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We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
In this work, we succeeded in synthesis of spinel LiMn2O4 via a facile self-template method. The product displays a micro-/nanohybrid structure. Nanoparticles/plates act as the primary nanoblocks to build the secondary microarchitecture. There is the open space between the nanoblocks and the void space between the secondary structures. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the as-synthesized sample exhibits superior rate capability and high-rate cycleability when contrasted with its solid counterpart. The initial discharge capacity is 126 mAh/g at 0.1 C, 110 mAh/g at 10 C, and 84 mAh/g at 20 C. The discharge capacity retention of about 80% is obtained after 800 cycles at 10 C. The high capacity and excellent cycling life of the material shows its potential for application as high-power batteries. The improved rate capability and cycleability can be attributed to its secondary structure that can facilitate fast Li-insertion/extraction and buffer the volume expansion/contraction upon cycling.
The Lc regulatory gene affects the formation of anthocyanin in plants. XY355 promoter, a petal-specific promoter, was obtained from the genome of rape (Brassica napus) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A plant expression vector, pXY60, was constructed, which contained the maize Lc regulatory gene under the control of the XY355 promoter. The vector was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and petunia (Petunia hybrida) by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. The flower colour of some transgenic tobacco plants was changed from light red to deep red and that of some transgenic petunia plants had changed from white to light purple.
The rabbit defensin gene NP-1 was introduced into embryonic callus cultures of three maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid lines by particle bombardment, and transgenic plants were obtained. Genomic PCR and DNA dot blot analyses confirmed that the NP-1 gene was integrated into the genome of the regenerated T0 maize plants. Genomic PCR and Southern blotting results revealed that the NP-1 gene was transmitted stably from the T0 to the T1 generation. RNA dot blot analysis verified the transcription of the NP-1 gene in T1 plants. When challenged with northern corn leaf blight (Helminthosporium turcicum Pass), the T1 plants expressing the NP-1 gene showed greatly improved resistance to the fungal disease compared with the wild-type maize plants.
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