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The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1–2 years), preschool (3–5 years), primary or elementary school (6–11 years), and adolescence (10–18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0–18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
Responses of corals to seawater acidification have been extensively studied. Sensitivity varies widely between species, highlighting the need to avoid extrapolation from one to another to get an accurate understanding of coral community responses. We tested the responses of seven coral species (Acropora cytherea, Acropora hyacinthus, Acropora pulchra, Leptastrea pruinosa, Montipora grisea, Pavona cactus, Pocillopora verrucosa) from the Mo'orea lagoon to a 48-day exposure to three pH scenarios (pH 7.95, 7.7 and 7.3). Tissue necrosis, mortality, growth rates, photophysiological performances and colour index were recorded. Few significant differences were noted between pH 7.95 and 7.7, but species-specific responses were observed at pH 7.3. While our data do not allow identification of the mechanisms behind this diversity in response between species inhabiting the same environment, it can exclude several hypotheses such as local adaptation, skeletal type, corallum morphology or calcification rate as sole factors determining coral sensitivity to pH.
This chapter completes the account begun in Chapter 4 of why psychopaths are unable to see other people as sources of value. I argue that as well as, and partly because of, their emotional deficiencies, psychopaths suffer a severe deficit of empathy, either from birth or brought on by abuse or neglect in childhood. Based on evidence from developmental psychology, I argue that empathy plays a central role in the way we come to ascribe value to entities other than ourselves. Lacking this crucial developmental stage, psychopaths reach adulthood without the capacity to see others as valuable. Because they lack this capacity due to factors which they cannot be expected to change, they are not morally responsible for lacking it. They are therefore not morally responsible for the failure to respond to certain reasons which stems from this lack. Finally, I consider other disorders of low empathy, specifically autism spectrum disorder and borderline personality disorder, and give an account of why these conditions do not apparently lead to the same outcomes in respect of the ability to value others.
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the United States; however, concern about increasing residues of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil is escalating. There is a lack of scientific literature examining the response of cover crops to soil residues of glyphosate or AMPA. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of glyphosate or AMPA residues in silty clay loam soil on emergence, growth, and biomass of cover crops, including cereal rye, crimson clover, field pea, hairy vetch, and winter wheat, as well as their germination in a 0.07% (0.7 g/L) solution of AMPA or glyphosate. Greenhouse studies were conducted at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to determine the dose response of broadleaf and grass cover crops to soil-applied glyphosate or AMPA. The results indicated that soil treated with glyphosate or AMPA up to 105 mg ae kg–1 of soil had no effect on the emergence, growth, above-ground biomass, and root biomass of any of the cover crop species tested. To evaluate the impact of AMPA or glyphosate on the seed germination of cover crop species, seeds were soaked in petri plates filled with a 0.7 g L−1 solution of AMPA or glyphosate. There was no effect of AMPA on seed germination of any of the cover crop species tested. Seed germination of crimson clover and field pea in a 0.7 g L−1 solution of glyphosate was comparable to the nontreated control; however, the germination of cereal rye, hairy vetch, and winter wheat was reduced by 48%, 75%, and 66%, respectively, compared to the nontreated control. The results suggested that glyphosate or AMPA up to 105 mg ae kg–1 in silt clay loam soil is unlikely to cause any negative effect on the evaluated cover crop species.
