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The internal electric field of a 2D P-N junction of a semiconductor is mapped out by two techniques: measuring the deflection of the transmitted beam in micro-STEM mode with acquisition and data fitting of an un-scattered beam image, and through the derivative of electrostatic potential maps by dual lens electron holography. Comparable results of the P-N junction internal electric field measured with these two techniques are reported.
Electromagnetic fields presents in some real materials have been observed using electron holography and a simple method named the Shadow Image Distortion (SID) method which we have developed. The in-situ electron holography observation of the electric field surrounding a ceramic particle showed the rapid degradation of dielectric properties of the particle at an elevated temperature. The cross sectional view of mean electrostatic potential distributions in a silicon device has been observed. In-situ electron holography and SID observations showed the electrostatic potential distribution across a reverse biased p-n junction in a compound semiconductor. The SID method using a dedicated tool allowed single-step imaging of 2D maps of electromagnetic field.
Experimentally observed X-ray reflectivity curves show bi-crystal(twin) characteristics. The study revealed that there was defect segregation at the twin boundary. Stress was relaxed at the edge of the boundary. Relaxation of the stress resulted in formation of twin and other defects. As a result of formation of such defects, a defect-free and stress-free zone or low defect density and small stress zone is created around the defects. So a twin model was proposed to explain the experimental results. Stress(mainly thermal stress), chemical stoichiometry deviation and impurities nonhomogeneous distributions are the key factors that cause twins in LEC InP crystal growth. Twins on (111) face in LEC InP crystal were studied. Experimental evidence of above mentioned twin model and suggestions on how to get twin-free LEC InP single crystals will be discussed.
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