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The TPNW was welcomed at the UN General Assembly, under the participation of a wide range of humanitarian groups and civil society organizations, supported by a groundswell of nations around the world. The Treaty firmly implants new law into the international legal landscape for states who wish to ratify it, sowing the seeds of potentially new normative behavior within the global community more generally. Indeed, the TPNW purports to strive for universality, raising significant questions regarding its ambitions in achieving legal unity within the wider international legal order. The dedication to the spirit of the Treaty cannot be ignored, nor can the optimism to ban nuclear weapons.
The Afro-Brazilian religion of Candomblé arose during the Atlantic slave trade and has unmistakable Yorùbá influences. In the city of Salvador, the term nação ketu [Ketu nation] is used among the oldest temples in describing Yorùbá heritage. This has led some scholars to assume that the founders came from the Yorùbá kingdom by that name. This paper critically examines the idea of Kétu origins, taking as a case study the temple Ilê Axé Iyá Nassô Oká, a national historic heritage site in Brazil that is recognized by UNESCO as a site of diasporic memory. The paper shows that the first generations of leadership were dominated by people from Ọ̀yọ́ and that the term ketu emerged not as an allusion to ethnic origins but perhaps as a metaphor for a heterogeneous cultural context in which Yorùbá speakers from disparate regions lived in close coexistence.
Tropical forest hotspots have a high diversity of species but have lost > 70% of their original vegetation cover and are characterized by a multitude of small and isolated fragments. Paradoxically, conservation actions in these areas are still mainly focused on protection of large tracts of forests, a strategy now infeasible because of the small area of forest remnants. Here we use the Vulnerable black-handed titi monkey Callicebus melanochir as a model to study the effects of habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation on arboreal mammals and to provide insights for science-driven conservation in fragmented landscapes in tropical forest hotspots. We surveyed 38 Atlantic Forest fragments in Bahia State, Brazil and assessed the effects of patch area, quality and visibility, and landscape connectivity on the occurrence of our model species. Patch area was the single best model explaining species occurrence. Nonetheless, patch quality and visibility, and landscape connectivity, positively affect occurrence. In addition to patch area, patch quality, patch visibility and landscape connectivity are useful for predicting the occurrence of arboreal mammals in the fragments of tropical forest hotspots. We encourage the assessment of habitat quality (based on remotely sensed vegetation indices) and habitat visibility (based on digital elevation models) to improve discoverability of arboreal mammal populations and selection of fragments for conservation purposes across fragmented landscapes of tropical forest hotspots. Large remnants of tropical forest hotspots are scarce and therefore we require baseline data to support conservation actions and management in small forest fragments.
The prevailing paradigm of modern art in Brazil still revolves around the Modern Art Week of 1922, in São Paulo, and the self-professed avant-gardes that derived from that event. What came immediately before it is usually relegated to a limbo status, as neither modern nor non-modern. The introduction casts doubt upon the widely accepted category pre-modernism, questioning its validity as a historical construct. Evidence demonstrates that alternate modernisms existed in the Brazilian context prior to 1922. Chief among these is a variant of modernism linked to the rising urban culture of music, dance, theatre, humour, graphics and cinema in Rio de Janeiro. The relative lack of scholarly interest in mass culture has led to a tendency to overstate the impact of erudite expressions in literature, fine art and architecture. Other arenas of cultural production have been systematically overlooked, including ones to which Afro-Brazilian artists made important contributions. This skewed perspective subtly elides how elite practitioners often appropriated subaltern identities to reinforce their own claims to modernity, vis-à-vis their European counterparts. The book proposes to examine the conflicts between primitivism and nationalism, modernism and archaism. Rethinking these tensions in the Brazilian context helps make sense of divergent models of modernism elsewhere.
To estimate the burden of weight excess in Brazilian adolescents.
Systematic review with meta-analysis.
We searched the literature in four databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SciELO and LILACS). Studies were included if they had cross-sectional or cohort design and enrolled Brazilian adolescents. Studies based on self-reported measures were excluded. Random effect models were used to calculate prevalence estimate and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI).
Brazilian adolescents (10 to 19 years old).