This chapter re-examines and challenges the dominant view of the Copperbelt in the mid-to-late twentieth century as a place of booming economic growth, secure employment and steadily improving living standards. It instead shows that copper mining provided a relatively small number of skilled and well-paid jobs to its African residents, most of whom scraped a precarious living from low-paid work, trading and farming. The chapter also demonstrates that copper mining, notwithstanding the dominant idea of the Copperbelt as a modernising urban space, never provided a basis for wider industrialisation and economic development, before or after political independence. It explains how changing understandings of mine labour, skill and productivity shaped new ways of organising the workforce. Mine companies and late colonial states feared the impact of unemployment and sought unsuccessfully to control rural-to-urban migration. The chapter uses interviews to explore the diverse ways in which migrants sought a place in the city via a range of income-generating activities.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Overweight, obesity, and accelerated growth during early childhood have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in later life. Few studies have assessed whether trajectories of accelerated growth in early childhood are associated with preclinical cardiovascular measurements. We aimed to evaluate the associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) growth trajectories and measures of macro- and microvascular function in early adolescence. Measurements of macrovascular function (systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and microvascular function (central retinal arteriolar/veinular equivalent) were assessed at 11 years old in a Spanish birth cohort study (n = 489). BMI trajectories from birth to 9 years were identified using latent class growth analysis. Multiple linear regression assessed the associations between the BMI trajectories and macro- and microvascular function. Compared to children with average birth size and slower BMI gain (reference), children with a lower birth size and accelerated BMI gain had increased SBP [β = 6.57; (95% CI 4.00, 9.15)], DBP [β = 3.65; (95% CI 1.45, 5.86)], and PWV [β = 0.14; (95% CI 0.01, 0.27)]. Children with higher birth size and accelerated BMI gain had increased SBP [β = 4.75; (95% CI 1.79, 7.71) compared to the reference. No significant associations between BMI trajectories and the microvascular measurements were observed. In conclusion, we found that childhood BMI trajectories characterized by accelerated growth are associated with preclinical macrovascular measurements in young adolescents.
In a novel experimental design, we investigate the impact of exogenous variation in economic growth and inequality on trusting behaviour. In addition to a control with uniform endowment, three treatments were implemented where the initial endowment is exogenously changed to produce inequality and three growth scenarios where average endowments increase (boom), decrease (recession) or remain unaltered (steady state). We find that aggregate trust and trustworthiness both decrease due to the induced heterogeneity in endowments. Also, trust (but not trustworthiness) decreases (increases) due to recessions (booms). The impact of inequality on trust is greatest in a recession and absent in a boom. These aggregate effects are driven mainly by the reactions of those who, after treatment, end up at the bottom of the endowment distribution. These findings are close in sign and in the order of magnitude to those reported in observational studies on the relationship between growth, inequality and trust.
CHD influences many aspects of life in affected individuals. Puberty, a major aspect of development, is a concern for patients and families.
We investigated pubertal status in children and adolescents with CHD.
Patients with CHD aged 6–18 were enrolled. Cardiac diagnoses were confirmed using history, examination, and paraclinical tools including echocardiography. An endocrinologist determined pubertal stages, and the second Tanner stages for pubarche (P2), thelarche (B2), and gonadarche (G2) were considered as the pubertal onset. A study with a large sample size on pubertal onset in a normal population was used for comparison.
Totally, 451 patients (228 girls and 223 boys) at a median (10th–90th percentile) age of 10.79 (8.02–14.28) years for the girls and 10.72 (8.05–14.03) years for the boys were enrolled. The median (10th–90th percentile) ages at B2 and P2 in the girls with CHD were 10.77 (9.55–12.68) and 10.53 (9.39–12.28) years, respectively, which were higher than the median ages of 9.74 (8.23–11.94) and 10.49 (8.86–12.17) years in the normal girls.
The median (10th–90th percentile) ages at G2 and P2 in the boys with CHD were 11.04 (8.85–13.23) and 11.88 (9.78–13.46) years, correspondingly, which were higher than the median ages of 9.01 (6.00–11.84) and 10.34 (6.84–13.10) years in the normal boys.
Pubertal onset could be delayed in children with CHD when compared with the normal population.
African economies were globally integrated yet regionally autonomous. This chapter addresses volume and direction of slave trade, continental and regional export value, and theories of economic growth and enslavement. Details address the varying regional peaks in slave trade as related to warfare, population, regional social orders, and gender relations. The overseas diaspora grew to 10% of the African total of some 140 million. African economies felt the effects of imperial rivalries and global trade, notably in textiles. (Large-scale colonial rule came only after 1870.) The eighteenth century brought expanding overseas slave trade and its steady incursions into domestic economies. The nineteenth century brought a mix of economic changes. Silver became key to African currencies; peasant agricultural exports rose, but only the post-1870 exports of South African diamonds and gold exports exceeded slave-trade earnings. In the ‘second slavery’, African enslavement reached a mid-century peak, in parallel to current maritime Asian and New World plantations. Analysis of African economies benefits from growing collections of empirical data; contending theories on enslavement, the domestic economy, and overseas trade – developed over half a century of analysis – can be strengthened in global context.
