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Il est essentiel d’utiliser des tests cognitifs ayant été validés et détenant des normes de référence auprès de la population cible, puisque les réalités culturelles et linguistiques différentes entre l’échantillon de validation ou auprès duquel les normes ont été créées et la population cible peuvent affecter les résultats. Cette revue systématique vise à recenser et décrire les tests cognitifs (incluant tests, questionnaires et grilles d’observation) validés et/ou présentant des normes sur la population âgée canadienne francophone. Au total, 46 articles ont été sélectionnés. Cette revue recense 9 tests validés, 20 tests avec normes de référence et 18 tests validés et avec normes, couvrant la majorité des domaines cognitifs (fonctions mnésiques, attentionnelles, exécutives, perceptivo-motrices et langagières), excepté la cognition sociale. La quasi-totalité des échantillons ont été recrutés au Québec. Les tests relevés présentent majoritairement des indices psychométriques satisfaisants et généralement des normes considérant l’âge, le sexe et l’éducation. Cette revue systématique permettra aux cliniciens et chercheurs canadiens en vieillissement d’orienter optimalement leurs choix de tests cognitifs.
Cognitive dispersion across neuropsychological measures within a single testing session is a promising marker predictive of cognitive decline and development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, little is known regarding brain changes underlying cognitive dispersion, and the association of cognitive dispersion with in vivo AD biomarkers and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) has received limited study. We therefore examined associations among cognitive dispersion, amyloid-beta (Aβ) positivity, and regional CBF among older adults free of dementia.
One hundred and forty-eight Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants underwent neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging. Pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was acquired to quantify CBF. Florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) imaging determined Aβ positivity.
Adjusting for age, gender, education, and mean cognitive performance, older adults who were Aβ+ showed higher cognitive dispersion relative to those who were Aβ-. Across the entire sample, higher cognitive dispersion was associated with reduced CBF in inferior parietal and temporal regions. Secondary analyses stratified by Aβ status demonstrated that higher cognitive dispersion was associated with reduced CBF among Aβ+ individuals but not among those who were Aβ-.
Cognitive dispersion may be sensitive to early Aβ accumulation and cerebrovascular changes adjusting for demographics and mean neuropsychological performance. Associations between cognitive dispersion and CBF were observed among Aβ+ individuals, suggesting that cognitive dispersion may be a marker of brain changes among individuals on the AD continuum. Future studies should examine whether cognitive dispersion predicts brain changes in diverse samples and among those with greater vascular risk burden.
Job loss is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and frequently associated with depression, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. Identifying these modifiable risk factors and providing “at-risk” women with a neuropsychologically-based intervention may improve employment outcomes. Our study seeks to investigate the utility of a neuropsychologically-based intervention with varying levels of treatment and follow-up, and evaluate treatment and employment outcomes among groups.
In this longitudinal, quasi-randomized controlled trial, employed women with MS meeting criteria on screening measures were considered “at-risk” for job instability and randomized to one of two neuropsychological testing interventions (standard-care group received testing and phone feedback of results and recommendations; experimental group received testing and in-person feedback with subsequent care-coordinator calls from a nurse to help coordinate recommendation completion). Participants who did not meet criteria were considered “low-risk” and only followed over time.
56 women in the treatment groups (standard-care = 23; experimental = 33) and 63 women in the follow-only group were analyzed at 1 year. Rates of decreased employment were similar between standard-care (17.4%) and experimental (21.2%) groups (OR = .782, 95% CI .200–3.057). However, the experimental group completed significantly more treatment recommendations, t(53) = −3.237, p = .002. Rates of decreased employment were also similar between the “low-risk” (17.5%) and “at-risk” groups (19.6%), (OR = .721, 95% CI .285–1.826).
Employment outcomes were similar at 1 year between treatment groups receiving differing levels of a neuropsychologically-based intervention, however treatment adherence significantly improved in the experimental group. Treatment groups also had similar employment outcomes as compared to a “low-risk,” no intervention group, suggesting that engaging in either neuropsychological intervention may have impacted job stability.
