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The single initial Global Positioning System (GPS) has been expanded into multiple global and regional navigation satellite systems (multi-GNSS/RNSS) as the Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) is restored and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), Galileo Satellite Navigation System (Galileo) and Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) evolve. Using the differences among these five systems, the paper constructs a consolidated multi-GNSS/RNSS precise point positioning (PPP) observation model. A large number of datasets from Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are employed to evaluate the PPP performance of multi-GNSS/RNSS. The paper draws three main conclusions based on the experimental results. (1) The combined GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/BDS/QZSS presents the PPP with the shortest mean convergence time of 11·5 min, followed by that of GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/BDS (12·4 min). (2) The combined GPS/GLONASS/BDS/Galileo/QZSS shows the optimal PPP performance when the cut-off elevation angle is basically the same because of the rich observation data due to a large number of satellites. To be specific, for combined GPS/GLONASS/BDS/Galileo/QZSS, the PPP convergence percentage is 80·9% higher relative to other combined systems under 35° cut-off elevation angle, and the percentages of the root mean square values of PPP within 0–5 cm are enhanced by 80·5%, 81·5% and 87·3% in the North, East and Up directions relative to GPS alone at 35° cut-off elevation angle. (3) GPS alone fails to conduct continuous positioning due to the insufficiency of visible satellites at 40° cut-off elevation angle, while the kinematic PPP of multi-GNSS/RNSS remains capable of obtaining positioning solutions with relatively high accuracy, especially in the horizontal direction.
Sn–Sb alloy is an ideal candidate for lead-free solder; however, its performance has been inferior to that of Sn–Pb alloy. Here, the authors used ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the interatomic interaction in Sn–Sb-based lead-free solders. By calculating the electron density distribution, bond population, and partial density of states, the authors found that the Sn–Sb bonds are a mixture of nonlocalized metal and localized covalent bonds. The covalent bond between Sn and Sb is easy to break at higher temperatures, so Sn–Sb (6.4 wt%) had better fluidity than other studied Sn–Sb alloys. Furthermore, adding Cu or Ag into Sn–Sb alloys can decrease the strength of covalent bonds and stabilize the metal bonds, which improves the metallicity and wettability of the Sn–Sb–Cu and Sn–Sb–Cu–Ag systems when the temperature increases. These results are all in good agreement with experimental findings and have significant value for the development of new solder alloys.
To assess helical tomotherapy (TOMO) current clinical application and practice in mainland China.
Materials and methods:
Data were collected for all TOMO units clinically operational in mainland China by 30 April 2016, including (a) the distribution of installation and staffing levels; (b) types of cancers treated; (c) utilisation efficiency; (d) quality assurance; (e) maintenance; (f) optional features; and (g) satisfaction levels. The data were collected as a census and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively.
As of 30 April 2016, 23 TOMO units were used clinically by 22 hospitals in mainland China. In the same period, 22,558 cancer patients were treated. For TOMO units with more than a year of clinical utilisation, a median of 378 cases were treated annually per machine. The median daily operation was 10·5 hours, and treatment headcount was 38·3 patients. The median service outage rate was 2·6%, and the most common cause was malfunction of the multi-leaf collimator. In terms of overall satisfaction levels, 3 hospitals were very satisfied, 16 were satisfied and 3 considered their satisfaction level as average.
The overall operation of TOMO is good, but there are some problems due to running at full capacity, lack of clinical efficacy research and insufficient quality assurance regulations.
We investigated the ecology and paleoecology of testate amoebae in peatlands of the Colombian páramo to assess the use of testate amoebae as paleoenvironmental indicators. Objectives were to (1) identify environmental controls on testate amoebae, (2) develop transfer functions for paleoenvironmental inference, and (3) examine testate amoebae in a Holocene peat core and compare our findings with other proxy records. Results from 96 modern samples indicate that testate amoebae are sensitive to pH and surface moisture, and cross-validation of transfer functions indicates potential for paleoenvironmental applications. Testate amoebae from the Triunfo Peatland in the Central Cordillera provided a proxy record of pH and water-table depth for the late Holocene, and inferred changes were correlated with peat C/N measurements during most of the record. Comparison with a lake-level reconstruction suggests that at least the major testate amoeba–inferred changes were driven by climate. Our work indicates that testate amoebae are useful paleoenvironmental indicators in high-elevation tropical peatlands.
