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Although the clinical importance of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has received increasing recognition, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime prevalence of NSSI in adults and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric disorders, and lifetime treatment for NSSI.
A nationally representative face-to-face survey was conducted with 7192 adults aged ≥18 years in England. Respondents were interviewed about engagement in NSSI, psychiatric illness, suicidal thoughts and behavior, and treatment history for this behavior.
The estimated lifetime prevalence rate of NSSI was 4.86%. Younger age, growing up without biological parents in the household, being unmarried, and impoverished backgrounds were associated with NSSI. The majority of respondents with lifetime NSSI (63.82%) had at least one current psychiatric disorder. Most psychiatric conditions were associated with greater odds of lifetime NSSI in multivariate models. NSSI was strongly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, respectively, even after accounting for psychiatric disorders and sociodemographic covariates. A substantial proportion of respondents with NSSI history (30.92%) have engaged in medically severe self-harm, as indexed by requiring medical attention for this behavior. The majority of respondents with NSSI (56.20%) had not received psychiatric care for this behavior.
NSSI is prevalent in the general population and associated with considerable psychiatric comorbidity. A high rate of unmet treatment needs is evident among those with this behavior. Those at the greatest lifetime risk for NSSI may also be particularly limited in their resources to cope with this behavior.
Recovery in schizophrenia is a complex process, involving clinical, societal and personal recovery. Until now, studies analysed these domains separately, without examining their mutual relations and changes over time.
This study aimed to examine different states of recovery and transition rates between states.
The Pharmacotherapy Monitoring and Outcome Survey (2006–2017) yearly assesses patients with schizophrenia in the Northern Netherlands. Data from 2327 patients with one up to 11 yearly measurements on clinical, societal and personal recovery were jointly analysed with a mixture latent Markov model (MLMM).
The selected MLMM had four states that differed in degree and pattern of recovery outcomes. Patients in state 1 were least recovered on any domain (16% of measurements), and partly recovered in states 2 (25%; featured by negative symptoms) and 3 (21%; featured by positive symptoms). Patients in state 4 (38%) were most recovered, except for work, study and housekeeping. At the subsequent measurement, the probability of remaining in the same state was 77–89%, transitioning to a better state was 4–12% and transitioning to a worse state was 4–6%; no transitions occurred between states 1 and 4. Female gender, shorter illness duration and less schizophrenia were more prevalent in better states.
Quite a high recovery rate was present among a substantial part of the measurements (38%, state 4), with a high probability (89%) of remaining in this state. Transition rates in the other states might increase to a more favourable state by focusing on adequate treatment of negative and positive symptoms and societal problems.
The total COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infected cases have reached 139 million worldwide and nearing 3 million deaths on April 16, 2021. The availability of accurate data is crucial as it makes it possible to analyze correctly the infection trends and make better forecasts. The reported recovered cases for many US states are surprisingly low. This could be due to difficulties in keeping track of recoveries and resulted in higher numbers for the reported active cases than the actual numbers on the ground. In this work, based on the typical range of recovery rate for COVID-19, we estimate the active data from the total cases and death cases and bring out a correction for the data for all the US states reported on worldometer.
Vision and hearing impairments affect 55% of people aged 60+ years and are associated with lower cognitive test performance; however, tests rely on vision, hearing, or both. We hypothesized that scores on tests that depend on vision or hearing are different among those with vision or hearing impairments, respectively, controlling for underlying cognition.
Leveraging cross-sectional data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study (ARIC-NCS), we used item response theory to test for differential item functioning (DIF) by vision impairment (better eye presenting visual acuity worse than 20/40) and hearing impairment (better ear .5–4 kHz pure-tone average > 25 decibels).
We identified DIF by vision impairment for tests whose administrations do not rely on vision [e.g., Delayed Word Recall both in ARIC-NCS: .50 logit difference between impaired and unimpaired (p = .04) and in BLSA: .62 logits (p = .02)] and DIF by hearing impairment for tests whose administrations do not rely on hearing [Digit Symbol Substitution test in BLSA: 1.25 logits (p = .001) and Incidental Learning test in ARIC-NCS: .35 logits (p = .001)]. However, no individuals had differences between unadjusted and DIF-adjusted measures of greater than the standard error of measurement.
