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Porencephaly is a neurological condition that can develop before or after birth, characterized by cysts located in any place inside the brain parenchyma, which generally are covered by plain walls and encircled by an atrophic crust. It generates a very variable clinic appearance, with severe cases of high disability and slight cases with a light neurological involvement, which also can go unnoticed until adulthood. The prevalence is unknow and the inheritance is autosomal dominant Male patient of 45 years diagnosed with porencephaly with cerebral palsy that affects left half and cognitive disability. His father reports an emerging defiant behavior, mutism and decrease of appetite from a week ago. No triggering stress factors are reported.
Show the importance of include in the differential diagnose hypoactive confusional syndrome.
On urgent medical visit, male comes with ataxic gates which wasn’t shown before. Inhibited attitude, semiflexed staring at floor, with sparing and monosyllabic speech answers, verbalizing discomfort and personal concern. Sleep-wake rhythm disruptions.
Blood tests and drug screening shows no abnormalities Cranial CT: Without acute lesion Urinary infection observed.
It is important to make complementary test to exclude organic frames which could justify acute-subacute psychopathology. In this case, diagnosis was acute confusional syndrome, however, most known presentation is the hyperactive one which include motor hyperactivity, inappropriate behavior or disorganization and alterations of sensory perception. Hypoactive must always be considered, which is the concluding diagnosis in this case.
Psychiatric patients visiting the Emergency Department (ED) often require ‘medical clearance’. We aim to review patient work-up in the ED to facilitate the management of these patients.
- To identify common demographic variables, diagnoses and mental health legislative status of patients presenting to the ED requiring psychiatric admission - To assess whether patients underwent a medical work-up in the ED, and what investigations were carried out - To produce a hospital proforma for the management of psychiatric patients presenting at the ED
Data on adult psychiatric patients visiting the ED over a six month period was collected retrospectively, which was then analysed accordingly.
473 patient admissions were reviewed. 32.8% were admitted to a non-psychiatric specialty before being accepted to psychiatry, with the most common reasons being due to overdose (30.3%), alcohol-related problems (19.4%), and medical complaints (18.7%). 63.2% of all patients were investigated in the ED, including 23.5% undergoing CT Brain imaging. The majority had a final diagnosis falling under F10-19 (30.2%) and F30-39 (30.9%) chapter categories of the ICD-10, with the former having the highest absolute number of patients undergoing testing in the ED. The F20-29 group (13.7%) was highest in total patients investigated (75.4%), CT brain imaging (56.9%), and rate of involuntary admissions (33.8%), suggesting they are the most resource intensive group.
Patients with acute mental disorders present significant challenges to emergency physicians. Staff education and an inter-departmentally agreed upon proforma, taking into account the results of this study, may facilitate management of these patients within the ED.
SARS-CoV-2 has unleashed an unprecedented global crisis that has caused the demand for essential goods, such as medical and sanitation products, to soar while simultaneously disrupting the very supply chains that allow individuals and institutions to obtain those essential goods. This has resulted in stark price increases and accusations of price gouging. We survey the existing philosophical literature that examines price gouging and identify the key arguments for regulators permitting such behavior and for regulators restricting such behavior. We demonstrate how the existing accounts are designed for localized emergencies rather than global persistent crises such as the coronavirus pandemic. In light of this, we highlight an understudied justification for price gouging that is much more salient during global crises: incentivizing increased production of essential goods. Furthermore, we pinpoint three conditions that help determine whether authorities should restrict price gouging during the coronavirus pandemic and similar global crises.
The fight for public health primacy in U.S. emergency preparedness and response to COVID-19 centers on which level of government — federal or state — should “call the shots” to quell national emergencies?
Iran is exposed to a wide range of natural and man-made hazards. Health-care facilities can play a significant role in providing life-saving measures in the minutes and hours immediately following the impact or exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the preparedness of health-care facilities in disasters and emergencies.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in Damghan, Semnan Province, in 2019. The samples consisted of all the 11 health-care facilities located in Damghan County. A developed checklist was used to collect the data, including 272 questions in 4 sections: understanding threatening hazards, functional, structural, and nonstructural vulnerability of health-care facilities. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21.
