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This serial work presents a linear-time-invariance (LTI) notion to the Koopman analysis, finding consistent and physically meaningful Koopman modes and addressing a long-standing problem of fluid mechanics: deterministically relating the fluid excitations and corresponding structure reactions. Part 1 (Li et al., Phys. Fluids, vol. 34, no. 12, p. 125136) developed the Koopman-LTI architecture and applied it to a pedagogical prism wake. By a systematic analytical procedure, the Koopman-LTI generated sampling-independent linear models that captured all the recurring dynamics embedded in the input data, finding six corresponding, orthogonal, and in-synch fluid–structure mechanisms. This Part 2 analyses the six modal duplets to underpin their physical implications, providing a phenomenological analysis of the subcritical prism wake. Visualizing the newly proposed dynamic Koopman modes, results show that two mechanisms at St1 = 0.1242 and St5 = 0.0497 describe shear layer dynamics, the associated Bérnard–Kármán shedding and turbulence production, which together overwhelm the upstream and crosswind walls by instigating a reattachment-type of reaction. The on-wind walls’ dynamical similarity renders them a spectrally unified fluid–structure interface. Another four harmonic counterparts, namely the subharmonic at St7 = 0.0683, the second harmonic at St3 = 0.2422, and two ultra-harmonics at St7 = 0.1739 and St13 = 0.1935, govern the downstream wall. Finally, this work discovered the vortex breathing phenomenon, describing the constant energy exchange in the wake's circulation-entrainment-deposition processes. With the Koopman-LTI, one may pinpoint the exact excitations responsible for a specific structure reaction, benefiting future investigations into fluid–structure interactions and nonlinear, stochastic systems.
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956–1965. Cognitive impairment was defined as intelligence quotient (IQ) score under 70 and IQ of adults was evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – China Revision. Famine severity was defined as excess death rate. The famine impact on adult cognitive impairment was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts. Results show that compared with adults born in 1956–1958, those who were exposed to Chinese famine during gestation (born in 1959–1961) were at greater risk of cognitive impairment in the total sample. Stratified analyses showed that this effect was evident in males and females, but only in rural, not in urban areas. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to famine had an enduring deleterious effect on risk of cognitive impairment in rural adults.
This work reports the fabrication and characterization of superstrate-type Zn1-xMgxO/CdTe heterojunction solar cells on both CdxSnyO and commercial SnO2:F transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) in which the ZMO and CTO layers are produced for the first time by hollow cathode sputtering. The sputtering is conducted in a reactive mode using metal or alloyed metal targets fitted to a custom-made linear cathode. It is notable that the CdS buffer layer conventionally employed in CdTe solar cells is entirely replaced by the ZMO window layer. The use of ZMO is found to eliminate the blue loss associated with CdS optical absorption and further results in a higher open-circuit voltage. Key parameters were found to be the conduction band offset at the ZMO/CdTe interface and the ZMO thickness. It was discovered that the ZMO exhibits intense photoluminescence even at room temperature. Most of the solar cells were fabricated in the FTO/ZMO/CdTe configuration although CTO/ZMO/CdTe solar cells were also demonstrated. The CTO was produced with an electron mobility of 46 cm2 V-1s-1 without any post-deposition annealing or treatment.
Astronomy cloud computing environment is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences). Based on virtualization technology, astronomy cloud computing environment was designed and implemented by China-VO team. It consists of five distributed nodes across the mainland of China. Astronomer can get compuitng and storage resource in this cloud computing environment. Through this environments, astronomer can easily search and analyze astronomical data collected by different telescopes and data centers , and avoid the large scale dataset transportation.
Valid telephone assessment for cognitive impairment is lacking in stroke settings. We investigated the feasibility and validity of the 5-minute National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) protocol and six-item screener (SIS) in stroke patients by telephone administration.
Patients were assessed with a comprehensive face-to-face neuropsychological assessment after three months of stroke onset, followed by the 5-minute NINDS-CSN protocol (30 points) and SIS (6 points) at least one month later. Administration time was recorded for the telephone tests. Validity of both tests was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC).
Eighty-nine patients (age, 62.9 ± 8.6 years; male, 65.2%) received a face-to-face assessment and 80 completed telephone tests. The time required to administer the 5-minute NINDS-CSN protocol was 4.3 ± 1.0 minutes, and SIS 57.3 ± 17.7 seconds. Validity of detecting cognitive impairment as assessed by AUC was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78–0.94) for 5-minute NINDS-CSN protocol, and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63–0.85) for SIS. Sensitivity and specificity were optimal with the cut-off values of 23.5/24 for the 5-minute NINDS-CSN protocol, and 4/5 for SIS.
Both the telephone-based 5-minute NINDS-CSN protocol and SIS were feasible and valid in screening cognitive impairment after stroke in China.
Human cysticercosis, caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, is one of the most pathogenic helminthiases and is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases. Controlling the life-cycle of T. solium between humans and pigs is essential for eradication of cysticercosis. One difficulty for the accurate detection and identification of T. solium species is the possible co-existence of two other human Taenia tapeworms (T. saginata and T. asiatica, which do not cause cysticercosis in humans). Several key issues for taeniasis/cysticercosis (T/C) evidence-based epidemiology and control are reviewed: (1) advances in immunological and molecular tools for screening of human and animals hosts and identification of Taenia species, with a focus on real-time detection of taeniasis carriers and infected animals in field community screenings, and (2) spatial ecological approaches that have been used to detect geospatial patterns of case distributions and to monitor pig activity and behaviour. Most recent eco-epidemiological studies undertaken in Sichuan province, China, are introduced and reviewed.
Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions.
We report recent progress in 2G-HTS wire technology at Superpower Inc. The throughputs of 4mm-wide tape have reached 750m/h for sputtering AlO3+Y2O3 base layer, 360m/h for IBAD MgO template, 345m/h for sputtering Homo-epi MgO+LMO buffer, 180m/h for MOCVD REBCO. Critical current (Ic) of 813A/cm-width at 77K and self-field has been achieved on 1 meter length of 12mm-wide tape in which the thickness of GdYBCO film is 3.3 microns. Ic in a magnetic field has been significantly improved through composition modification, doping and MOCVD condition optimization. Ic of 185.6A/cm-width at 77K and 1Tesla has been obtained. For Ic on long lengths, 314A/cm-width on 202m, 221A/cm-width on 610m and 170A/cm-width on 935m have been achieved. A coil of 19.1mm diameter we made with our 2G wires generated 26.8T magnetic field in the magnet. A 30m-long cable made with nearly 10,000 meters of Superpower 2G wires showed excellent overall performance and has been installed and energized in the power grid.
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