One hundred and fifty-one studies were included. Trend analyses showed a significant increase in the prevalence of excess weight in the last decades: 8.2% (95%CI:7.7-8.7) until year 2000, 18.9 (95%CI:14.7-23.2) from 2000 to 2009, and 25.1% (95%CI:23.4-26.8) in 2010 and after. A similar temporal pattern was observed in the prevalence of overweight and obesity separately. In sensitivity analyses, lower prevalence of excess weight was found in older adolescents and those defined using IOTF cutoff points. The Southeast and South regions had the highest prevalence of excess weight, overweight and obesity. No significant difference in prevalence by sex was found, except for studies before the year 2000.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Brazilian adolescents is high and continues to rise. Public policies on an individual level and targeting modifications in the obesogenic environment are necessary.
Modernity in Black and White provides a groundbreaking account of modern art and modernism in Brazil. Departing from previous accounts, mostly restricted to the elite arenas of literature, fine art and architecture, the book situates cultural debates within the wider currents of Brazilian life. From the rise of the first favelas, in the 1890s and 1900s, to the creation of samba and modern carnival, over the 1910s and 1920s, and tracking the expansion of mass media and graphic design, into the 1930s and 1940s, it foregrounds aspects of urban popular culture that have been systematically overlooked. Against this backdrop, Cardoso provides a radical re-reading of Antropofagia and other modernist currents, locating them within a broader field of cultural modernization. Combining extensive research with close readings of a range of visual cultural production, the volume brings to light a vast archive of art and images, all but unknown outside Brazil.
This article aims to contribute to the critical understanding of how International Relations (IR) was built as a social science field within Brazil's modern project. I argue that the foundation and the development of IR in Brazil in the twentieth century is closely associated with foreign policy, on the one hand, and with the national geopolitical thinking, particularly in the aftermath of the Second World War, on the other. In its trajectory, Brazil's IR has been influenced, among others, by the analysis of domestic and systemic determinants of foreign policy, historical interpretations, the study of the components of state power, studies of diplomacy and its contribution to the country's development, the analysis of decision-making processes and to a lesser extent, cognitive approaches. This article is organised around three sections. First, I present a brief history of the geopolitical tradition in Brazil's IR. Second, I discuss IR development in Brazil, stressing the role of diplomats, the key contribution of intellectuals coming from social and human sciences, and finally the emergence of the first generations of IR scholars in the eighties. Third, I analyse the institutionalisation of the field, its quantitative and qualitative growth, presenting some data on its organisation in recent times.
This chapter presents the evolution of the pharmaceutical industry in the emerging world. It draws on firm-level cases in three of the largest pharmaceutical markets: China (2), Brazil (6) and India (11). Pharmaceutical companies in these countries have emerged as leaders in the generic segment and some are making remarkable strides towards innovation strategies. China’s Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine, India’s Sun Pharma, and Brazil’s Eurofarma are suggestive of the shift toward innovation. These companies have evolved from copycats to creative imitators and recently have been moving up the value chain in pharmaceutical R&D.
This article analyzes the role of soil in the making of authoritarian regimes and illustrates twentieth-century practices and discourses related to fertility across the globe. It compares two different approaches to and understandings of soil fertility: the first emerged in North Libya under Italian Fascist rule (1922–1943), the second in Central Brazil during the civil-military dictatorship (1964–1985). We compare two soil-forming processes that changed physical and chemical properties of the original matter and were embedded within specific ideologies of modernization. In both cases, state agendas of agrarian production played a paramount role not only in socioeconomic projects but also as an instrument to suppress opposition. Technocratic and political aspects of building and maintaining fertility were interwoven, although in different patterns in the two countries. We show how the rejuvenation of land bled into the regeneration of communities through processes that anchored the self-definition and development of these authoritarian regimes, and argue that attempts at landscape transformations through agricultural activity and strategies of fertilization are inescapable features of dictatorships. In so doing, we elaborate the concept of “authoritarian soil.” The juxtaposition of these non-synchronous cases reveals how agricultural modernization developed throughout the twentieth century. Our study is rooted in environmental history and contributes to the ongoing dialogue between that field and science and technology studies. Its cross-temporal, comparative methodology draws upon sources and historiographical debates in English, Italian, and Portuguese.