Here we report a new find of abundant woody debris and cones in stratum of two sections located to the east of the Qinghai Lake basin in China. Analysis of the anatomical structure of the wood and cones confirmed that they are Picea crassifolia Kom. The results of accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating indicate that the buried Qinghai spruce grew during 9.7–4.2 ka, and the ages of the large trunks or branches are mainly concentrated within the interval 7.5–6.5 ka. This finding gives direct evidence at the species level about the presence of coniferous forest in the early–middle Holocene in Qinghai lake basin. In addition, the buried cones suggest that the early-middle Holocene environment was suitable for the propagation of Picea crassifolia Kom. The variations in the occurrence of Qinghai spruce forest in the Holocene probably reflect changes in humidity/moisture. The humid early-middle Holocene was suitable for the growth and reproduction of Qinghai spruce forest, while a shift toward an increasingly arid climate during the late Holocene resulted in the disappearance of Picea crassifolia Kom. from the Qinghai Lake basin, although human activities may also have contributed to the environmental change.
Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is transmitted to humans mainly by rodents and this transmission could be easily influenced by meteorological factors. Given the long-term changes in climate associated with global climate change, it is important to better identify the effects of meteorological factors of HFRS in epidemic areas. Shandong province is one of the most seriously suffered provinces of HFRS in China. Daily HFRS data and meteorological data from 2007 to 2012 in Shandong province were applied. Quasi-Poisson regression with the distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate the influences of mean temperature and Diurnal temperature range (DTR) on HFRS by sex, adjusting for the effects of relative humidity, precipitation, day-of-the-week, long-term trends and seasonality. A total of 6707 HFRS cases were reported in our study. The two peaks of HFRS were from March to June and from October to December, particularly, the latter peak in 2012. The estimated effects of mean temperature and DTR on HFRS were non-linear. The immediate and strong effect of low temperature and high DTR on HFRS was found. The lowest temperature −8.86°C at lag 0 days indicated the largest related relative risk (RRs) with the reference (14.85 °C), respectively, 1.46 (95% CI 1.11–1.90) for total cases, 1.33 (95% CI 1.00–1.78) for the males and 1.76 (95% CI 1.12–2.79) for the females. Highest DTR was associated with a higher risk on HFRS, the largest RRs (95% CI) were obtained when DTR = 15.97 °C with a reference at 8.62 °C, with 1.26 (0.96–1.64) for total cases and 1.52 (0.97–2.38) for the female at lag 0 days, 1.22 (1.05–1.41) for the male at lag 5 days. Non-linear lag effects of mean temperature and DTR on HFRS were identified and there were slight differences for different sexes.
The aim of this study was to explore perinatal and early postnatal outcomes in fetuses with prenatally diagnosed d-transposition of the great arteries and impacts of standardised prenatal consultation.
All fetuses with prenatally diagnosed d-transposition of the great arteries prospectively enrolled at South China cardiac centre from 2011 to 2015. Standardised prenatal consultation was introduced in 2013 and comprehensive measures were implemented, such as establishing fetal CHD Outpatient Consultation Service, performing standard prenatal consultation according to specifications, and establishing a multidisciplinary team with senior specialists performing in-person consultations. Continuous follow-up investigation was conducted. Perinatal and postnatal outcomes were compared before and after consultation including live birth, elective termination of pregnancy, spontaneous fetal death, stillbirths, referral for surgery, and survival.