The results revealed that the health-care facilities were exposed to 22 different natural and man-made hazards throughout the county. The total level of preparedness of the health-care centers under assessment was 45.8%. The average functional, structural, and nonstructural vulnerability was assessed at 49.3%, 31.6%, and 56.4%, respectively.
Conducting mitigation measures is necessary for promoting the functional and structural preparedness. Disaster educational programs and exercises are recommended among the health staff in health-care facilities.
Heavy rains in March 2019 led to severe floods in large parts of Iran, with severe financial and physical casualties (in the Golestan province, 11 districts were trapped in water). An increase in the EMS missions while serving a big portion of the needed population was a big problem for the health system during the flood; Therefore, a new solution was needed to overcome this problem. Using a farm tractor for transporting the patients and injured people was the first relief experience ever documented in the whole country. In the present report, despite the limitations and challenges, the tractor has been shown to be a proper and effective disaster relief vehicle. This report could help other similar countries face disasters, especially floods.
Our hospital is one of the tertiary care hospitals in Oman receiving coronavirus disease (COVID-19; C19) patients. To meet the expected surge of patients, a number of changes was made to the emergency department (ED), especially regarding capacity building and patient flow. At first, few changes were made to the main ED, which mainly includes the addition of a COVID suspect room with the use of a separate resuscitation area. The major drawback of the abovementioned system was the inability to see more than 2 patients simultaneously. A later separate COVID emergency department (CED) was used. In the CED, pending admissions was the major problem, as the C19 ward and C19 intensive care unit were becoming full; this problem was solved through central command help. In the normal ED, the main problem was the presentation of C19-positive patients sometimes hiding their symptoms and reaching inside the main ED, exposing the staff and patients. In order to combat this problem, all patients with an acute respiratory problem, even if C19 is not suspected, were taken to the corner cubicle. In this report, the changes made in the ED to combat C19 spread are discussed.
Dezful is the capital of Dezful County, a city in Khuzestan Province, Iran. On August 12, 2017, after a chlorine gas leakage in Dezful, more than 475 people were affected by chlorine gas, and they all suffered from respiratory complications. A lot of problems were encountered in the preparation of the relief forces and organization of the blueprint on how to respond to the incident, such as lack of knowledge on establishment of danger zone, lack of warning system, lack of proper triage and absence of decontamination plans, lack of special chemical safety outfit and respiratory equipment for rescuers, lack of instructions for proper handling, lack of knowledge in dealing with this type of disaster, and inappropriate evacuation skills and failure to cordon off and insure the location of the incident. Although the initial measures to arrest this crisis was performed based on the health system’s instructions of the country with regard to all the possible risks, lack of a comprehensive inter-organizational program and prevention plans, lack of control plans, lack of adequate preparation and response to chemical poisoning, lack of foresight, lack of a risk plan, and lack of an intervention plan for these incidents were the reasons for the damages and problems encountered after the crisis.
On-call and crisis psychiatry is a very challenging aspect of psychiatric training. This study aimed to describe the experiences of psychiatric trainees on-call in hospitals, emergency departments and psychiatric units in Ireland.
In total, 193 psychiatric trainees in Ireland were emailed a survey in 2017. The survey included questions regarding the duties expected of the trainee, frequency of on-call obligations, un-rostered hours worked, level of senior support, assessment facilities available and doctors’ satisfaction with the on-call experience.
Overall, 68 trainees responded to the survey. In total, 35% of respondents reported dissatisfaction with their experience of on-call and crisis psychiatry, 46% reported that they were not provided with training in risk assessment and 21% of respondents stated that there was not a suitable room available to perform their assessments.
This survey has raised important issues facing those on the frontline of psychiatric services in Ireland. Of particular concern are resource issues faced by trainees and the need for further training and support related to risk assessment when on-call. Remedying these issues may lead to a decreased rate of dropout as well as a safer and better environment for patients and doctors alike.