DIF by sensory impairment in cognitive tests was independent of administration characteristics, which could indicate that elevated cognitive load among persons with sensory impairment plays a larger role in test performance than previously acknowledged. While these results were unexpected, neither of these samples are nationally representative and each has unique selection factors; thus, replication is critical.
It is generally believed that the physiological consequences of stress could contribute to poor outcomes for patients being treated for cancer. However, despite preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that stress promotes increased cancer-related mortality, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in mediating these effects does not yet exist. We reviewed 47 clinical studies published between 2007 and 2020 to determine whether psychosocial stress affects clinical outcomes in cancer: 6.4% of studies showed a protective effect; 44.6% showed a harmful effect; 48.9% showed no association. These data suggest that psychosocial stress could affect cancer incidence and/or mortality, but the association is unclear. To shed light on this potentially important relationship, objective biomarkers of stress are needed to more accurately evaluate levels of stress and its downstream effects. As a potential candidate, the neuroendocrine signalling pathways initiated by stress are known to affect anti-tumour immune cells, and here we summarise how this may promote an immunosuppressive, pro-tumour microenvironment. Further research must be done to understand the relationships between stress and immunity to more accurately measure how stress affects cancer progression and outcome.
Brazil ranks second in the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide. In spite of this, coping measures differ throughout the national territory, as does the disease's impact on the population. This cross-sectional observational study, with 59 695 cases of COVID-19 registered in the state of Alagoas between March and August 2020, analysed clinical-epidemiological variables, incidence rate, mortality rate, case fatality rate (CFR) and the social indicators municipal human development index (MHDI) and social vulnerability index (SVI). Moran statistics and regression models were applied. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of death. The incidence rate was 1788.7/100 000 inhabitants; mortality rate was 48.0/100 000 and CFR was 2.7%. The highest incidence rates were observed in municipalities with better human development (overall MHDI (I = 0.1668; p = 0.002), education MHDI (I = 0.1649; p = 0.002) and income MHDI (I = 0.1880; p = 0.005)) and higher social vulnerability (overall SVI (I = 0.0599; p = 0.033)). CFR was associated with higher social vulnerability (SVI human capital (I = 0.0858; p = 0.004) and SVI urban infrastructure (I = 0.0985; p = 0.040)). Of the analysed cases, 55.4% were female; 2/3 were Black or Brown and the median age was 41 years. Among deaths, most were male (919; 57.4%) and elderly (1171; 73.1%). The predictors of death were male sex, advanced age and the presence of comorbidities. In Alagoas, Brazil, the disease has undergone a process of interiorisation and caused more deaths in poorer municipalities. The presence of comorbidities and advanced age were predictors of death.
In rapidly growing and high-burden urban centres, identifying tuberculosis (TB) transmission hotspots and understanding the potential impact of interventions can inform future control and prevention strategies. Using data on local demography, TB reports and patient reporting patterns in Dhaka South City Corporation (DSCC) and Dhaka North City Corporation (DNCC), Bangladesh, between 2010 and 2017, we developed maps of TB reporting rates across wards in DSCC and DNCC and identified wards with high rates of reported TB (i.e. ‘hotspots’) in DSCC and DNCC. We developed ward-level transmission models and estimated the potential epidemiological impact of three TB interventions: active case finding (ACF), mass preventive therapy (PT) and a combination of ACF and PT, implemented either citywide or targeted to high-incidence hotspots. There was substantial geographic heterogeneity in the estimated TB incidence in both DSCC and DNCC: incidence in the highest-incidence wards was over ten times higher than in the lowest-incidence wards in each city corporation. ACF, PT and combined ACF plus PT delivered to 10% of the population reduced TB incidence by a projected 7%–9%, 13%–15% and 19%–23% over five years, respectively. Targeting TB hotspots increased the projected reduction in TB incidence achieved by each intervention 1.4- to 1.8-fold. The geographical pattern of TB notifications suggests high levels of ongoing TB transmission in DSCC and DNCC, with substantial heterogeneity at the ward level. Interventions that reduce transmission are likely to be highly effective and incorporating notification data at the local level can further improve intervention efficiency.
To investigate COVID-19 epidemiology in Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario, Canada.
Using data through December 1, 2020, we estimated time-varying reproduction number, Rt, using EpiEstim package in R, and calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) across the 3 provinces.