To evaluate the feasibility of reintroduction as a tool for conservation of the jaguar Panthera onca, we adapted the IUCN soft release protocol to reintroduce two jaguars in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. After being kept at rescue centres for 13 months, the jaguars were moved to a 1-ha enclosure with native vegetation on a 53,000 ha ranch in the Pantanal, where hunting is not allowed and prey is abundant. In the enclosure, the animals were fed with meat, dead animals (roadkill) and then, progressively, live wild prey. After 11 months, the jaguars were fitted with collars equipped with GPS/VHF (recording one location per hour) and accelerometers, and released in the same area. The animals established residence near the enclosure, with home ranges, movement parameters, daily activity patterns and prey consumption similar to that recorded in previous studies. Social interaction and reproduction indicated the reintroduction was successful, and that it can be a tool for the species' survival in areas where the jaguar population is in decline.
This article is a case study of Brazil, a country where Catholic-based organizations have historically played a key role in providing education and welfare services. Since the 1980s, these organizations have supported progressive changes at both the national and subnational levels. Nevertheless, the influence of religion on education policy has shifted in the last few decades. Pentecostal and Neopentecostal groups have gained prominence through representatives in the National Congress, and, in 2018, formed a coalition enabling the election of a right-wing populist President. We analyse the trajectory of religious groups’ influence on Brazil’s education policy over time (colonization to the 1980s, the 1980s to the beginning of the 2000s, and the 2000s until now) through a qualitative-historical analysis of primary and secondary data. This article argues that both Catholic and Protestant groups have influenced progressive changes in Brazil’s education policy, but they also share conservative ideas impeding further advances.
Halloysite is a 1:1 dioctahedral clay mineral that has been studied widely for applications in nanotechnology and as a mineral exploration guide for recognizing regolith-hosted heavy rare earth element (HREE) deposits. In Brazil, pegmatites from the state of Rio de Janeiro have been catalogued, but their potential to host halloysite deposits has never been studied. After a mineral exploration programme, one pegmatite with considerable halloysite contents and economic potential was discovered. This study reports the mineralogical and chemical characterization of the halloysite of this pegmatite and evaluates the possibility of clay-adsorbed HREE deposits, like that in the Zudong (China) regolith-hosted HREE deposit. Seven samples were collected in horizontal channels. Bulk samples and clay fractions (<2 μm) were analysed by quantitative mineral analysis (X-ray diffraction/Rietveld method), chemical analysis (major elements by X-ray fluorescence and Y, U, Th and rare earth elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, particle-size analysis, nitrogen physisorption and cation-exchange capacity. Mixed polygonal/cylindrical halloysite-7Å in concentrations between 6.3 and 35.4 wt.% in bulk samples and between 58.0 and 89.8 wt.% in the clay fractions were identified in the pegmatite. The clay fractions presented an average chemical composition of 45.46 wt.% SiO2, 36.10 wt.% Al2O3, 14.62 wt.% loss on ignition and 1.04 wt.% Fe2O3, as well as technological properties close to those observed in world-class halloysite deposits such as Dragon Mine (USA) and Matauri Bay (New Zealand). The clay minerals did not present significant HREE contents.
This chapter analyzes the efforts and policies implemented in Brazil to support innovation and facilitate interaction among universities, researchers, research organizations, and companies based on a review of literature and legislation on university–industry relations in Brazil; data on IP and related indicators in official Brazilian government reports; information gathered through questionnaires sent to eighteen Brazilian universities and research institutes; and in-depth interviews with four selected Brazilian knowledge transfer offices. The chapter reviews the key literature on knowledge transfer in Brazil and provides an overview of the role of public research organizations in the Brazilian innovation system as well as the new policies introduced to reinforce its scientific and innovative capacity. It also analyzes the institutional practices as well as the main channels for knowledge transfer in Brazil. The chapter concludes that while the major universities and research institutes in Brazil now have a knowledge transfer office to support knowledge transfer to the business sector and the Brazilian legislation has improved its management of intellectual property rights, excessive bureaucracy, limited patent licensing to companies, and lack of competition among Brazilian companies are a few reasons why university–industry interaction is not stronger in Brazil.
The fourth chapter deals with the complicated history of public land in Brazil. Weak federal control of public land before the 1960s allowed the illegal settlement of hundreds of families inside the Brazilian Iguaçu National Park. In the 1970s, however, Brazilian park officials had decided to evict all the 2,500 settlers. The shift was partly a reaction to the same international discourse that had influenced Argentine park authorities, as discussed in Chapter 3. However, in Brazil, the early 1970s eviction coincided with the harshest years of the military dictatorship that ruled the country for two decades. The generals were obsessed with suppressing political dissent and feared the settlers living inside the Iguaçu national park could fall prey to left-wing radicalism. The Iguaçu evictions anticipated the authoritarian agrarian reform and population resettlement programs later implemented further north in Amazonia, designed by the military to remedy peasant unrest.