Conventional airway management, including intubation and the various modes of lung ventilation, is usually successful. When it fails (cannot intubate, cannot ventilate/oxygenate) it is a life-threatening emergency and will lead to hypoxic brain damage in a few minutes, followed by death, if not resolved. The common final pathway for securing the airway and oxygenation is an emergency front of neck airway (eFONA). Immediate action with a clear plan, appropriate equipment and skills is essential. The ability to efficiently perform an eFONA is a fundamental requirement for any practitioner engaged in advanced airway management. Many techniques are described and it is a difficult area to study, so the evidence of superiority of one technique over others is hard to establish. Preparation, in terms of equipment availability, procedural practice, team familiarity and prompt transitioning through the algorithm when other techniques fail, is important for patient safety. These human factors aspects of eFONA management are at least as important as the procedural technique chosen. This chapter considers the risk factors for airway failure and management of the cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate situation and eFONA procedure in adults and children.
The conclusion synthesizes the findings and, on that basis, discusses how the European Court of Justice should have positioned itself in relation to the change in the Founding Contract. It first reflects on the constitution of the Union and shows that this fits the tradition of the ‘constitutional contract’. It then discusses what consequences this has for constitutional actors, including the Court, when faced with a crisis like the one in the currency union. The initiation of the change in the Founding Contract by the heads of state or government on 11 February 2010 was a political act, an exercise of constitutional power outside the law. However, this exercise of political power does receive recognition in the law, in particular, through the principle of loyal cooperation. When the Court has to rule on a measure that has proven essential to preserve the Founding Contract in an emergency, it is under a duty of loyalty to abstain from disapproving it. Yet, instead of assessing and approving such measures on the merits, as the Court did in Pringle and Gauweiler, it should have acted on its duty by silence.
To describe the pattern of emergency department (ED) consultations in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to controls and factors predictive of ED consultations.
This retrospective cohort study linked data from the Registre de la paralysie cérébrale du Québec (REPACQ) and provincial administrative health databases. The CP cohort was comprised of children enrolled in REPACQ born between 1999 and 2002. REPACQ covers 6 of 17 Quebec health administrative regions. Region-, age-, and gender-matched controls were identified from administrative health databases in a 20:1 ratio. The primary outcome was high use of ED services (≥4 ED visits during the study period). Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.
In total, 301 children with CP were linked to administrative data and 6040 peer controls were selected. Ninety-two percent (92%) of the CP cohort had at least one ED visit in the study period, compared to 74% among controls (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.19–1.28). Children with CP were more likely than their peers to have high ED use (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.30–1.52). Factors predictive of high ED use were comorbid epilepsy (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.04–1.46) and severity of motor impairment (RR 1.14; 95% CI 0.95–1.37).
Children with CP are more likely to present to the ED than their peers, resulting in increased use of ED services. Coordinated care with improved access to same-day evaluations could decrease ED use. Health system factors and barriers should be investigated to ensure optimal and appropriate use of ED services.
Implementing disaster exercises in different parts of the health system is one of the important steps in providing and developing disaster risk management plans. Considering the importance of promoting health system preparedness through exercise, the present study aimed to identify and explain necessary and original components for successful implementation of preparedness exercises of the health-care system in disaster.
The study was a qualitative content analysis. Data were collected by purposeful sampling through in-depth and semi-structured individual interviews with 25 health professionals in disaster. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the data, which extracted the initial codes after performing the recorded interviews on paper and immersing them in the data analysis.
The data analysis resulted in the production of 100 initial codes, 14 subcategories, 6 main categories of “coordination and information management,” “standards and indicators,” “conduction and control of the process,” “logistic management and supplies,” “management of treatment operation,” and “management of health operation,” under the original theme of “implementation of exercise.”
The findings of this study can greatly increase the attention of senior managers to preparedness in all areas of the health system, especially managers of prehospitals and hospitals who are the forefront of the response to the disaster. The findings of this study can be considered as a guideline for the implementation of principle and standardized health system preparedness exercises.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between the trauma score of individuals wounded in the Lushan earthquake and emergency workload for treatment. We further created a trauma score-emergency workload calculation model.
We included data from patients wounded in the Lushan earthquake and treated at West China Hospital, Sichuan University. We calculated scores per the following models separately: Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Prehospital Index (PHI), Circulation Respiration Abdominal Movement Speech (CRAMS), Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS-28), and Nursing Activities Score (NAS). We assessed the association between values for CRAMS, PHI, and RTS and those for TISS-28 and NAS. Subsequently, we built a trauma score-emergency workload calculation model to quantitative workload estimation.