In Ontario, 76% (92745/121745) of cases were in Toronto, Peel, York, Ottawa, and Durham; in Alberta, 82% (49878/61169) in Calgary and Edmonton; in British Columbia, 90% (31142/34699) in Fraser and Vancouver Coastal. Across 3 provinces, Rt dropped to ≤1 after April. In Ontario, Rt would remain <1 in April if congregate-setting-associated cases were excluded. Over summer, Rt maintained <1 in Ontario; ˜1 in British Columbia; and ˜ 1 in Alberta except early July when Rt was >1. In all 3 provinces, Rt was >1 reflecting surges in case count from September through November. Compared with British Columbia (684.2 cases per 100,000), Alberta (IRR=2.0; 1399.3 cases per 100,000) and Ontario (IRR=1.2; 835.8 cases per 100,000) had a higher cumulative case count per 100,000 population.
Alberta and Ontario had a higher incidence rate than British Columbia, but Rt trajectories were similar across all 3 provinces.
Climate change is already having unequal effects on the mental health of individuals and communities and will increasingly compound pre-existing mental health inequalities globally. Psychiatrists have a vital part to play in improving both awareness and scientific understanding of structural mechanisms that perpetuate these inequalities, and in responding to global calls for action to promote climate justice and resilience, which are central foundations for good mental and physical health.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are prevalent in older people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. HAND prevalence and incidence studies of the newly emergent population of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated older PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa are currently lacking. We aimed to estimate HAND prevalence and incidence using robust measures in stable, cART-treated older adults under long-term follow-up in Tanzania and report cognitive comorbidities.
A systematic sample of consenting HIV-positive adults aged ≥50 years attending routine clinical care at an HIV Care and Treatment Centre during March–May 2016 and followed up March–May 2017.
HAND by consensus panel Frascati criteria based on detailed locally normed low-literacy neuropsychological battery, structured neuropsychiatric clinical assessment, and collateral history. Demographic and etiological factors by self-report and clinical records.
In this cohort (n = 253, 72.3% female, median age 57), HAND prevalence was 47.0% (95% CI 40.9–53.2, n = 119) despite well-managed HIV disease (Mn CD4 516 (98-1719), 95.5% on cART). Of these, 64 (25.3%) were asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 46 (18.2%) mild neurocognitive disorder, and 9 (3.6%) HIV-associated dementia. One-year incidence was high (37.2%, 95% CI 25.9 to 51.8), but some reversibility (17.6%, 95% CI 10.0–28.6 n = 16) was observed.
HAND appear highly prevalent in older PLWH in this setting, where demographic profile differs markedly to high-income cohorts, and comorbidities are frequent. Incidence and reversibility also appear high. Future studies should focus on etiologies and potentially reversible factors in this setting.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). ECT treatment effect relies on induced generalised seizures. Most anaesthetics raise the seizure threshold and shorten seizure duration. There are no conclusive studies on the effect of anaesthetic dose on response and remission rates with ECT for MDD.
We aimed to examine the effect of different dose intervals of anaesthetics on response and remission after ECT for MDD.
We conducted a nationwide cohort study, using data from Swedish registers. Low-, medium- and high-dose intervals, adjusted for age and gender, were constructed for each anaesthetic drug. Response and remission were measured with the Clinical Global Impression – Severity and Improvement scales (CGI-I and CGI-S), and a self-rated version of the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S). Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for response and remission rates.
The study included 7917 patients who received ECT for MDD during 2012–2018. Patients were given either thiopental (64.1%) or propofol (35.9%). Low-dose intervals of anaesthetics were associated with increased rates of response (CGI-I: odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.07–1.40, P = 0.004; MADRS-S: odds ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.09–1.56, P = 0.004) and remission (CGI-S: odds ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.17–1.60, P ≤ 0.001; MADRS-S: odds ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.10–1.54, P = 0.002).
We found improved treatment outcomes with low- compared with high-dose anaesthetic during ECT for MDD. To enhance treatment effect, deep anaesthesia during ECT for MDD should be avoided.
To study the association between organic food consumption and lifestyle, socio-demographics, and dietary habits.
Cohort participants completed detailed questionnaires about organic food consumption, diet, and lifestyle between 1999 and 2002. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between organic food consumption, and lifestyle, socio-demographics, and dietary habits.
This cross-sectional study uses data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort.
A total of 43,209 men and women aged between 54 and 73 years were included in the study.
