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Poor utilisation efficiency of carbohydrate always leads to metabolic phenotypes in fish. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in carbohydrate degradation. Whether the intestinal bacteria could alleviate high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced metabolic phenotypes in fish remains unknown. Here, a strain affiliated to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was isolated from the intestine of Nile tilapia. A basal diet (CON), HCD or HCD supplemented with B. amy SS1 (HCB) was used to feed fish for 10 weeks. The beneficial effects of B. amy SS1 on weight gain and protein accumulation were observed. Fasting glucose and lipid deposition were decreased in the HCB group compared with the HCD group. High-throughput sequencing showed that the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria was increased in the HCB group relative to the HCD group. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the concentration of intestinal acetate was increased dramatically in the HCB group compared with that in the HCD group. Glucagon-like peptide-1 was also increased in the intestine and serum of the HCB group. Thus, fish were fed with HCD, HCD supplemented with sodium acetate at 900 mg/kg (HLA), 1800 mg/kg (HMA) or 3600 mg/kg (HHA) diet for 8 weeks, and the HMA and HHA groups mirrored the effects of B. amy SS1. This study revealed that B. amy SS1 could alleviate the metabolic phenotypes caused by HCD by enriching acetate-producing bacteria in fish intestines. Regulating the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites might represent a powerful strategy for fish nutrition modulation and health maintenance in future.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work seeks to improve the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infection among hospitalized older adults and mitigate antibiotic overuse in this population. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Primary objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of serum procalcitonin (PCT) for the diagnosis of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) in hospitalized older adults. Secondary objectives: (1) To develop a predictive model for the diagnosis of UTI; (2) To determine the ability of PCT in discriminating between lower and upper UTI. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 228 participants from a single institution. The study population included older adults (age 65 or older) who were hospitalized on the general medicine wards with a possible or suspected urinary tract infection (UTI). Upon obtaining informed consent, serum procalcitonin (PCT) was processed on remnant blood samples collected from the emergency department. We performed additional data collection through the electronic health record to obtain demographic information, clinical characteristics, and other laboratory and imaging results. Clinicians were surveyed for the diagnosis of UTI and charts were adjudicated by independent reviews of the medical record by infectious diseases experts to determine the primary endpoint of symptomatic UTI. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that serum procalcitonin predicts the presence of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) by demonstrating an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of at least 0.85. A predictive model developed in our cohort for the diagnosis of symptomatic UTI will be improved by the addition of serum PCT to the prediction model. Finally, we anticipate the serum PCT will accurately discriminate between upper and lower UTI. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Diagnosis of symptomatic UTI in hospitalized older adults is challenging and may lead to overuse of antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance in this vulnerable patient population. Serum procalcitonin offers a novel diagnostic strategy in the diagnosis of symptomatic UTI to enable more appropriate antibiotic therapy.
Since December 2019, China has experienced a widespread outbreak of COVID-19. However, at the early stage of outbreak, investigations revealed a variety of patterns resulting in the transmission of COVID-19. Thus, it is essential to understand the transmission types and the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission. Moreover, the information regarding the characteristics of transmission helps in coordinating the current screening programme, and controlling and containing measures, and also, helps in deciding the appropriate quarantine duration. Thus, this investigation reports an outbreak of COVID-19 in a family residing in Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China during the month of January−February 2020.
The pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remains unclear despite extensive neuroimaging work on the disorder. Exposure to medication and comorbid mental disorders can confound the results of OCD studies. The goal of this study was to explore differences in brain functional connectivity (FC) within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop of drug-naïve and drug-free OCD patients and healthy controls (HCs).
A total of 29 drug-naïve OCD patients, 22 drug-free OCD patients, and 25 HCs matched on age, gender and education level underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning at resting state. Seed-based connectivity analyses were conducted among the three groups. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and clinical inventories were used to assess the clinical symptoms.
Compared with HCs, the drug-naïve OCD patients had reduced FC within the limbic CSTC loop. In the drug-naïve OCD participants, we also found hyperconnectivity between the supplementary motor area and ventral and dorsal putamen (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons).
Exposure to antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may affect the function of some brain regions. Future longitudinal studies could help to reveal the pharmacotherapeutic mechanisms in these loops.
Archaeological research on food-production systems has focused heavily on the origins of agriculture and animal domestication; the agricultural practices of early states are comparatively less well understood. This article explores archaeological evidence for crop cultivation, field-management practices and the use of farming implements at the Western Han (202 BC–AD 8) village of Sanyangzhuang in Henan Province, China. The authors analyse the implications of these practices for the newly developed smallholder mode of production. By combining diverse strands of evidence, this investigation provides new insights into the status of agricultural production in the Central Plains during the Western Han Dynasty.
