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Popular support for the League of Nations spread around the world in the interwar period but it did not spread evenly. Instead, it was concentrated in white-majority countries: both in Europe and beyond in the form of settler societies around the world. This article explores the relationship between the League movement and white supremacy in one such community: Australia. Citizens in that country combined their allegiance to the League with their beliefs in white supremacy: about the need to restrict immigration through the ‘White Australia’ policy; about the rationale of them ruling over non-white peoples in the territories they held under League ‘mandate’; and about their treatment of Indigenous Australians. In short, they were ‘white internationalists’. Australia’s white internationalists were relatively few. But they reveal a global history of popular white internationalism. Interwar Australians might have been some of the most blatant white internationalists but they were far from the only ones.
The three authors research surface archaeological records dominated by low-density scatters and isolated artifacts, archaeological phenomena frequently encountered during cultural resource management (CRM) projects in areas of the United States and Australia. We each began researching surface artifact scatters for different reasons but converged on approaches that emphasize the formation of these forms of archaeological deposits. Through a variety of projects, we asked a common set of questions about the processes that both buried and exposed these materials, the methods needed to obtain a chronology in different regions, and the ways we might interpret artifacts found together in different densities. Answering these questions led to the collection and analyses of datasets in innovative ways and the questioning of a number of archaeological categories often thought of as fundamental for archaeological research. Here, we review examples of our respective research and consider the implications for CRM projects dealing with surface lithics.
Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 4 is underpinned by the provision of quality inclusive education for all young persons, including persons with disabilities. The universal design for learning (UDL) framework provides the basis for establishing an inclusive pedagogical learning environment in classrooms. However, implementing such an inclusive pedagogical framework continues to be profoundly challenging across all countries, including Australia. Teacher attitude is the most important construct in efforts to create inclusive educational contexts. The aim of this study was to examine secondary school teachers’ attitudes towards the UDL framework in Australia. One hundred and twenty mainstream secondary classroom teachers in Sydney completed an online survey. The mean values and standard deviations of a self-designed UDL framework were calculated to examine teacher attitudes. Correlations and multiple regressions were conducted to verify the relationship between teachers’ attitudes and their background variables. The main results indicated that Australian secondary school teacher attitudes towards the UDL framework were generally positive, although they still had some practical concerns, such as having inflexible ideas about how to provide instructions. The findings provide useful insights for developing professional teacher training to promote inclusive education, where the UDL framework is a lens for interpreting inclusive education.
The 1960s were marked by wide-ranging debates about British decline, so much so that historians have identified a culture of ‘declinism’ affecting all asspects of contemporary life, from the prescriptions of economists to the activism of the (short-lived) ‘I’m Backing Britain’ movement in 1968. Though declimism principally affected the political and literary culture of England, this chapter explores how it was also reproduced in strikingly similar ways elsewhere - in Australia, New Zealand and Canada in particular - where a proclivity for diagnosing the deficiencies of nationhood became a recurring feature of the broader political culture. Yet such was the focus on national maladies that these wider commonalities and their shared sources of discontent were almost never remarked upon — even as the practitioners borrowed freely from each other’s rhetorical templates. This chapter, then, takes stock of the wider anxieties about the ‘state of the nation’ that converged around the diminished certainties of Greater Britain.
Disability segregated employment (also referred to as ‘sheltered workshops’) violates disabled people's human right to work and employment. This article argues that modern slavery law might serve as one part of a broader strategy to end disability segregated employment, ensure accountability for the injustices within them and ensure equal access to open employment opportunities for disabled people. This is on the basis that disability segregated employment can be understood as a form of labour exploitation under modern slavery law – specifically forced labour and servitude. Modern slavery law is a useful legal tool to unseat deeply entrenched ableist attitudes of disability segregated employment as beneficial and necessary and build corporate/charity, public and government momentum towards the transition away from disability segregated employment, even if this particular area of law cannot itself legally compel the closure of sheltered workshops and an increase in open employment opportunities for disabled people.