Long-Covid or Post-COVID-19 syndrome develops during or after an infection with COVID-19 and continues for more than 12 weeks. The signs and symptoms are not explained by an alternative diagnosis. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are usually manifested as cognitive impairment (brain fog, loss of concentration or memory issues, etc.), headache, sleep disturbance, peripheral neuropathy symptoms (pins and needles and numbness), dizziness, anosmia, symptoms of depression, anxiety and fatigue. Patients complain of reduced quality of life and impairment on daily functioning. Although the burden of disease is high there is until now very few data available, the etiopathology is still unknown and treatment strategies are not established.
The objective of this study is to gather standardized data of patients with long-covid syndrome who suffer from neuropsychiatric symptoms in order to better understand the complexity of this syndrome.
Patients were referred from the long-covid outpatient unit of the internal medicine department to our specialized outpatient unit, so that the previous infection was confirmed. A standardized psychiatric interview and a thorough neuropsychological assessment was conducted.
We will present preliminary data on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychology and quality of life with patients with long-covid syndrome.
Potential treatment strategies to improve psychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms as well as improvement of quality of life will be discussed.
Daniela Roesch Ely and Matthias Weisbrod have a contract with Schuhfried GmbH (development of neurocognitive batteries and training programs)
There is suggestive evidence that Obssesive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by impaired neuropsychological functions that are also influenced by clinical variables. Several studies show that these neuropsychological deficits could be potential endophenotype markers.
The present study aimed to examine neuropsychological patterns in OCD patients and several clinical variables before and after a follow-up of 10 years.
This study examined 44 outpatients with OCD. Cognitive performance and clinical data of these patients were documented before and after a follow-up of 10 years. A neuropsychological battery was administered and scored to them including Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure, the Digit-span test, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. As well, several clinical variables were also assessed including sociodemographic variables, general intelligence measured by Progressive Raven’s matrices, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Finally, data was analyzed using t-Student and Pearson’s correlation.
In general, the pattern of neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with OCD remains unchanged during the follow-up period, except for some specific variables. Low scores on some verbal memory tasks were associated with severity of OCD, and nonverbal memory was influenced by depressive symptoms in the first evaluation, while, after the follow-up, as obsessive and affective symptoms improve, there’s no significant change in the neuropsychological pattern.
Despite the influence of some clinical and sociodemographic variables on the neuropsychological performance in OCD patients, cognitive dysfunction remains unchanged after a follow-up period of 10 year. These results suggest that cognitive deficits could be considered as a trait marker for the disorder.
Mixed depressive states portend greater rates of impulsivity, attempted suicide, treatment resistance, and poorer outcome than non-mixed forms of depression. The neurocognitive bases of such affective states have not been defined yet.
This work represents an attempt to clarify the neuropsychology underlying mixed depressive states.
Thirty subjects with affective disorders with mixed depression (MxD), 54 subjects with non-mixed depression (nonMxD), 73 euthymic subjects (Eu) and 93 healthy comparisons (HC) underwent a neurocognitive battery including the Trail-Making Test (TMT), the Controlled Word Fluency Test (WFT) and the Semantic Fluency Test (SFT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test RAVLT, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test ROCFT, the Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM), and the Interference Component of the Stroop Test (ST). Between-group differences were performed through multiple one-way analyses of variance. Post-hoc analyses were performed using Tukey post-hoc tests.
HC performed better than the three patient groups in all the aforementioned neurocognitive tests. Eu performed better in RPM, TMT, SFT than nonMxD, and better on ST WCST than both nonMxD and MxD. MxD showed better performances in RPM, TMT-A, WCST than nonMxD, and more errors and less reaction times in the ST than nonMxD.
Mixed depressive states are characterized by enhanced attentional resources and greater set shifting abilities than non-mixed depressive states. On the other hand, they have less cognitive control than non-mixed depression. Such findings might explain some typical features observed in subjects with mixed depression, such impulsivity, suicidality, emotional reactivity and behavioral dyscontrol.