In all, 146 fetuses were enrolled with 41 (28%) lost to follow-up. Among 105 remaining fetuses, 29 (28%) were live births and 76 (72%) were terminated. After consultation, live birth rate was higher (50 versus 33%) and termination rate was lower (50 versus 76%), although there was no statistical significance. Excluding three live births without postnatal d-transposition of the great arteries, 65% (17/26) underwent arterial switch operation within 30 days. A total of three in-hospital deaths occurred and during the 10-month follow-up period, one death was observed. In one case, the switch procedure was performed at 13 months and the infant survived. Out of eight infants without arterial switch operation, two died.
Live birth rate increased after consultation; however, termination remained high. Combining termination, patients without arterial switch operation, and operative mortality, outcomes of d-transposition of the great arteries infants can be improved. Standard consultation, multidisciplinary collaboration, and improved perinatal care are important to improve outcomes.
The morphology, composition, and structure of precipitates in an Al–Si–Mg–Hf alloy after heat treatment at 560°C for 20 h were studied by means of Cs-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and first-principle calculations. Precipitates with three kinds of morphologies were observed. The rectangular and square precipitates were predominantly (Si2−xAlx)Hf phases, while the nanobelt-like precipitate is the Si2Hf phase. First-principle calculations were used to show that the Si6 and Si8 sites were the most favorable sites for Al incorporation in the orthorhombic Si2Hf phase.
Sign truncated matching pursuit (STrMP) algorithm is presented in this paper. STrMP is a new greedy algorithm for the recovery of sparse signals from the sign measurement, which combines the principle of consistent reconstruction with orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP). The main part of STrMP is as concise as OMP and hence STrMP is simple to implement. In contrast to previous greedy algorithms for one-bit compressed sensing, STrMP only need to solve a convex and unconstrained subproblem at each iteration. Numerical experiments show that STrMP is fast and accurate for one-bit compressed sensing compared with other algorithms.
A large schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a
subsequent extensive replication study of individuals of European
ancestry identified eight new loci with genome-wide significance and
suggested that the MIR137-mediated pathway plays a role
in the predisposition for schizophrenia.
To validate the above findings in a Han Chinese population.
We analysed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the newly
identified schizophrenia candidate loci and predicted
MIR137 target genes based on our published Han
Chinese populations (BIOX) GWAS data. We then analysed 18 SNPs from the
candidate regions in an independent cohort that consisted of 3585
patients with schizophrenia and 5496 controls of Han Chinese
We replicated the associations of five markers
(P<0.05), including three that were located in the
predicted MIR137 target genes. Two loci
(ITIH3/4: rs2239547, P
=1.17×10–10 and CALN1: rs2944829,
P=9.97×10–9) exhibited genome-wide
significance in the Han Chinese population.
The ITIH3/4 locus has been reported to be of genome-wide
significance in the European population. The successful replication of
this finding in a different ethnic group provides stronger evidence for
the association between schizophrenia and ITIH3/4. We
detected the first genome-wide significant association of schizophrenia
with CALN1, which is a predicted target of
MIR137, and thus provide new evidence for the
associations between MIR137 targets and
In this work, we investigated the influence of N-polar wet etching on the properties of nitride-based hexagonal pyramids array (HPA) vertical-injection light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). The cathodeluminescence images showed the randomly distribution of hexagonal pyramids with isolated active regions. The transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated the reduced density of threading dislocations. The IQE was estimated by temperature dependence of photoluminescence, which showed 30% increase for HPA V-LEDs compared with broad area (BA) V-LEDs. The improved extraction efficiency was verified by finite difference time domain simulation, which was 20% higher than that of roughened BA V-LEDs. The electrical properties of HPA V-LEDs were measured by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) measurements. HPA V-LEDs exhibited much lower leakage current due to the improved crystal quality.