Significant correlations were observed for all pairs of trauma scoring models with emergency workload scoring models. TISS-28 score was significantly associated with PHI score and RTS; however, no significant correlation was observed between the TISS-28 score and CRAMS score.
CRAMS, PHI, and RTS were consistent in evaluating the injury condition of wounded individuals; TISS-28 and NAS scores were consistent in evaluating the required treatment workload. Dynamic changes in emergency workload in unit time were closely associated with wounded patient visits.
The aim of this study was to evaluate hospital and emergency department (ED) preparedness in France facing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapid growth epidemic-phase, and to determine the link between preparedness and responsiveness.
In this cross-sectional study, from March 7 to March 11, 2020, all heads of ED departments in France were contacted to answer an electronic survey, including 23 questions. Quality, Organization, Training, Resources, Management, Interoperability, and Responsiveness were evaluated by calculating scores (10 points). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare scores. Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multifaceted regression analysis were performed between Responsiveness and dimensions scores.
A total of 287 of 636 French EDs were included (45.1%). Calculated scores showed (median): Quality 5.38; Organization 6.4; Training 4.6; Resources 4.13; Management 2.38; Interoperability 4.0; Responsiveness 6.25; seasonal influenza score was 5. Significant differences between scores as a function of hospital and ED main characteristics were found. Furthermore, we found significant correlations (P < 0.01) between Responsiveness and all preparedness dimensions. Organization (adjusted-R2 0.2897), Management (aR2 0.321), and Interoperability (aR2 0.422) were significantly associated with Responsiveness.
Preparedness in all its dimensions is low, indicating vulnerability. Preparedness and responsiveness face a certain and ongoing risk are close linked, and that Organizational, Management, and Interoperability dimensions are main determinants.
As a general rule once a trust is fully constituted the terms are binding on the trustees and the provisions of the trust must be carried out. Occasinally where circumstances have changed there is scope to vary the trust usually in the event of an unforeseen event arising. This chapter examines when the terms of a trust can be varied. The court holds inherent jurisdiction to vary the trust in certain circumstances but the jurisdiction is limited. There are several statutory provisions that give the court jurisdiction to vary a trust but the statute with the widest range of powers is the Variation of Trusts Act 1958. Under the Act the court can authorise a variation on behalf of a range of beneficiaries including any person with an interest both vested and contingent and who by reason of infancy or incapacity is incapable of assenting. It also includes a category of beneficairies who may become entitled if certain events occur in the future. Exercise of the jurisdiction depends on whether it is for the benefit of the beneficiaries and this is dependent on whether a benefit can be shown both financial and non-financial. The jurisidiction is very wide but cannot be exercised if the court believes there is a resettlement as opposed to a variation.
Responding to the extreme scarcity of medical resources during the early outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, an emergency specialist hospital of Leishenshan started to construct on January 26, 2020, and accommodate patients on February 6, 2020. The clinical laboratory center of Leishenshan Hospital (CLCLH) was constructed at the same time within 11 days to support the treatment of inpatients in Leishenshan Hospital and the testing of suspected patients from different fever clinics in Wuhan. The CLCLH could perform a total of 320 clinic, 299 biochemistry, 31 microorganism, and 47 infection and immunity examinations per day. It could also complete an average of 239 nucleic acid tests and 118 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody examinations per day. No suspected cases were documented among the health care workers during the operation of the CLCLH. The construction and operation experiences of the CLCLH is provided in this study and might be used by other countries as reference. The content of this study is divided into 4 parts: (1) the establishment of the CLCLH, including its layout and medical resource allocation; (2) the major testing items; (3) the specific procedure of COVID-19 indicator examination; and (4) the standardized personal protection measures.
1) To characterize mild, moderate, and severe fear of falling in older emergency department (ED) patients for minor injuries, and 2) to assess whether fear of falling could predict falls and returns to the ED within 6 months of the initial ED visit.
