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ITGB1 (Integrin β1, CD29) is a member of the integrin family and has a role as a major adhesion receptor. Gastric cancer (GC) is an important cause of mortality worldwide, especially in China. As a potential cancer enhancer, the role ITGB1 plays in GC progression remains unclear. In the current study, our assay on the databases of tumoassociated gene expression and interaction found that the high expression of ITGB1 was closely correlated with the poor prognosis of GC patients. To explore the roles, ITGB1 plays in GC progression, and an ITGB1-deleted cell line (ITGB1−/−SGC7901) was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 method. The tumor malignancy-associated cell behaviors and microstructures were detected, imaged, and analyzed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), wound healing, transwell, scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and others. The results indicated that ITGB1 deletion decreased the GC cell proliferation and motility, and inhibited motility-relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia and filopodia, markedly in ITGB1-deleted SGC7901 cells. The analysis of STRING database and western blots indicated that ITGB1 contributes to the malignancy of GC mediated by Src-mediated FAK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Taken together, the results showed that ITGB1 may be a potential targeting marker for GC diagnosis and therapy in the future.
The prediction of prognosis is an important part of management in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related decompensated cirrhosis patients with high long-term mortality. Lactate is a known predictor of outcome in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of lactate in HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis patients. We performed a single-centre, observational, retrospective study of 405 HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis patients. Individuals were evaluated within 24 h after admission and the primary outcome was evaluated at 6-months. Multivariable analyses were used to determine whether lactate was independently associated with the prognosis of HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis patients. The area under the ROC (AUROC) was calculated to assess the predictive accuracy compared with existing scores. Serum lactate level was significantly higher in non-surviving patients than in surviving patients. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that lactate was an independent risk factor of 6-months mortality (odds ratio: 2.076, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to evaluate the discriminative ability of lactate for 6-months mortality (AUROC: 0.716, P < 0.001). Based on our patient cohort, the new scores (Model For End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) + lactate score, Child–Pugh + lactate score) had good accuracy for predicting 6-months mortality (AUROC = 0.769, P < 0.001; AUROC = 0.766, P < 0.001). Additionally, the performance of the new scores was superior to those of existing scores (all P < 0.001). Serum lactate at admission may be useful for predicting 6-months mortality in HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis patients, and the predictive value of the MELD score and Child–Pugh score was improved by adjusting lactate. Serum lactate should be part of the rapid diagnosis and initiation of therapy to improve clinical outcome.
Microglia, the main immune cell of the central nervous system (CNS), categorized into M1-like phenotype and M2-like phenotype, play important roles in phagocytosis, cell migration, antigen presentation, and cytokine production. As a part of CNS, retinal microglial cells (RMC) play an important role in retinal diseases. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that DR is not only a microvascular disease but also retinal neurodegeneration. RMC was regarded as a central role in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss RMC polarization and its possible regulatory factors in early DR, which will provide new targets and insights for early intervention of DR.
The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors and psychological stress of health-care workers (HCWs) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a nonfrontline clinical department.
Data of 2 source patients and all HCWs with infection risk were obtained in a department in Wuhan from January to February 2020. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate psychological stress of COVID-19 on HCWs.
The overall infection rate was 4.8% in HCWs. Ten of 25 HCWs who contacted with 2 source patients were diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 (8/10) and suspected COVID-19 (2/10). Other 2 HCWs were transmitted by other patients or colleagues. Close care behaviors included physical examination (6/12), life nursing (4/12), ward rounds (4/12), endoscopic examination (2/12). Contacts fluctuated from 1 to 24 times and each contact was short (8.1 min ± 5.6 min). HCWs wore surgical masks (11/12), gloves (7/12), and isolation clothing (3/12) when providing medical care. Most HCWs experienced a mild course with 2 asymptomatic infections, taking 9.8 d and 20.9 d to obtain viral shedding and clinical cure, respectively. Psychological stress included worry (58.3%), anxiety (83.3%), depression (58.3%), and insomnia (58.3%).
Close contact with COVID-19 patients and insufficient protection were key risk factors. Precaution measures and psychological support on COVID-19 is urgently required for HCWs.
The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.
To evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a 152-item semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) for estimating flavonoid intakes.
Over a 1-year period, participants completed two SFFQ and two weighed 7-d dietary records (7DDR). Flavonoid intakes from the SFFQ were estimated separately using Harvard (SFFQHarvard) and Phenol-Explorer (SFFQPE) food composition databases. 7DDR flavonoid intakes were derived using the Phenol-Explorer database (7DDRPE). Validity was assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients deattenuated for random measurement error (rs), and reproducibility was assessed using rank intraclass correlation coefficients.
This validation study included primarily participants from two large observational cohort studies.
Six hundred forty-one men and 724 women.
