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In England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, festivals expansively run the gamut from celebrations of flowers, seasonal harvests, and food and drink to the fine arts, music, theatre, and religion, in locations ranging from metropolitan centres, cathedrals, public and private parks and gardens, to locales rural in the extreme. Festivals could be unpredictable, and their organisers doubtless had to navigate uncertainties and last-minute cancellations, not to mention audience reception to programming; perhaps it is that element of unpredictability that gives festivals a general air of anticipation and excitement. This chapter explores post-Second World War festival culture with examples emerging from the Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Festival, the Glyndebourne Opera Festival, the Cheltenham Music Festival (subsequently renamed the Cheltenham Festival of Contemporary British Music), the Three Choirs Festival, the Aldeburgh Festival of Music and the Arts, and the Festival of Britain. The chapter also considers the intersections of the postwar socialised Arts Council funding for music and the arts in the British Isles, and the disparity between funding for metropolitan and rural centres.
In 1980, at the invitation of Australia, the first Chinese scientists went to Antarctica. China was therefore a relative ‘latecomer’ to engage in Antarctic science. In the period since its first Antarctic expedition in 1984, China's presence in Antarctica has expanded both in terms of its logistics and infrastructure and its scientific research. This paper outlines the development of China's national Antarctic programmes under the influence of corresponding national policies from the late 1970s to the present, noting the application of various scientific disciplines to Antarctic fields. The paper outlines and analyses the broadening and deepening of China's Antarctic science research, infrastructure and engagement.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) drug development is a complex process that proceeds from identification of a biological target; to testing of candidate therapies in in vitro assays; assessment of efficacy in animal models and assessment of safety in several animal species; clinical testing in humans in Phase1, Phase 2, and Phase 3 clinical trials; regulatory review by agencies in all countries in which the drug might be marketed; and eventual commercialization. This process requires more than a decade to accomplish. The process involves substantial infrastructure resources; multiple stakeholders; and funding from a variety sources along the developmental pathway. This is the complex ecosystem that supports AD drug development.
While debate on how best to pay for social care in England continues, information about public attitudes on this issue is limited. We asked representative samples of the public whether care costs for older people should be met by the state, met by the service user or shared between state and user. We used an online survey of people aged 18–75 (n = 3,000) and interview survey of people aged 65 and over (n = 466). Respondents were given four vignettes (two home care, two residential care) and asked who should pay at different levels of user resources; and how much users should contribute when costs were shared. Fewer than one-fifth of the online sample and one-quarter of the interview sample considered that the state should meet the full costs whatever users’ resources; considerably lower proportions believed that users should meet the full costs in all cases. Two-thirds of the online sample and half the interview sample thought costs should be shared. The proportion of costs that users should contribute was relatively low (20–50 per cent, varying by user resources). The study illustrates that public views elicited through vignettes can provide evidence to inform policy on social care funding.
In Chapter 9, I outline some of the most important moral considerations involved in the design and conduct of research. I first discuss research funding, emphasizing conflicts between resource limitations and epistemic and moral values. I then discuss research space considerations, framing these in terms of dwelling practices that express our commitments (to hospitality, conservation, etc.) and that shape our communities and environments. Next, I discuss the moral affordances of research equipment, arguing that such equipment is not just a set of neutral tools but a way of extending and transforming our individual and collective embodiment. I then discuss how organizing research entails a moral ordering (of priorities and persons) set amid a micro-politics of local power relationships. Finally, I discuss some of the moral dilemmas involved in soliciting and managing research participation, focusing on the duties to cultivate the choice, voice, and safety of all who participate in research.