In this work, flavonoids in Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. were extracted by ultrasound-assisted methodology and determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. After that, extraction conditions were optimized by the single fact investigation, the central composite design, and response surface methodology (RSM) in turn. The results showed the optimal values of ethanol concentration, solid–liquid ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time, ultrasonic power, and number of extraction times were 60%, 1:20 (g/mL), 45 °C, 34 min; 80 W, and 5, respectively. The extraction ratio of flavonoids could be as high as 94.50%. The influence order of each factor was ultrasonic power > extraction time > extraction temperature > ethanol concentration. The results also showed that the experimental value was close to the predicted value (94.49%) of the established model by RSM, which proved that the established model was reasonable. The thermodynamic results showed that the extraction process was endothermic and could proceed spontaneously.
Direct numerical simulation is conducted to uncover the response of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer to streamwise concave curvature and the related physical mechanisms at a Mach number of 2.95. Streamwise variations of mean flow properties, turbulence statistics and turbulent structures are analysed. A method to define the boundary layer thickness based on the principal strain rate is proposed, which is applicable for boundary layers subjected to wall-normal pressure and velocity gradients. While the wall friction grows with the wall turning, the friction velocity decreases. A logarithmic region with constant slope exists in the concave boundary layer. However, with smaller slope, it is located lower than that of the flat boundary layer. Streamwise varying trends of the velocity and the principal strain rate within different wall-normal regions are different. The turbulence level is promoted by the concave curvature. Due to the increased turbulence generation in the outer layer, secondary bumps are noted in the profiles of streamwise and spanwise turbulence intensity. Peak positions in profiles of wall-normal turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress are pushed outward because of the same reason. Attributed to the Görtler instability, the streamwise extended vortices within the hairpin packets are intensified and more vortices are generated. Through accumulations of these vortices with a similar sense of rotation, large-scale streamwise roll cells are formed. Originated from the very large-scale motions and by promoting the ejection, sweep and spanwise events, the formation of large-scale streamwise roll cells is the physical cause of the alterations of the mean properties and turbulence statistics. The roll cells further give rise to the vortex generation. The large number of hairpin vortices formed in the near-wall region lead to the improved wall-normal correlation of turbulence in the concave boundary layer.
Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are multi-functional foods and nutrients and environmentally friendly biological abiotic-resistance inducing agents for plants. In the current study, the effects and possible mechanisms of COS on improving the cold resistance of rice (II YOU 1259) seedlings were investigated. Compared with the control, a COS pre-soaking treatment enhanced photosynthesis, reduced oxidation damage and led to accumulation of more osmotic regulation substances under chilling treatment. In addition, a novel Deg/HtrA family serine endopeptidase (DegQ) gene, related to COS enhanced rice cold resistance, was identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that transcription of DegQ and psbA (D1 protein encoding gene) were up-regulated in a time-dependent manner by COS treatment under cold stress. With increasing expression of the D1 protein, chlorophyll b content was enhanced correspondingly. The current results suggest that COS could enhance cold stress tolerance of rice by repairing the photodamaged photosystem II, altering osmotic regulation and reducing oxidation damage.
The role of the cerebellum in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has drawn increasing attention. However, the functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex has not been investigated in OCD, nor has the relationship between such functional connectivity and clinical symptoms.
A total of 27 patients with OCD and 21 healthy controls (HCs) matched on age, sex and education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seed-based connectivity analyses were performed to examine differences in cerebellar-cerebral connectivity in patients with OCD compared with HCs. Associations between functional connectivity and clinical features in OCD were analyzed.
Compared with HCs, OCD patients showed significantly decreased cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity in executive control and emotion processing networks. Within the OCD group, decreased functional connectivity in an executive network spanning the right cerebellar Crus I and the inferior parietal lobule was positively correlated with symptom severity, and decreased connectivity in an emotion processing network spanning the left cerebellar lobule VI and the lingual gyrus was negatively correlated with illness duration.
Altered functional connectivity between the cerebellum and cerebral networks involved in cognitive-affective processing in patients with OCD provides further evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of OCD, and is consistent with impairment in executive control and emotion regulation in this condition.
Paradoxical arguments and mixed empirical evidence coexist in the current literature concerning the relationship between team familiarity and team innovation. To resolve this contradiction, we apply habitual routines theory to propose that team familiarity and team innovation have an inverted U-shaped relationship. Using a data set of 68,933 R&D teams in the electrical engineering industry, our results support a nonlinear relationship between team familiarity and team innovation, and suggest that the best innovative performance is produced by moderately familiar teams. Furthermore, we find that external learning can moderate this curvilinear relationship. Theoretical contributions and future implications are discussed.
The nonlinear absorption (NLA) properties of potassium dideuterium phosphate crystals at 515 nm under different excitation laser intensities are investigated with the Z-scan technique. Two critical intensities are highlighted: the critical intensity for exciting the NLA and the critical intensity of the multiphoton absorption mechanism transition. Experimental results indicate the existence of defect states located in the band gap, which can be manipulated by varying laser intensity. A model based on the change of multiphoton absorption mechanism induced by the transformation of defect species is proposed to interpret the experiments. Modeling results are in good agreement with the experiment data.