In 2015, the Victorian Salt Reduction Partnership launched a 4-year multifaceted salt reduction intervention designed to reduce salt intake by 1 g/d in children and adults living in Victoria, Australia. Child-relevant intervention strategies included a consumer awareness campaign targeting parents and food industry engagement seeking to reduce salt levels in processed foods. This study aimed to assess trends in salt intake, dietary sources of salt and discretionary salt use in primary schoolchildren pre- and post-delivery of the intervention.
Repeated cross-sectional surveys were completed at baseline (2010–2013) and follow-up (2018–2019). Salt intake was measured via 24-h urinary Na excretion, discretionary salt use behaviours by self-report and sources of salt by 24-h dietary recall. Data were analysed with multivariable-adjusted regression models.
Children aged 4–12 years
Complete 24-h urine samples were collected from 666 children at baseline and 161 at follow-up. Mean salt intake remained unchanged from baseline (6·0; se 0·1 g/d) to follow-up (6·1; 0·4 g/d) (P = 0·36), and there were no clear differences in the food sources of salt and at both time points approximately 70 % of children exceeded Na intake recommendations. At follow-up, 14 % more parents (P = 0·001) reported adding salt during cooking, but child use of table salt and inclusion of a saltshaker on the table remained unchanged.
These findings show no beneficial effect of the Victorian Salt Reduction Partnership intervention on children’s salt intake. More intensive, sustained and coordinated efforts between state and federal stakeholders are required.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is a lifelong infection that is acquired primarily orally and during childhood. We aimed to characterise HSV-1 epidemiology in Australia and New Zealand. HSV-1-related data as recent as 6 December 2021 were systematically reviewed, synthesised and reported, following PRISMA guidelines. Pooled mean seroprevalence and proportions of HSV-1 detection in genital ulcer disease (GUD) and in genital herpes were calculated using random-effects meta-analyses. Meta-regressions were also conducted. HSV-1 measures were retrieved from 21 eligible publications. Extracted HSV-1 measures included 13 overall seroprevalence measures (27 stratified) in Australia, four overall proportions of HSV-1 detection in clinically diagnosed GUD (four stratified) in Australia, and ten overall proportions of HSV-1 detection in laboratory-confirmed genital herpes (26 stratified) in Australia and New Zealand. Pooled mean seroprevalence among healthy adults in Australia was 84.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 74.3–93.1%). Pooled mean seroprevalence was 70.2% (95% CI 47.4–88.7%) among individuals <35 years of age and 86.9% (95% CI 79.3–93.0%) among individuals ≥35 years. Seroprevalence increased by 1.05-fold (95% CI 1.01–1.10) per year. Pooled mean proportion of HSV-1 detection in GUD was 8.2% (95% CI 0.4–22.9%). Pooled mean proportion of HSV-1 detection in genital herpes was 30.5% (95% CI 23.3–38.3%), and was highest in young individuals. Proportion of HSV-1 detection in genital herpes increased by 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.00–1.08) per year. Included studies showed heterogeneity, but 30% of the heterogeneity in seroprevalence and 42% of the heterogeneity in proportion of HSV-1 detection in genital herpes were explained in terms of epidemiological factors. HSV-1 seroprevalence is higher in Australia than in other Western countries. HSV-1 epidemiology in Australia and New Zealand appears to be transitioning towards less oral acquisition in childhood, but more genital acquisition among youth.
The dominance of capital cities (urban primacy) is an enduring characteristic of Australian states. There has been limited empirical research examining the drivers of primacy in states despite some being extreme examples of the phenomenon, both in magnitude and scale. In light of institutional theories of settlement patterns, we developed a profile of Australian urbanization using a century of time-series data, descriptive statistics, and an empirical model of city populations. In Australian states high measures of primacy have endured with little evidence of disruption despite the enormous size of these states, their wealth, and population growth – factors associated with declining and low primacy. Statistically, state capital city status has a significant effect on city population size variation, with results suggesting primacy in states is in part a product of Australian federalism. This contrasts with views that suggest Australia’s scarcity of large non-capital cities is due to isolation, low population, and environmental determinism. The findings in this paper have major implications relative to national and/or state strategies that aim to decentralize population away from the primate cities.