This chapter addresses the role of verbal working memory (WM) in language production and comprehension, focusing on data from brain-damaged individuals, while also drawing on related findings from healthy adults. The perspective on WM is the domain-specific model which includes WM buffers that are specific to phonological and semantic information and separate from long-term knowledge in these domains (Marti et al., 2020). Thus, the focus is on the separable contributions of these two buffers to language processes
While emotional responses experienced in-the-moment appear to remain intact in Parkinson’s disease (PD), no study has tested whether this extends to the prediction of future emotional responses. The present study aimed to provide the first assessment of affective forecasting capacity in this cohort.
A positively and negatively valenced affective forecasting task and broader clinical battery were completed by a PD group (ns = 28 and 37, respectively) and a demographically matched neurotypical control group (ns = 38 and 39, respectively).
No group differences emerged on the two tasks, with the two groups underestimating their level of happiness and overestimating their level of negative affect to a similar degree. Affective forecasting error scores were unrelated to clinical characteristics.
Given that affective forecasting relies on self-projection into the future, a skill shown to often be disrupted in this cohort, impairments were expected. However, this study provides initial evidence that this may not be the case. These findings are potentially important given that how we think about and envisage the future affectively is a major determinant of goal-directed behavior. Further work is now needed to establish whether these findings are robust and generalize to other types of affective stimuli.
In those moments when focus on creative work overrides input from the outside world, we are in a creative trance. This psychologically significant altered state of consciousness is inherent in everyone. It can take the form of daydreams generating scientific or creative ideas, hyperfocus in sports, visualizations that impact entire civilizations, life-changing audience experiences, or meditations for self-transformation that may access states beyond trance, becoming gateways to transcendence. Artist and psychologist Tobi Zausner shows how creative trance not only operates in scientific inventions and works of art in all media, but is also important in creating and recreating the self. Drawing on insights from cognitive neuroscience, clinical psychology and post-materialist psychology, this book investigates the diversity of the creative trance ranging from non-industrial societies to digital urban life, and its presence in people from all backgrounds and abilities. Finally, Zausner investigates the future of trance in our rapidly changing world.
While Parkinson’s disease is associated with impairments in many aspects of prospective cognition, no study to date has tested whether these difficulties extend to problems using episodic foresight to guide future-directed behavior. To provide the first examination of whether people with Parkinson’s disease are impaired in their capacity to initiate and apply episodic foresight.
People with Parkinson’s disease (n = 42), and a demographically matched neurotypical comparison group (n = 42) completed a validated behavioral assessment that met strict criteria for assessing episodic foresight (Virtual Week-Foresight), as well as a broader neurocognitive and clinical test battery.
People with Parkinson’s disease were significantly less likely than the comparison group to acquire items that would later allow a problem to be solved and were also less likely to subsequently use these items for problem resolution. These deficits were largely unrelated to performance on other cognitive measures or clinical characteristics of the disorder.
The ability to engage in episodic foresight in an adaptive way is compromised in Parkinson’s disease. This appears to be a stable feature of the disorder, and one that is distinct from other clinical symptoms and neurocognitive deficits. It is now critical to establish exactly why these difficulties exist and how they impact on real-life functional capacity.
In the present study, we aimed to perform a systematic review evaluating the cognitive performance of patients with hoarding disorder (HD) compared with controls. We hypothesized that HD patients would present greater cognitive impairment than controls.
A systematic search of the literature using the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and LILACS was conducted on May 2020, with no date limit. The search terms were “hoarding disorder,” “cognition,” “neuropsychology,” “cognitive impairment,” and “cognitive deficit.” We included original studies assessing cognitive functioning in patients with HD.