This last chapter recreates the changes in the landscape inside the two parks and their surrounding area. To do so, it uses a trove of more than 800 aerial images from 1953 to 1980 (as well as government reports, newspaper articles, and legal cases) to reconstruct the landscape before, during, and after the settlement of tens of thousands of settlers at the borderland. The chapter documents the role of logging, as carried out by Brazilian colonization companies with indigenous labor, in permanently transforming the native subtropical Atlantic forest into cropland. It also cast light on road building as one of the factors allowing migration to the region. Inside the park, the chapter argues that what is now seen as pristine nature – the forested landscape of the parks – is the fruit of decades of often contradictory policies and practices.
Today, one-quarter of all the land in Latin America is set apart for nature protection. In Nationalizing Nature, Frederico Freitas uncovers the crucial role played by conservation in the region's territorial development by exploring how Brazil and Argentina used national parks to nationalize borderlands. In the 1930s, Brazil and Argentina created some of their first national parks around the massive Iguazu Falls, shared by the two countries. The parks were designed as tools to attract migrants from their densely populated Atlantic seaboards to a sparsely inhabited borderland. In the 1970s, a change in paradigm led the military regimes in Brazil and Argentina to violently evict settlers from their national parks, highlighting the complicated relationship between authoritarianism and conservation in the Southern Cone. By tracking almost one hundred years of national park history in Latin America's largest countries, Nationalizing Nature shows how conservation policy promoted national programs of frontier development and border control.
The second chapter traces the Brazilian reaction to the developments across the border in Argentina, which led federal politicians and local park boosters to establish a protected area of their own, the Iguaçu National Park in 1939. The Brazilian government created Iguaçu in the context of the “March to the West,” the 1940s federal campaign to occupy Brazil’s hinterland as a solution for an underdeveloped frontier. But the park’s creation also reveals the crucial role of local politicians and other intermediary agents in pushing for policies of territorial development. Park proponents, including state governors and local politicians, were aware of the national park being established in Argentina and used it as leverage for pushing for a national park on the Brazilian side of the Iguazu Falls. Their activism proved decisive in the establishment of the park in Brazil. The dialogue between local actors and the seat of power in Rio de Janeiro shows how territorial control is never exclusively a top-down process.
Iguazú and Iguaçu National Parks, 2020. In the 1980s, UNESCO listed Iguazú and Iguaçu National Parks, separately, as World Heritage Site. This epilogue argues that ideas about national sovereignty and transboundary antagonism continued guiding the way park officials in the two countries framed the parks. That explains why Brazilians and Argentines ignored calls for co-management and greater integration by UNESCO officials. All in all, the two Iguazu parks were never “peace parks” as integrated adjacent transboundary parks are called.
This chapter addresses how the enforcement of park boundaries shaped the society and environment across a porous international border. It offers an extensive examination of the movements of hunters, loggers, and park rangers in and out national parks. The chapter combines primary sources with geographic information science (GIS) to explore how hunters, heart-of-palm harvesters, and rangers negotiated the two parks’ spaces. By mapping three decades of surveillance and poaching activities, this chapter shows how the boundaries dividing park and non-park territories, as well as Argentina and Brazil, became the frontline of the clash between national park officials and the local settler population engaged in extractive activities.
Local Content and Sustainable Development in Global Energy Markets analyses the topical and contentious issue of the critical intersections between local content requirements (LCRs) and the implementation of sustainable development treaties in global energy markets including Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Latin America, South America, Australasia and the Middle East While LCRs generally aim to boost domestic value creation and economic growth, inappropriately designed LCRs could produce negative social, human rights and environmental outcomes, and a misalignment of a country's fiscal policies and global sustainable development goals. These unintended outcomes may ultimately serve as disincentive to foreign participation in a country's energy market. This book outlines the guiding principles of a sustainable and rights-based approach – focusing on transparency, accountability, gender justice and other human rights issues – to the design, application and implementation of LCRs in global energy markets to avoid misalignments.