Achieving sustainable development is one of the greatest challenges for humanity. This includes producing food in a way that enhances ecosystem, animal and human health, at the farm level and more broadly. To measure the enhancement brought about by animal production systems, producers, livestock industries and governments need a deeper understanding of the nutrient distribution across the edible parts of the animal. This case study examined the nutrient distribution across food products (carcase and co-products (edible offal and slaughter fat)) derived from a typical Australian lamb, using modelling with secondary data. Due to data gaps, some edible offal products were not able to be incorporated into the model (blood, trachea, omasum, abomasum, intestines, feet/tendons and head meat). Co-products accounted for approximately 24% of total edible product (i.e., carcase and co-product) by weight, 18% of the total protein and 37% of the total fat. With regards to micronutrients, the co-products contained 42% of the total iron content and the liver had more vitamin A, folate and vitamin B12 than the carcase and other co-products combined. This case study highlighted the nutritional value of co-products, especially liver, in the context of the whole animal and, the importance of including co-products in assessments of animal production systems.
A study was carried out in Australia and the UK of the legislation and procedures relating to the welfare and use of animals in scientific research. In Australia, a National Code of Practice for the Care and Treatment of Laboratory Animals has been adopted and it is a legal obligation for all Institutions to adhere to the Code. Each institution has an Animal Ethics Committee (AEC) responsible for ethical review and animal welfare which must include, within certain stipulated parameters, a veterinarian, a research scientist, a member of a rights/welfare organisation and an additional lay member. In the UK the situation is different, as the Home Office directly administers the law regarding the use of animals in research. In April 1999 the Ethical Review Process (ERP) was introduced; every Institution must establish an ERP which must include a named veterinarian and representatives from the Animal Care and Welfare Officers and others. In both countries great emphasis is placed on the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement in experimental research. Substantial differences in culture and ethical review structure between the two countries are identified. However, various recommendations are outlined, based on the Australian experience, to build on existing structures and further develop the UK ERP. These recommendations should be seen as long-term aims and seek to further improve animal welfare through facilitating communication, increasing accountability and creating an environment conducive to open discussion.
This chapter argues that our subjective experiences ߝ how we experience the world and understand ourselves within it ߝ are just as closely governed as our objective conduct, discussed in the last chapter. Whether they realise it or not, contemporary teachers are expected to play a significant role in this form of regulation. After all, teachers are now not simply responsible for transmitting a given curriculum and keeping children in line; they are de facto psychologists, responsible for the mental health, regulation and development of their pupils.
This chapter argues that the issue of ‘truth’ has played a foundational role, not only within the discipline of philosophy but also within many different aspects of Australian culture. However, there seems to be little agreement on what it really is, and while some philosophers contend that truth is a meaningless concept ߝ a linguistic mirage ߝ most would argue there’s something of importance there ߝ but what is it?
Even if we struggle to determine the real nature of truth ߝ as we did with the real nature of right and wrong in Chapter 15 ߝ at least we structure our culture, our knowledges and our school curricula around stuff we know to be unequivocally true … or do we? Arguably, many of the assumptions we make, often derived from five centuries of European colonialism, do not stand up to close scrutiny. They are often ‘truths’ that suit particular interests of the powerful, and subtly act to reinforce their worldview.
The working life of educators ߝ whether in schools or universities ߝ has become dauntingly complex, with the relentless focus on standards and testing, pressure to ensure equitable outcomes, a managerialist working environments, ever-growing professional responsibilities and expectations, increasingly heterogeneous classrooms and fairly relentless media criticism, to name only a few issues. The job requires continual self-reflection, a commitment to lifelong learning and an ongoing dedication to the profession in order to remain viable at all. Making sense of it all ߝ Making Sense of Mass Education ߝ is not an easy task. Hopefully this book can help a little.
A quick glance through history demonstrates that it has not always been an unbroken chain of human happiness, to put it mildly. Different individuals, groups and peoples have faced persecution for any number of reasons: where they came from, how they looked, their perceived (dis)ability, who or what they believed in, who they loved, how they identified, the family they were born into, or, in some cases, for no reason at all. It is against this backdrop that our current set of human rights has emerged. While this chapter focuses primarily on children’s rights and their relationship with education and educator obligations, it is necessary to understand the history of rights in order to understand why human rights, and particularly children’s rights, are so important to the work we do as educators.