We retrieved 197 studies initially. Of those, 22 studies were included in the present study. We evaluated 1757 patients who were 41 to 72 years old. All selected studies comprised case–control studies and presented fair quality. Contrary to our hypothesis, HD patients showed impairment only in categorization skills in comparison with controls, particularly at confidence to complete categorization tasks. Regarding attention, episodic memory, working memory, information-processing speed, planning, decision-making, inhibitory control, mental flexibility, language, and visuospatial ability, HD patients did not show impairment when compared with controls. There is a paucity of studies on social cognition in HD patients, although they may show deficits. The impact of emotion in cognition is also understudied in HD patients.
Except for categorization skills, the cognitive performance in HD patients does not seem to be impaired when compared with that in controls. Further work is needed to explore social cognition and the impact of emotion in cognitive performance in HD patients.
Assessing performance validity is imperative in both clinical and research contexts as data interpretation presupposes adequate participation from examinees. Performance validity tests (PVTs) are utilized to identify instances in which results cannot be interpreted at face value. This study explored the hit rates for two frequently used PVTs in a research sample of individuals with and without histories of bipolar disorder (BD).
As part of an ongoing longitudinal study of individuals with BD, we examined the performance of 736 individuals with BD and 255 individuals with no history of mental health disorder on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the California Verbal Learning Test forced choice trial (CVLT-FC) at three time points.
Undiagnosed individuals demonstrated 100% pass rate on PVTs and individuals with BD passed over 98% of the time. A mixed effects model adjusting for relevant demographic variables revealed no significant difference in TOMM scores between the groups, a = .07, SE = .07, p = .31. On the CVLT-FC, no clinically significant differences were observed (ps < .001).
Perfect PVT scores were obtained by the majority of individuals, with no differences in failure rates between groups. The tests have approximately >98% specificity in BD and 100% specificity among non-diagnosed individuals. Further, nearly 90% of individuals with BD obtained perfect scores on both measures, a trend observed at each time point.
Epilepsy surgery patients played a pioneering role in our early understanding of the insula in Penfield’s stimulation studies. Following the advent of functional imaging, epilepsy patients are once again helping us understand the role of this critical structure in human behavior. The insular cortex is involved in a wide range of complex human functions, including auditory processing, language function, attention, emotional processing, social cognition, and decision-making. In this chapter, we review this literature and report new data on the postoperative neuropsychological function of a series of 31 patients who have undergone partial or complete insular resections at the Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM). Standard neuropsychological assessments reveal few cognitive impairments specific to insular epilepsy or its surgery. Specialized assessments are required to fully assess the impact of insular resection on socio-emotional processing and behavioral features of executive function that can be compromised following surgery.
This study evaluated: (1) apolipoprotein E (APOE) ϵ4 prevalence among Black, Latino, and White older adults, (2) associations of APOE ϵ4 status with baseline level and change over time of cognitive outcomes across groups, and (3) combined impact of APOE ϵ4 prevalence and magnitude of effect on cognitive decline within each racial/ethnic group.
Participants included 297 White, 138 Latino, and 149 Black individuals from the longitudinal UC Davis Diversity Cohort who had APOE genotyping and ≥2 cognitive assessments. Magnitude of associations of ϵ4 with cognitive baseline and change across racial/ethnic groups was tested with multilevel parallel process longitudinal analyses and multiple group models.
ϵ4 prevalence in Black (46%) and White participants (46%) was almost double that of Latino participants (24%). ϵ4 was associated with poorer baseline episodic memory only in White participants (p = .001), but had a moderately strong association with episodic memory change across all racial/ethnic groups (Blacks= −.061 SD/year, Latinos = −.055,Whites= −.055). ϵ4 association with semantic memory change was strongest in White participants (−.071), intermediate in Latino participants (−.041), and weakest in Black participants (−.022).
Calculated cognitive trajectories across racial/ethnic groups were influenced in an additive manner by ϵ4 prevalence and strength of association with cognitive decline within the group. Group differences in ϵ4 prevalences and associations of ϵ4 with cognition may suggest different pathways from APOE to cognitive decline, and, AD possibly having less salient impact on cognitive decline in non-White participants. Differential effects of APOE on episodic memory and non-memory cognition have important implications for understanding how APOE influences late life cognitive decline.