Overall, 15% reported never consuming organic food, 39% had low organic food consumption, 37% had medium organic food consumption and 10% had high organic food consumption. The relative risk of consuming organic food versus never consuming organic food was highest among women, persons with body mass index <25 kg/m2, persons with low alcohol intake, persons participating in sports, persons who did not smoke or were former smokers, and among persons who adhered to the Danish national dietary guidelines. Associations were more distinct with higher levels of organic food consumption.
Based on a historical cohort of Danish adults, organic food consumption was associated with a generally healthy lifestyle, more favorable socio-demographics, and dietary habits. These findings have to be considered in the adjustment strategy for future studies linking organic food consumption with health outcomes.
For people in mental health crisis, acute day units (ADUs) provide daily structured sessions and peer support in non-residential settings, often as an addition or alternative to crisis resolution teams (CRTs). There is little recent evidence about outcomes for those using ADUs, particularly compared with those receiving CRT care alone.
We aimed to investigate readmission rates, satisfaction and well-being outcomes for people using ADUs and CRTs.
We conducted a cohort study comparing readmission to acute mental healthcare during a 6-month period for ADU and CRT participants. Secondary outcomes included satisfaction (Client Satisfaction Questionnaire), well-being (Short Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale) and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale).
We recruited 744 participants (ADU: n = 431, 58%; CRT: n = 312, 42%) across four National Health Service trusts/health regions. There was no statistically significant overall difference in readmissions: 21% of ADU participants and 23% of CRT participants were readmitted over 6 months (adjusted hazard ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.54–1.14). However, readmission results varied substantially by setting. At follow-up, ADU participants had significantly higher Client Satisfaction Questionnaire scores (2.5, 95% CI 1.4–3.5, P < 0.001) and well-being scores (1.3, 95% CI 0.4–2.1, P = 0.004), and lower depression scores (−1.7, 95% CI −2.7 to −0.8, P < 0.001), than CRT participants.
Patients who accessed ADUs demonstrated better outcomes for satisfaction, well-being and depression, and no significant differences in risk of readmission, compared with those who only used CRTs. Given the positive outcomes for patients, and the fact that ADUs are inconsistently provided in the National Health Service, their value and place in the acute care pathway needs further consideration and research.
Subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent than PTSD, yet its role as a potential risk factor for PTSD is unknown. To address this gap, we analysed data from a 7-year, prospective national cohort of USA veterans. Of veterans with subthreshold PTSD at wave 1, 34.3% developed PTSD compared with 7.6% of trauma-exposed veterans without subthreshold PTSD (relative risk ratio 6.4). Among veterans with subthreshold PTSD, specific PTSD symptoms, greater age, cognitive difficulties, lower dispositional optimism and new-onset traumas predicted incident PTSD. Results suggest that preventive interventions targeting subthreshold PTSD and associated factors may help mitigate risk for PTSD in USA veterans.
We sought to provide the first point prevalence estimates of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a form of body dysmorphic disorder characterized by a preoccupation with perceived insufficient muscularity, in adolescents.
Data were taken from a survey of 3618 Australian adolescents (11.172–19.76 years; 49.3% girls). Measures captured demographic characteristics, symptoms of MD and eating disorders, psychological distress and functional impairment. Diagnostic criteria for MD developed by Pope et al. (1997, Psychosomatics, 38(6), 548–557) were applied, entailing preoccupation with insufficient muscularity causing significant levels of distress or disability that cannot be better accounted for by an eating disorder.
The point prevalence of MD was 2.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–3.0%] among boys and 1.4% (95% CI 0.9–2.0%) among girls. Prevalence was not associated with gender (V = 0.031) or socioeconomic status (SES) (partial η2< 0.001), but was marginally associated with older age (partial η2 = 0.001). Boys with MD were more likely than girls with MD to report severe preoccupation with muscularity (V = 0.259) and a weight-lifting regime that interfered with their life (V = 0.286), whereas girls with MD were more likely to report discomfort with body exposure (V = 0.380).
While future epidemiological research using diagnostic interviews is needed to verify these estimates, the findings suggest that MD is relatively common from early to late adolescence. Gender differences in MD prevalence may be minimal; however, the symptom profile appears to diverge between boys and girls. These findings provide a platform for future, analytical research designed to inform clinical and public health interventions.