Of all the ways in which humans have chosen to divide themselves, none has a history as problematic as race. This concept has significant implications for almost every aspect of contemporary human conduct, irrespective of what ‘race’ we identify with, or even are deemed to belong to. This is particularly so in the field of education.
This chapter will look at the complicated history of race as well as some of the current challenges being faced. In order to describe the complex issues within this important area, a wide range of interrelated terms are used. Probably the most important of these terms is the underpinning notion of ‘othering’ ߝ that is, thinking about a certain person or group as not ‘one of us’ ... as ‘the other’. This important concept is also very relevant to discussions of gender and sexualities, so it is discussed further in Chapter 3.
This chapter makes the case for the importance of philosophy as a discipline in its own right, as a subject area vital to the better understanding of education and as a set of self-reflective practices that can make us better teachers. Philosophy is largely concerned with those areas of study and speculation beyond the reach of empirical analysis, addressing problems about how we construct knowledge, how we produce a just society and how we determine ‘right’ from ‘wrong’. Its central research methodology is simply to think with clarity. The significance of this discipline has not been limited to answering abstract questions about the human condition; philosophy has been instrumental in both making us into rational and reflective citizens and framing the ideas behind our entire system of mass schooling.
More often than not, the advent of contemporary information and communication technologies is presented as one of the great success stories of contemporary schooling, and while ICT has the potential to be a transformative force in education, the issues are complicated and the outcomes far from certain. The field is often divided into those who grew up with such technologies ߝ ‘digital natives’/students ߝ and those who have come to these technologies at a later date ߝ ‘digital immigrants’/teachers. This binary articulates a central problem within a power relation where teachers are normally expected to know more than those they teach. Furthermore, such new technologies do not simply represent mechanisms for accessing more information more quickly and in more interesting ways. By stepping outside the domain of traditional linear texts, traditional understandings of literacy start to lose their meaning. New digital technologies necessitate the adoption of the notion of ‘multiliteracies’, a plural understanding of literacy that encompasses a range of other modes of contemporary meaning-making ߝ hypertext, audio, video and so on ߝ which are integral to the digital universe.
Given that feminist arguments have been around for decades, and that there has been progress towards gender equality, many would argue that concerns over gender have been resolved ߝ a battle won. However, declaring victory in this manner seems very premature. After all, the evidence suggests that a significant number of wider questions still attract attention: just what is gender and what is the best theoretical framework for approaching it? What roles do schools play in its construction? Do we still have to go down the ‘men are to blame for everything’ route? Why should schooling have anything to do with gender identity?
This chapter will unpack the complex and changing relationship between gender and education. In order to accomplish this, it will link each of the most common myths in the area with one of the three waves of feminism that characterised the twentieth century. As with the arguments surrounding social class, it will ultimately be suggested that explanations relying upon a master discourse ߝ not ‘the economy’ again, but in this case patriarchy ߝ a unified system of male domination ߝ are outdated. Similarly, it is argued that the view of gender as a binary of man/woman based on anatomy at birth has had its day.
This chapter examines the rather ambiguous notion of alternative education. To some, sending a child to a Catholic school constitutes an alternative education; to others, nothing short of a total rejection of the central parameters of the mass school deserves the label ߝ such as the elimination of timetables, authority relations, organised curricula, fixed learning goals, even the notion that pupils are to be schooled in any way at all. It’s a subject that often engenders no little passion in those who embrace the categorisation, and no little ridicule among those who do not. Strange though some of the alternative education options might seem, they are all worthy of serious consideration … but what exactly are they?
This chapter argues that educators need to have a good grasp of all the various forms of pre-adulthood we take for granted, such as ‘the child’ and ‘youth’. These categories are the focus of a range of different disciplines, most of which found their explanatory models in nature itself. As such, while the behaviour of children and youth may be deemed to require explanation, the very existence of the categories themselves does not. The issues raised in this chapter concern the degree to which childhood and youth are actually socially constructed categories serving particular social functions. Of greatest interest here are the ways in which childhood and youth are both artefacts of, and vehicles for, social governance.