Case-only longitudinal studies are common in psychiatry. Further, it is assumed that psychiatric ratings and questionnaire results of healthy controls stay stable over foreseeable time ranges. For cognitive tests, improvements over time are expected, but data for more than two administrations are scarce.
We comprehensively investigated the longitudinal course for trends over time in cognitive and symptom measurements for severe mental disorders. Assessments included the Trail Making Tests, verbal Digit Span tests, Global Assessment of Functioning, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Young Mania Rating Scale, among others.
Using the data of control individuals (n = 326) from the PsyCourse study who had up to four assessments over 18 months, we modelled the course using linear mixed models or logistic regression. The slopes or odds ratios were estimated and adjusted for age and gender. We also assessed the robustness of these results using a longitudinal non-parametric test in a sensitivity analysis.
Small effects were detected for most cognitive tests, indicating a performance improvement over time (P < 0.05). However, for most of the symptom rating scales and questionnaires, no effects were detected, in line with our initial hypothesis.
The slightly but consistently improved performance in the cognitive tests speaks of a test-unspecific positive trend, while psychiatric ratings and questionnaire results remain stable over the observed period. These detectable improvements need to be considered when interpreting longitudinal courses. We therefore recommend recruiting control participants if cognitive tests are administered.
Personal beliefs about memory ability, which comprise memory self-efficacy (MSE), can influence memory performance in healthy older adults. Self-efficacy theory also predicts that MSE biases self-perceptions of functioning more globally, potentially impacting daily activity beyond cognitive performance. People with traumatic brain injury (PwTBI) frequently report debilitating memory problems long after acute recovery, but little is known about how MSE affects health outcomes in this population. We examined demographic and clinical correlates of MSE, as well as its relationship to memory test performance and health-related quality of life (QOL), in older adults with chronic moderate-to-severe TBI (msTBI).
One hundred fourteen adults, aged 50+ and at least 1 year post-msTBI, underwent neuropsychological testing to assess their memory functioning. Participants also self-reported levels of psychological distress, MSE (Cognitive Confidence subscale of the Metacognitions Questionnaire), and health-related QOL (Quality of Life after Brain Injury questionnaire).
Demographic and injury-related predictors showed weak correlations with MSE. Although the relationship between MSE and general psychological distress was robust, only the former significantly predicted memory performance. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relationships between MSE and five out of the six QOL domains assessed. Multivariate linear regression revealed a significant impact of MSE on overall QOL independent of demographic and clinical variables.
Our findings support a unique role for MSE in both the objective cognitive performance and subjective health of PwTBI. Increased focus on self-perceptions of ability and their impact on measured outcomes is an important step towards personalized rehabilitation for adults with chronic msTBI.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is highly heritable, and AD polygenic risk scores (AD-PRSs) have been derived from genome-wide association studies. However, the nature of genetic influences very early in the disease process is still not well known. Here we tested the hypothesis that an AD-PRSs would be associated with changes in episodic memory and executive function across late midlife in men who were cognitively unimpaired at their baseline midlife assessment..
We examined 1168 men in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA) who were cognitively normal (CN) at their first of up to three assessments across 12 years (mean ages 56, 62, and 68). Latent growth models of episodic memory and executive function were based on 6–7 tests/subtests. AD-PRSs were based on Kunkle et al. (Nature Genetics, 51, 414–430, 2019), p < 5×10−8 threshold.
AD-PRSs were correlated with linear slopes of change for both cognitive abilities. Men with higher AD-PRSs had steeper declines in both memory (r = −.19, 95% CI [−.35, −.03]) and executive functioning (r = −.27, 95% CI [−.49, −.05]). Associations appeared driven by a combination of APOE and non-APOE genetic influences.