This study was part of the Canadian Emergency and Trauma Initiative (CETI) prospective cohort (2011–2016). Patients ages ≥ 65, who were independent in their basic daily activities and who were discharged from the ED after consulting for a minor injury, were included. Fear of falling was measured by the Short Falls Efficacy Scale International (SFES-I) in order to stratify fear of falling as mild (SFES-I = 7-8/28), moderate (SFES-I = 9-13/28), or severe (SFES-I = 14-28/28). Many other physical and psychological characteristics where collected. Research assistants conducted follow-up phone interviews at 3 and 6 months’ post-ED visit, in which patients were asked to report returns to the ED.
A total of 2,899 patients were enrolled and 2,009 had complete data at 6 months. Patients with moderate to severe fear of falling were more likely to be of ages ≥ 75, female, frailer with multiple comorbidities, and decreased mobility. Higher baseline fear of falling increased the risk of falling at 3 and 6 months (odds ratio [OR]-moderate-fear of falling: 1.63, p < 0.05, OR-severe-fear of falling 2.37, p < 0.05). Fear of falling positive predictive values for return to the ED or future falls were 7.7% to 17%.
Although a high fear of falling is associated with increased risk of falling within 6 months of a minor injury in older patients, fear of falling considered alone was not shown to be a strong predictor of return to the ED and future falls.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), a new respiratory disease, is spreading globally. In France, Emergency Medical Service (EMS) teams are mobile medicalized resuscitation teams composed of emergency physician, nurse or anesthesiologist nurse, ambulance driver, and resident. Four types of clinical cases are presented here because they have led these EMS teams to change practices in their management of patients suspected of COVID-19 infection: cardiac arrest, hypoxia on an acute pneumonia, acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation with respiratory and hemodynamic disorders, and upper function disorders in a patient in a long-term care facility. The last case raised the question of COVID-19 cases with atypical forms in elderly subjects. Providers were contaminated during the management of these patients. These cases highlighted the need to review the way these EMS teams are responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, in view of heightening potential for early identification of suspicious cases, and of reinforcing the application of staff protection equipment to limit risk of contamination.
Introduction: Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disturbance associated with morbidity and mortality. Commonly used therapies for hyperkalemia include IV calcium, sodium bicarbonate, insulin, beta-adrenergic agents, ion-exchange resins, diuretics and hemodialysis. This study aims to evaluate which treatments are more commonly used to treat hyperkalemia and to examine factors which influence those clinical decisions. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of all cases of hyperkalemia encountered in 2017 at a Canadian adult ED. Potassium values were classified as mild (5.5 - 6.5 mEq/L), moderate (>6.5 - 7.5 mEq/L) and severe (>7.5 mEq/L). Treatment choices were then recorded and matched to hemodynamic stability, degree of hyperkalemia and ECG findings. More statistical methods to test correlation between treatment and specific variables will be performed over the next 2 months, including logistic regression to highlight potential determinants of treatment and Chi-square tests to verify randomness and to construct 95% confidence intervals. Results: 1867 ED visits were identified, of which 479 met the inclusion criteria. 89.1% of hyperkalemia cases were mild, 8.2% were moderate, and 2.7% were severe. IV insulin was used in 22.1% of cases, followed by Kayexalate in 20.5%, sodium bicarbonate in 12.3%, IV calcium in 9.4%, frusemide in 7.3%, salbutamol in 2.7%, and dialysis in 1.9%. Moderate and severe hyperkalemia were associated with higher use of insulin (79.5% and 64.3% respectively), IV calcium (41% and 64.3% respectively), sodium bicarbonate (56.4% and 85.7% respectively). Bradycardia was associated with higher insulin and IV calcium use (46.7% and 33.3% respectively). Hypotension was associated with a similar increase in use of insulin and IV calcium (34.2% and 23.7% respectively). There were only 15 cases of cardiac arrest in which sodium bicarbonate and IV calcium were more frequently used (80% and 60% respectively). Conclusion: This study demonstrates variability in the ED management of hyperkalemia. We found that Insulin and Kayexalate were the 2 most common interventions, with degree of hyperkalemia, bradycardia and hypotension influencing rates of treatment. Overuse of kayexalate for emergent treatment of hyperkalemia is evident despite weak supporting evidence. Paradoxically, beta adrenergic agents were underutilized despite their rapid effect and safer profile. The development of a widely accepted guideline may help narrow the differences in practice and potentially improve outcomes.