The basis for terrestrial life in Aristotle’s biology is the nutritive process by which living things (plants and animals) produce and maintain their uniform parts and the organs made of these uniform parts. The nutritive process is thus extremely general, across all kinds. But it is also general in being present in all stages of the life cycle. Thus, it starts with the beginning of life, increases as the living thing grows, and subsides and is extinguished with the end of life. This variation in quantity is possible because there are two sides to the process, one is the heat necessary for “cooking” food into the parts of the living thing, and the other is the soul which informs this cooking. While the heat can be more or less, the soul is either there or not. The process of feeding (trephein) is shown to be Aristotle’s single sufficient and necessary condition for all natural life. It is the assimilation of food (trophê) to the living thing in question, an activity which the soul performs, thus producing and maintaining the living body, using the body’s heat as an instrument to work on food.
Among biologists and philosophers of biology there is no general agreement on a definition of development. Development is not necessarily the history of the individual, or the sequence of changes from egg to adult (adultocentrism). The notion that the adult stage is the target of development is unacceptable, both because it implicitly gives development a purpose, and because it does not apply to the biology of many organisms. In the common use of the term adult, two different notions are confused: adult as reproductively mature stage and as a stage that maintains its morphological organization until the onset of senescence or death. However, reproductive maturity and the presence of definitive morphological condition are not always associated. The divide between developmental processes and mere metabolic changes is not always clear-cut. Modern developmental biology is not the same as the descriptive and experimental biology of the past. Partly owing to strong focus on genetic control and molecular-level processes, most research effort is restricted to a few model species; but these are not necessarily representative of developmental processes in more or less distant relatives.
Intrauterine preeclampsia exposure affects the lifelong cardiometabolic health of the child. Our study aimed to compare the growth (from birth to 6 months) of infants exposed to either a normotensive pregnancy or preeclampsia and explore the influence of being born small for gestational age (SGA). Participants were children of women participating in the Post-partum, Physiology, Psychology and Paediatric follow-up cohort study. Birth and 6-month weight and length z-scores were calculated for term and preterm (<37 weeks) babies, and change in weight z-score, rapid weight gain (≥0.67 increase in weight z-score) and conditional weight gain z-score were calculated. Compared with normotensive exposed infants (n = 298), preeclampsia exposed infants (n = 84) were more likely to be born SGA (7% versus 23%; P < 0.001), but weight gain from birth to 6 months, by any measure, did not differ between groups. Infants born SGA, irrespective of pregnancy exposure, were more likely to have rapid weight gain and had greater increases in weight z-score compared with those not born SGA. Preeclampsia exposed infants born SGA may benefit from interventions designed to prevent future cardiometabolic disease.
To improve the efficiency of isolating and culturing lichen mycobionts, we performed a growth assay on an Australian strain of the soil-crust lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedw. This assay determined the preferred nitrogen and carbon sources of the fungus by limiting the available nitrogen or carbon sources to single compounds found in soils, plants and lichen thalli. We found that the non-proteinaceous amino acid, GABA, produced the most growth of all nutrients when provided as the sole nitrogen source but was a poor carbon source. Fructose, glucose, cellobiose and sorbitol produced the most growth of all the carbon sources tested. Ammonium, nitrate and polyamines were poor nutrient sources. These findings correspond with reports of primary metabolite pools in other lichen species and may guide future studies involving growth of recalcitrant lichen mycobionts.
Age and growth of the yellowmouth barracuda Sphyraena viridensis (Cuvier, 1829) was examined in 698 individuals (184 < TL (mm) < 1210; 25 < TW (g) < 7125), sampled monthly from commercial catches in eastern coasts of Algeria between January 2007 and January 2008. Marginal increment analysis of 159 sectioned sagittal otoliths combined with information derived from length–frequency distribution showed that annulus formation occurs between June and August. Maximum observed age of males and females is 14 and 13 years respectively. Back calculations of total length-at-age were used to fit the data to the Bertalanffy growth model: TL = 1113(1 – e−0.165(t+2.251)) in males and TL = 958.3 (1 – e−0.247(t+1.422)) in females. The coefficient of allometry of the length weight relationship is 3.02 and 2.99 in males and females, respectively. Growth performance index Ø = 3.33. Natural mortality (M) was estimated as 0.45 year−1, fishing mortality (F) was 0.06 year−1and the exploitation rate (E) was 0.11.