Memory is most characteristically impaired in AD, but executive functions are one of the first cognitive abilities to decline in midlife in normal aging. This study is among the first to demonstrate that this early decline also relates to AD genetic influences, even in men CN at baseline.
Cognitive impairment is common in individuals presenting to alcohol and other drug (AOD) settings and the presence of biopsychosocial complexity and health inequities can complicate the experience of symptoms and access to treatment services. A challenge for neuropsychologists in these settings is to evaluate the likely individual contribution of these factors to cognition when providing an opinion regarding diagnoses such as acquired brain injury (ABI). This study therefore aimed to identify predictors of cognitive functioning in AOD clients attending for neuropsychological assessment.
Clinical data from 200 clients with AOD histories who attended for assessment between 2014 and 2018 were analysed and a series of multiple regressions were conducted to explore predictors of cognitive impairment including demographic, diagnostic, substance use, medication, and mental health variables.
Regression modelling identified age, gender, years of education, age of first use, days of abstinence, sedative load, emotional distress and diagnoses of ABI and developmental disorders as contributing to aspects of neuropsychological functioning. Significant models were obtained for verbal intellectual functioning (Adj R2 = 0.19), nonverbal intellectual functioning (Adj R2 = 0.10), information processing speed (Adj R2 = 0.20), working memory (Adj R2 = 0.05), verbal recall (Adj R2 = 0.08), visual recall (Adj R2 = 0.22), divided attention (Adj R2 = 0.14), and cognitive inhibition (Adj R2 = 0.07).
These findings highlight the importance of careful provision of diagnoses in clients with AOD histories who have high levels of unmet clinical needs. They demonstrate the interaction of premorbid and potentially modifiable comorbid factors such as emotional distress and prescription medication on cognition. Ensuring that modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment are managed may reduce experiences of cognitive impairment and improve diagnostic clarity.
Most recordings of verbal fluency tasks include substantial amounts of task-irrelevant content that could provide clinically valuable information for the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We developed a method for the analysis of verbal fluency, focusing not on the task-relevant words but on the silent segments, the hesitations, and the irrelevant utterances found in the voice recordings.
Phonemic (‘k’, ‘t’, ‘a’) and semantic (animals, food items, actions) verbal fluency data were collected from healthy control (HC; n = 25; Mage = 67.32) and MCI (n = 25; Mage = 71.72) participants. After manual annotation of the voice samples, 10 temporal parameters were computed based on the silent and the task-irrelevant segments. Traditional fluency measures, based on word count (correct words, errors, repetitions) were also employed in order to compare the outcome of the two methods.
Two silence-based parameters (the number of silent pauses and the average length of silent pauses) and the average word transition time differed significantly between the two groups in the case of all three semantic fluency tasks. Subsequent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that these three temporal parameters had classification abilities similar to the traditional measure of counting correct words.
In our approach for verbal fluency analysis, silence-related parameters displayed classification ability similar to the most widely used traditional fluency measure. Based on these results, an automated tool using voiced-unvoiced segmentation may be developed enabling swift and cost-effective verbal fluency-based MCI screening.
Understanding when to trust and establishing judgments of trustworthiness are complex processes that are critical and essential for human life. Appropriate judgments in trustworthiness lead to the formation of cooperative, mutually beneficial relationships that facilitate personal success, a sense of achievement, increased well-being, and quality of life. The trust game is an economic decision-making game that was specifically designed to measure trust. It is an important and unique instrument, as it measures the entirety of the trust process. Research investigating brain activation during participation of the trust game has shown many brain regions and networks involved in the processes of trust. Whether some of these regions are necessary for various trust processes has been determined by studying trust game performances in individuals with lesions in specific trust-related brain areas. This chapter reviews lesion studies in patients with damage to the insula, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex, with a focus on how such patients perform on various aspects of the trust game and how the findings have informed our understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of trust. Additionally, we review briefly some functional neuroimaging research on the involvement of the temporal parietal junction and ventral striatum in the trust process.