The present study examines the characteristics of clay minerals in shale gas reservoirs and their influence on reservoir properties based on X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These analyses were combined with optical microscopy observations and core and well-log data to investigate the genesis, distribution characteristics, main controlling factors and pore features of clay minerals of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in the East Sichuan area, China. The clay mineral assemblage consists of illite + mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) + chlorite. This assemblage includes three sources of clay minerals: detrital, authigenic and diagenetic minerals. The lower section of the Longmaxi Formation in the Jiaoshiba area has sealing ability which resulted in abnormal high pressures during hydrocarbon generation which inhibited illitization. Therefore, an anomalous transformation sequence is present in which the mixed-layer I-S content increases with depth. This anomalous transformation sequence can be used to infer the existence of abnormal high pressures. The detrital components of the formation also affect the clay-minerals content indirectly, especially the abundance of K-feldspar. The transformation of mixed-layer I-S to illite is limited due to the limited availability of K+, which determines the extent of transformation. Three types of pores were observed in the shale reservoir rocks of the Longmaxi Formation: interparticle (interP) pores, intraparticle (intraP) pores and organic-matter pores. The clay-mineral content controls the development of intraP pores, which are dominated by pores within clay particles. For a given clay mineral content, smectite and mixed-layer I-S were more conducive to the development of shale-gas reservoirs than other clay minerals.
In this paper, we study the (3+1)-dimensional generalized Johnson model, which can be used to describe the dust-ion-acoustic waves in a cosmic unmagnetized dusty plasma, and its perturbed model, which can be found in an unmagnetized dusty plasma for the electron temperature below the Curie temperature. (I) For the original model: Bilinear form and soliton solutions are obtained. Amplitude of the one soliton reaches the maximum when the equilibrium electron (ne0) and ion (ni0) densities take certain values which correspond with ne0/ni0 = 2. Overtaking and head-on interactions between the two solitons are given. (II) For the perturbed model: Phase projections are given numerically. Via the spectral analysis, two kinds of chaotic motions, i.e., the weak and developed chaos, are investigated. Largest Lyapunov exponents and power spectra are investigated to corroborate that those motions are indeed chaotic. Dynamic behavior of such a perturbed model varying with the external perturbation is different when the nonlinear term changes. With the damped term considered, two kinds of periodic motions are studied, and spectra of those periodic motions are also given. Through the comparison between the chaotic motions and periodic ones, possible chaotic or periodic motions in the perturbed model can be predicted.
In this paper, we demonstrate a thin film Cu–Ni–Nb alloy deposited directly on silicon, without a designated barrier, showing very high thermal stability at a temperature up to 700 °C for 1 h. Thin [Nb–Ni12]Cux films were sputter deposited and annealed, and their material and electrical properties were studied. The results can be explained by the “cluster-plus-glue atom” model for stable solid solutions, where [Nb–Ni12] cuboctahedral clusters are embedded in a Cu matrix. In this model, the clusters are congruent with the Cu minimizing atomic interactions allowing a good stability. The properties of the films were found to be affected by the Ni/Nb ratios. Especially, the (Nb1.2/13.2Ni12/13.2)0.3Cu99.7 film annealed at 500 °C for 1 h had the lowest electrical resistivity of about 2.7 μΩ cm. And even after 40 h annealing at 500 °C, it maintained a low resistivity of about 2.8 μΩ cm, demonstrating extremely high stabilities against silicide formation.
Meningiomas account for approximately 24-30% of primary intracranial neoplasms. Histopathologic grade and degree of resection are two major prognostic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the prognosis of meningioma.
We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression levels of Vav3, SPARC, p-Akt, cyclin D1, and Ki-67 in 287 meningiomas of all grades.
The expression of Vav3, SPARC, p-Akt, cyclin D1, and Ki- 67 significantly increased with meningioma grade (p<0.01), and was higher in brain-invasive meningiomas compared to non-invasive meningiomas (WHO grade I) (p<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of Vav3, p-Akt, and Ki-67 was higher in recurrent meningiomas compared to non-recurrent meningiomas (WHO grade I) (p<0.05).
The expression of Vav3, SPARC, p-Akt, cyclin D1, and Ki-67 in meningiomas appears to correlate with meningioma invasiveness, aggressiveness, and recurrence.
Polymorphisms of genes participating in iron transportation have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. The association between transferrin (TF) gene rs1049296 (P570S) polymorphism and AD is controversial.
We performed meta analysis on data from 19 studies with 6310 cases and 13661 controls to reexamine the association between the TF gene rs1049296 polymorphism and AD. We applied a fixed-effects model to combine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Egger's test was carried out to evaluate the potential publication bias.
The overall ORs with 95% CIs showed statistical association between the TF gene rs1049296 polymorphism and the risk of AD in the allele contrast, the recessive model and the dominant model for allele C2 (fixed-effects pooled OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.17, pooled OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.21, and pooled OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.47, respectively). In the contrast of C2C2+C2C1 vs C1C1, large heterogeneity among the Asian subgroup (p=0.041, I2= 68.6%) was observed but not among the overall population (p = 0.184, I2= 22.4%). No publication bias was observed.
The present meta analysis demonstrated that TF gene rs1049296 polymorphism is a genetic determinant of AD.