Since 2015 and in response to the so-called migration crisis, the European Union (EU) has adopted several budget amendments, and created new funds in the field of migration. The chapter analyses these changes in the EU funding landscape from a border drawing perspective. After showing that funds have been extensively used by EU institution as a response to the so-called migration crisis, the chapter attempts to answer the following research question: does the evolution of the EU funding landscape in response to the migration crisis illustrate a mainly inclusive or mainly exclusive border drawing dynamic? To do so, the chapter starts by describing the various areas and objectives of the EU migration policy that funding decisions could be intended to support, classifying them as areas with a mainly inclusive purpose and areas with a mainly exclusive purpose. Then, it gives an overview of the changes in the EU’s funding patterns since the outbreak of the migration crisis in 2015. Finally, it examines these changes from a border drawing perspective, reaching the conclusion that EU funding decisions taken after the migration crisis have responded to a mainly exclusive dynamic.
The United Nations (UN) charter did not include voluntary contributions because some feared it would undermine multilateralism. Since the 1990s, UN agencies have increasingly been financed through earmarked contributions from a diverse set of donors. A growing body of literature examines the relationship between funding and global governance. This chapter examines the role that money has played in the origin and evolution of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) as a case study of earmarking in the wider UN system. The chapter uses a new dataset of earmarked contributions to IOM to examine thematic and temporal patterns in the contributions of main donors. Contributions have largely focused on issues relating to migration management that reflect the specific interests of donors, lending weight to the argument that the earmarking of financing has allowed bilateral interests to dominate multilateral responses. On the other hand, earmarked funding has also allowed the international community to extend protection to displaced populations not covered by the refugee convention as well as to push forward migration, often a contentious issue, at the international level.
Literature in migration studies has analyzed the deployment of development and humanitarian aid in migration policy, as well as the implication of non-state actors in the operationalization of European migration policy in North Africa. Little attention has been paid to the implementation of such a policy turn on the ground, and to the local configuration of power and governance that it produces. Building on fieldwork and interviews with representatives of donors, NGOs, and international organizations, this chapter investigates European-funded projects providing social assistance to “sub-Saharan” migrants in Morocco. The chapter argues that the use of aid for border control purposes splinters responsibilities over migration governance. In the space left by an “indifferent” Moroccan state, aid agencies become the main implementers of a social and humanitarian policy addressing the presence of Black migrants in the country. The relevance assumed by non-state actors is not only due to the unwavering availability of European funding for border control, but also due to its entanglement with historical patterns of state externalization of care for the poor to non-state actors.
The recent Royal Commission into Aged Care Quality and Safety in Australia has documented systemic failures and shocking incidences of abuse and neglect, a not uncommon story internationally. As aged care in many countries is predominantly publicly funded, it is important to understand the general public's attitudes towards aged care quality, what aspects of care quality they think are most important and their willingness to contribute to increased funding to the sector. This paper asks specifically whether self-reported aged care literacy impacts expectations and willingness to pay. More than 10,000 members of the general population were surveyed stratified by age, gender and state. Regardless of the level of aged care literacy, there was consensus about what constitutes quality care, and care priorities for the sector. However, aged care literacy affected willingness to pay to fund a better-quality aged care system. The current crisis facing Australia's aged care system and that of many other countries internationally demonstrates the central importance of general public support to drive quality improvements, recognising that increasing public expenditure on aged care is a necessary part of the solution. This study provides important baseline data from which to commence national and international conversations to consider all options for ensuring the quality, safety and sustainability of aged care now and into the future.
This article describes the social care funding and delivery arrangements of a varied selection of developed countries, focusing on long-term care of older people. International evidence and latest reforms can inform the debate as countries struggle economically. Some have opted for mandatory social insurance that provides universal coverage. A premium is paid and if the insured individual or relatives require support, they are entitled to it. Others opted for a similar universal system but with earmarked taxation, while others fund their social care entirely from general taxation. Many chose a safety-net system in which benefits are means-tested leaving wealthier individuals to secure private arrangements of care. Within the UK, the level of support varies as Scotland provides personal care free of charge, being more generous than England, Wales and Northern Ireland. There is no “one solution”, but understanding different options can help in the discussion of current and future reforms.