The concern for inequality, growth and development is undoubtedly crucial in the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, most studies either rely on the nation-state estimates of carbon emissions to propose a uniform nation-wide growth (or degrowth) strategy, or they tailor the method to assess the inequality of one country at a time, making a cross-country cross-income comparison difficult. To fill this analytical gap, we synthesize the existing methods of emission calculations and calculate the level of carbon emissions associated with given income deciles of household consumption in five countries, namely China, Germany, India, the UK and USA. We find that the within-country inequality varies among countries, with the ratio between the top and bottom income deciles ranging from three to nine at the household level. We also find that the carbon emissions of the top income group in urban China is almost comparable to that of their peer group in the US, UK and Germany. Based on these results, we discuss the use of the remaining global carbon budget in the context of development and inequality.
Local Content and Sustainable Development in Global Energy Markets analyses the topical and contentious issue of the critical intersections between local content requirements (LCRs) and the implementation of sustainable development treaties in global energy markets including Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Latin America, South America, Australasia and the Middle East While LCRs generally aim to boost domestic value creation and economic growth, inappropriately designed LCRs could produce negative social, human rights and environmental outcomes, and a misalignment of a country's fiscal policies and global sustainable development goals. These unintended outcomes may ultimately serve as disincentive to foreign participation in a country's energy market. This book outlines the guiding principles of a sustainable and rights-based approach – focusing on transparency, accountability, gender justice and other human rights issues – to the design, application and implementation of LCRs in global energy markets to avoid misalignments.
Advanced economies undergo three transitions during their development: (1) transition from a rural to an urban economy, (2) transition from low-income growth to high-income growth, (3) transition from high fertility and mortality rates to low modern levels. The timings of these transitions are correlated in the historical development of most advanced economies. I consider a nonlinear model of endogenous long-run economic and demographic change, in which child quantity-quality substitution is driven by declining child mortality. Because the model captures the interactions between all three transitions, it is able to explain three additional empirical patterns: a declining urban-rural wage gap, a declining rural-urban family size ratio, and most surprisingly, that early urbanization slows development. This third prediction distinguishes the model from other theories of long-run growth, and I document evidence for it in cross-country data.
Estuaries and saltmarshes play a fundamental role in the life cycle of many crab species. Diverse studies show that temperature and salinity modulate abundance, size frequency distribution (SFD), sex ratio and growth in crustaceans. These population parameters are usually challenging to estimate due to the high environmental variability of estuaries. Monthly samples of the estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus were taken from October 2003 to October 2004 (except July 2004) in the Tubul estuary, central Chile. We quantified temporal changes in abundance, size distribution, sex ratio and monthly growth through the annual cycle. A total of 1025 individuals were collected. Sizes ranged from 7.72–33.51 mm carapace length (CL) with a growth rate ranging between 2.13–30.5% mm CL mo−1. Size and growth rates were greater in spring-summer, suggesting a faster growth of younger crabs correlated with increasing sea temperatures in the austral summer. Overall, sex ratio was 1.75:1 in favour of males. Modal analysis identified at least seven cohorts cohabiting throughout the annual cycle. Growth parameters for males and females were the following, respectively: L∞ = 33.6 and 29.6, k = 0.69 and 0.91, t0 = –0.39 and −0.28. Changes in size distribution suggested a recruitment period during autumn and winter seasons when there are lower salinities and temperature fluctuations stresses. Generalized linear models indicated that sea temperature, salinity and chlorophyll were the environmental variables that better predicted the annual patterns in the population structure.
This chapter is about media planning and budgeting in advertising. Many industries spend as much as one-third of their profit (not revenue) on media and promotions. A media plan that is not well thought out and executed will affect the company’s bottom line very quickly. Although this chapter is principally about media planning and budgeting, it is also about communication objectives and consumer behaviour. If we do not understand where and when consumers buy our product or service, we will not be able to place and time our advertisement to best influence them as well. If we understand these, then we can decide on the most cost-effective channel, the best time and the ideal frequency to reach them with the right media vehicles. Factoring into this decision is whether the organisation wants to grow. If so, then being able to reach as many consumers as possible becomes important aided by having distinctive creative assets and excess share of voice. Each of these decisions has implications for the budget and so media planning and budgeting is quite a complex exercise. And this complexity is compounded as more online channels and platforms become available, although the advent of programmatic media buying improves the efficiency of ad placements, notwithstanding its weaknesses.