We analysed the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic curve from March to the end of April 2020 in Germany. We use statistical models to estimate the number of cases with disease onset on a given day and use back-projection techniques to obtain the number of new infections per day. The respective time series are analysed by a trend regression model with change points. The change points are estimated directly from the data. We carry out the analysis for the whole of Germany and the federal state of Bavaria, where we have more detailed data. Both analyses show a major change between 9 and 13 March for the time series of infections: from a strong increase to a decrease. Another change was found between 25 March and 29 March, where the decline intensified. Furthermore, we perform an analysis stratified by age. A main result is a delayed course of the pandemic for the age group 80 + resulting in a turning point at the end of March. Our results differ from those by other authors as we take into account the reporting delay, which turned out to be time dependent and therefore changes the structure of the epidemic curve compared to the curve of newly reported cases.
Mental health policy makers require evidence-based information to optimise effective care provision based on local need, but tools are unavailable.
To develop and validate a population-level prediction model for need for early intervention in psychosis (EIP) care for first-episode psychosis (FEP) in England up to 2025, based on epidemiological evidence and demographic projections.
We used Bayesian Poisson regression to model small-area-level variation in FEP incidence for people aged 16–64 years. We compared six candidate models, validated against observed National Health Service FEP data in 2017. Our best-fitting model predicted annual incidence case-loads for EIP services in England up to 2025, for probable FEP, treatment in EIP services, initial assessment by EIP services and referral to EIP services for ‘suspected psychosis’. Forecasts were stratified by gender, age and ethnicity, at national and Clinical Commissioning Group levels.
A model with age, gender, ethnicity, small-area-level deprivation, social fragmentation and regional cannabis use provided best fit to observed new FEP cases at national and Clinical Commissioning Group levels in 2017 (predicted 8112, 95% CI 7623–8597; observed 8038, difference of 74 [0.92%]). By 2025, the model forecasted 11 067 new treated cases per annum (95% CI 10 383–11 740). For every 10 new treated cases, 21 and 23 people would be assessed by and referred to EIP services for suspected psychosis, respectively.
Our evidence-based methodology provides an accurate, validated tool to inform clinical provision of EIP services about future population need for care, based on local variation of major social determinants of psychosis.
Previous results have been mixed regarding the role of the apolipoprotein E e4 (APOE e4) allele in later-life depression: some studies note that carriers experience greater symptoms and increased risk while others find no such association. However, there are few prospective, population-based studies of the APOE e4-depression association and fewer that examine depressive symptom trajectory and depression risk longitudinally. We examined the association between APOE e4 allele status and longitudinal change in depressive symptoms and depression risk in later-life, over a 12-year follow-up period.
We used data from 690 participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 (aged 11) and were followed-up in later-life over five waves from 2004 to 2019 (aged 70–82). We used APOE e4 allele status to predict longitudinal change in depressive symptom scores and risk of depression (defined by a symptom score threshold or use of depression-related medication). Models were adjusted for sex, childhood cognitive ability, childhood social class, education, adult social class, smoking status and functional limitations at baseline.
Depressive symptom scores increased with age. Once adjusted for covariates, APOE e4 allele status did not significantly predict symptom score trajectories or depression risk. Greater functional limitations at baseline significantly predicted poorer symptom score trajectories and increased depression risk (defined by medications). APOE e4 allele status did not significantly moderate the contribution of sex, education or functional limitations.
There was no evidence that APOE e4 carriers experience an increased risk for later-life depression.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to a significant disease burden and disruptions in health systems. We describe the epidemiology and transmission characteristics of early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Bavaria, Germany. Cases were reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, reported from 20 January−19 March 2020. The incubation period was estimated using travel history and date of symptom onset. To estimate the serial interval, we identified pairs of index and secondary cases. By 19 March, 3546 cases were reported. A large proportion was exposed abroad (38%), causing further local transmission. Median incubation period of 256 cases with exposure abroad was 3.8 days (95%CI: 3.5–4.2). For 95% of infected individuals, symptom onset occurred within 10.3 days (95%CI: 9.1–11.8) after exposure. The median serial interval, using 53 pairs, was 3.5 days (95%CI: 3.0–4.2; mean: 3.9, s.d.: 2.2). Travellers returning to Germany had an important influence on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Bavaria in early 2020. Especially in times of low incidence, public health agencies should identify holiday destinations, and areas with ongoing local transmission, to monitor potential importation of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Travellers returning from areas with ongoing community transmission should be advised to quarantine to prevent re-introductions of COVID-19.