The conservation flagship approach is a valuable tool for raising funds and awareness, but species-based campaigns have been criticized for providing little benefit to wider biodiversity. One possible solution is to use conservation areas as flagships, but we lack data on the types of area that most appeal to potential donors. Here, we used an online choice experiment involving hypothetical overseas conservation areas to investigate how respondents value a series of conservation area attributes. We calculated the average willingness to pay for each attribute and assessed preference heterogeneity. Our results suggest that community ownership is valued the most, followed by the presence of threatened bird species, low current funding in the conservation area, the presence of charismatic mammals, and charity ownership. Respondents could be divided into three groups, based on their education, environmental organization membership and income. The group of respondents who were less wealthy and were members of environmental organizations were not willing to pay for this kind of conservation action, suggesting that flagship area campaigns targeted at them should encourage other types of involvement. The other two groups, which included respondents who were less engaged in conservation (neither group included environmental organization members, with one group less wealthy and less educated, and the other wealthier), found community ownership particularly appealing, suggesting that many potential donors may be driven by social concerns. This is a key finding and suggests flagship conservation areas could attract a new audience of donors, helping to support current global efforts to increase the management effectiveness, connectivity and extent of protected areas and land under other effective area-based conservation measures.
Chapter 3 examines how aid creates conflicts and entrenches existing racialised inequalities within the civil society sector. I show that funding injections shake Moroccan civil society by producing three kinds of organisational subjectivities. The first group are the newcomers, which decide to accept donors’ funding, while enacting sense-making strategies to justify their work as not explicitly in support of border security policies. The second group are the radicals: organisations which consider aid money as an instrument of border externalisation, and therefore decide to reject it or distance themselves from it. The last group of civil society organisations are those remaining on the doorstep. Mainly migrant-led organisations, these actors aspire to be part of the aid industry but are unable to bid for aid-funded projects and are confined to play a subordinate role in the migration market. Funding injections therefore alter relations between civil society organisations by favouring phenomena of co-optation, conflict, and subordination. This leads to the emergence of conflict among civil society actors, who do not manage to take a unified stance in favour or against the border regime.
Brain research in Europe is a rapidly evolving field, and increasingly at the forefront of science. Although considerable amounts of knowledge and innovative approaches have been generated, the translation into new health interventions is hindered by excessive fragmentation. Effective and efficient collaboration and cooperation among the various initiatives are often identified as a key success factor to achieve brain research full impact. EBRA fully responds to these needs by bringing together the various stakeholders and major brain research initiatives, at European level and beyond. EBRA creates the conditions for real and effective cross fertilisation, dialogue, building consensus and exploiting research potential. At the strategic level, EBRA acts by fostering alignment and better coordination of research strategies across European and global brain initiatives. Therefore, an overview of the scale and scope of brain research activities funded in the EU framework programme and the funding initiatives of JPND, NEURON and HBP has been created. The results of the mapping exercise then underpinned the development of a Shared European Brain Research Agenda (SEBRA). The SEBRA focuses on research opportunities and research gaps to be addressed in the field, and priorities for action in the short- and long-term. It integrates pre-existing documents as well as expert (i.e., researchers, neurologists/psychiatrists, patient representatives) input that has been collected through surveys and in a dedicated expert workshop. The SEBRA will be used to provide recommendations on future areas for excellent, innovative, and translational research comprising those for maximized cooperation, reduced overlap, and fragmentation.
‘It takes a village to raise a child.’ Early childhood education and care settings play an integral part in this adage. They build such communities by being both a point of connection for, and an integral part of, local contexts. Beginning with what defines a community, this chapter helps readers to consider ways of ‘seeing’, ‘being with’ and ‘serving’ the communities of which they are a part. Illustrations of practice demonstrate ways to invite and involve local groups and services into the early childhood setting. The practicalities of risk assessments and planning for incursions and excursions, and ways of connecting with local aged care facilities, playgroups, council libraries, community centres, and gardening or craft cooperatives are specifically considered. In working together with local communities, teachers do more than partner for mutual connection and the exchange of resources, support or fulfilment. ‘Being with’ encourages teachers to consider ways of ‘seeing’ their contexts first-hand to identify community needs for evidence-informed advocacy and change.