BaFCl:Sm3+ is an efficient photoluminescent storage phosphor for ionizing radiation. Cathodoluminescence (CL) microanalysis enables the Sm2+ and Sm3+ oxidation states of samarium doped BaFCl to be easily identified, provides information about electron-beam and X-ray induced modification of BaFCl:Sm, and enables the synthesis dependent spatial distribution of samarium dopants of <100 ppm concentration to be determined with sub-100 nm resolution at 295 K. CL spectroscopy of BaFCl:Sm particles reveals broad CL emissions at ∼360 and ∼500 nm associated with Vk(Cl−) and oxygen-vacancy defects in the BaFCl host lattice and fine structure CL emissions associated with major 4GJ → 6HJ (Sm3+) and 5DJ → 7FJ (Sm2+) transitions. CL microanalysis shows samarium dopants are uniformly distributed in conventional sintered microcrystalline BaFCl:Sm. In contrast, CL investigations reveal that for BaFCl:Sm nanoparticles, which have been prepared using a co-precipitation method, with greatly improved Sm3+ → Sm2+ conversion efficiency, the samarium dopants are concentrated near the particle surface resulting in a BaFCl:Sm3+ shell surrounding the BaFCl core, which is stable to energetic irradiation.
The mechanism leading to RT ferromagnetism in Gd-doped GaN is not agreed upon, despite many experimental and theoretical reports. Oxygen impurities have been proposed as a possible contributor to ferromagnetic behavior in GaN:Gd films. In this report, GaN:Gd thin films grown by MOCVD using two different metalorganic Gd precursors are examined. The two precursors are (TMHD)3Gd, which contains oxygen, and Cp3Gd, which does not. The films have been characterized by XRD, VSM, and EDS. EDS measurements indicate that the TMHD3Gd samples contain oxygen, while the Cp3Gd samples do not, and VSM scans show that the TMHD3Gd samples exhibit much higher magnetic moments than the Cp3Gd samples, supporting the theory that oxygen enhances the ferromagnetic behavior of GaN:Gd.
The emission from a light emitting diode (LED) that is emitted under the metal electrode cannot escape into free space. A current blocking layer (CBL) is used to address this issue by forcing the current to flow laterally under the electrode reducing the emission absorbed and hence increasing the overall efficiency of the LED. In this paper a new method to fabricate Schottky and isolating CBLs in GaN LED are investigated. Optical and electrical measurements of these vertical LEDs with and without CBL show different light output powers at identical current densities. The results of this study indicate that CBLs could also be used to suppress the efficiency droop effect for GaN LEDs.
In this paper the thermoelectric properties–the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity and the power factor – of GaN and InGaN thin films grown by Metal Organic Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) are reported. The Seebeck coefficient and power factor of InGaN decreases with increasing indium content, although the electrical conductivity shows an inverse behavior. P-type doped samples demonstrated the highest Seebeck coefficient (637 μV/K in GaN:Mg, 1200 μV/K in InGaN:Mg) but the lowest power factor (0.1x10-4 W/m-K for GaN:Mg, 0.4x10-4 W/m-K for InGaN:Mg). The Seebeck coefficient of the doped GaN thin films decreased linearly with log of the carrier concentration. GaN:Si exhibited a maximum power factor of 9.1x10-4 W/m-K with a carrier concentration of 1.6x1018 cm-3, and In0.1Ga0.9N exhibited a maximum power factor of 109x10-4 W/m-K with a carrier concentration of 1.2x1018 cm-3. The results also indicate that GaN and InGaN-based materials could potentially be useful materials for TE applications at high temperatures.
GaN-based dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have recently been investigated for use in spintronic devices. In particular, Gd-doped GaN has shown very promising room temperature ferromagnetic behavior and potential for use in spintronics applications. III-Nitride materials have recently had their thermoelectric properties investigated; however this work has not been extended to Nitride-based DMS. Understanding the spin-calorimetric characteristics of GaN-based DMS is important to the successful development of low-power spintronic devices. In this paper the Seebeck and spin-Seebeck effect in MOCVD grown Gd-doped GaN (Gd: GaN) are investigated.
Ronnie Vernooy, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Li Xiaoyun, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Xu Xiuli, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Lu Min, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Qi Gubo, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada
In hydroxylated poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (HO–SBS) micelle, ZnS/CdS composite nanocrystals were prepared by adding Cd2+ ions and Zn2+ ions to the system sequentially. The resulting composites were identified with elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, surface photovoltage spectroscopy, and electric field induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy.
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