Three key drivers that introduced the new managerialism into mental health services were funding constraints, the drive to measure health care quality and the move to deinstitutionalisation. A new cadre of managers, some of which were clinicians but many of whom were not, often rode roughshod over traditional clinical administration and many psychiatrists and nurses felt ignored and undervalued. New managers pushed ahead regardless, driven by a vision that was often alien to existing service providers. New services proved to be considerably more expensive than old ones. The tribal cultures of psychiatrists, nurses, other professions and managers have always been a major influence on the way services are run, and the change towards a managerial emphasis did not assist mutual understanding. Managerialism brought a new understanding of budgets, human resources and objectives into mental health services that was largely positive but mental health services are still fashioned around systems that were established for the acute hospital sector and not readily adapted to mental health service provision.
Any community involved in revitalization work will benefit from having a strategic language plan in place, with clearly identified short and long term goals. Ideally, projects are a carefully planned set of activities within a specific time frame and with well-defined outcomes. This chapter sets out a series of steps, beginning from the “good idea” and progressing through assessing the needs that a project will address, outlining the project and relating its intended outcomes to the broader strategic needs and goals of the community. It then covers specific details that need to be addressed in planning, such as resources, audience, budget, funding, timeline and other matters, before moving on to implementation, contingency plans and evaluation. The capsule provides a set of tips on how to maximize use of emotional resources and minimize use of money, emphasizing how much can be achieved through positive attitudes and commitment, even without financial resources.
This chapter explores ethical issues involved in language revitalization. Revitalization projects have different implications for different groups (including outside researchers, local activists, community members and sub-groups within the community) and should be planned in a way that is sensitive to the community’s needs, perspectives and knowledge systems. In cases where there is past or present oppression, discrimination or related traumas, only the community can decide whether and how they wish difficult topics to be brought up. Other issues discussed include the political positioning of researchers working with minority groups, legal issues, ownership, consent and the appropriate sharing of documentation resources. The capsule recounts ethical lessons learned through a collaboration with indigenous researchers in Friendship Centres in Ontario, Canada. The emphasis is on practical involvement in everyday activities so that research is grounded in long-term, reciprocal relationships with the knowledge keepers.
In the tradition of educational innovation, when we create something we like, we try to take it to scale. But schools that take thriving as a core purpose all have distinct purposes and approaches. Their approaches are embedded in a context, responding to local narratives, needs and resources. There is no way, therefore, to 'scale' thriving. Regardless, scaling in educating has mostly been unsuccessful. Instead we can focus on how to grow and spread the diversee narratives, logics and practices that promote thriving. This starts wih removing inhibitors, including our tendency to confuse measurable outputs of education with the outcomes we desire; the excessive scrutiny of some accountabilitty and monitoring sysems; and the lack of resources available in underfunded or inequitable systems. Then we can focus on conditions for growth: framing our purposes in design principles that support and direct decision-making; creating supportive newtorks of professionals and other partners; and developing a social movement for change. Thriving – at all levels – will become a purpose of school when more of us speak out openly to affirm that it should be.
This chapter examines the role of international finance for post-war transitions and its relationship to international law. That relationship is considered in two respects: first, the international legal norms relevant to ‘who should pay?’; and second, the relevance of international aid to the development of international law. Section 2 tracks the evolution of post-conflict funding for settlement implementation and reconstruction in light of historical transformations in peace-making practice; and addresses the financial demands on conflict-affected states. Urgent needs for international aid to finance settlement implementation and peacebuilding, raises questions about whether third states might have a duty to provide finance. Thus, Section 3 evaluates prospects for international legal duties to provide that aid. The relevance of post-conflict finance and aid conditionality to the development of international law is considered in Section 4 to shed a different light on debates about an emerging law of peace-making or lex pacificatoria.