When compared with two 7DDRPE, the validity of total flavonoid intake assessed by SFFQPE was high for both men and women (rs = 0·77 and rs = 0·74, respectively). The rs for flavonoid subclasses ranged from 0·47 for flavones to 0·78 for anthocyanins in men and from 0·46 for flavonols to 0·77 for anthocyanins in women. We observed similarly moderate (0·4–0·7) to high (≥0·7) validity when using SFFQHarvard estimates, except for flavonesHarvard (rs = 0·25 for men and rs = 0·19 for women). The SFFQ demonstrated high reproducibility for total flavonoid and flavonoid subclass intake estimates when using either food composition database. The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0·69 (flavonolsPE) to 0·80 (proanthocyanidinsPE) in men and from 0·67 (flavonolsPE) to 0·77 (flavan-3-ol monomersHarvard) in women.
SFFQ-derived intakes of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses (except for flavones) are valid and reproducible for both men and women.
Finding the prediction factors for the risks of post-stroke depression (PSD) is important to stroke survivors. However, most existing studies focused only on general clinical data, which limited the predictive ability. To improve the predictive ability, this study proposed a comprehensive PSD risk prediction model with social psychological factors, neurological, cognitive functional factors and general clinical factors.
The study recruited 188 stroke patients. Patients were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Predictors were collected within a week after stroke. Boosted regression trees (BRT) was used to classify these predictors, and then a predictive model was constructed based on the selected predictors. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the performance of the predictive model .
The risk prediction model was constructed with 6 factors: Body Mass Index (BMI), cerebral infraction history (CI), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Neuroticism (EPQ-N), factor 1 of the 20 items Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-F1) and Snaith-Hamilton-Pleasure Scale (SHARPS). In the contribution of risk prediction factors, social psychological factors was more than 0.60. ROC curve of prediction model was 0.826 (p<0.001; 95% CI) and the accuracy of prediction was 0.81 (p<0.001). Transforming the prediction model to a tree diagram, it was convenient to clinic operation.
A PSD risk prediction model with good prediction performance was constructed to achieve diagnose concisely and clearly. The social psychological factors play an important role for diagnosing PSD in the early period.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormal functional connectivity (FC) of amygdala and decreased function of cortico-limibic circuit, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of MDD. However, little is known about the connectivity alterations in late-onset depression (LOD), and whether such disrupted function is correlated with cognitive impairment is unclear.
A total of twenty-three LOD patients and thirty-seven controls underwent neuropsychological tests and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and FC of bilateral amygdala seed were used to analyze blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI data between groups.
Compared to controls, LOD groups showed weaker functional activity in bilateral middle frontal gyrus and left medial orbitofrontal gyrus, moreover, the decreased ReHo was positively correlated with Trail making test-B score (TMTB, r= 0.462,P= 0.04). In aspects of FC, left amygdala has reduced FC with right fusiform gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and right putamen, while right amygdala has reduced FC with left cerebellum. Further correlative analysis found that the decreased FC between amygdala and right putamen was positively correlated with Verbal fluency test-verb score (VFT-verb, r= 0.513,P= 0.021) and the decreased FC between amygdala and superior temporal gyrus was positively correlated with Auditory Verbal Memory Test-delayed recall score (AVLT-delayed recall, r= 0.446,P= 0.049).
Our finding of reduced activation of prefrontal gyrus as well as decreased connection of bilateral amygdala may be key factors of impaired cognitive function in LOD patients and these changes could be early indicator for cognitive deficits.
The potential pattern of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in major depressive disorder (MDD) underlies different response to antidepressants medication remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the differences of rCBF between patients with different treatment response.
Eighty MDD patients [(44 treatment-responsive depression (RD) and 36 non-responding depression (NRD)] and 42 healthy controls (HC) underwent pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) scans in magnetic resonance imaging and clinical estimates. The exact rCBF values of each groups were obtained via quantification evaluation.
Compared to NRD, the RD patients showed decreased rCBF values in frontal sensorimotor network (i.e. left paracentral lobule, left medial frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus), and further receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses demonstrated that the altered rCBF in these four regions exhibited outstanding performance on distinguishing NRD from RD. The NRD also exhibited reduced rCBF in bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and right middle occipital gyrus and elevated rCBF in right postcentral gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus as compared to HC.
The decreased rCBF in frontal sensorimotor network appeared to be distinct characteristics for NRD, and might be severed as promising neuroimaging markers to differentiate depressed patients with weak early response to antidepressant medication. These findings expand our understanding of neural substrate underlying the antidepressant efficacy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The intuitive association between cognitive dysfunction in late onset depression (LOD) and the aberrant functional activity in the brain's default-mode network (DMN) has prompted interest in exploring the role of the DMN in LOD. The altered pattern of resting state voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) in cognitive processes is not yet well understood in LOD.
The study was designed to examine the implicit coupling between the alteration of interhemispheric functional coordination and cognitive impairment in LOD. Thirty-one LOD patients and 37 matched healthy controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in this study.
Compared to HC group, attenuated VMHC in superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, posterior cerebellar lobe, postcentral and precentral gyrus was observed in LOD. Neuro-behavioral relevancy approach revealed that the imbalanced interhemispheric functional coordination in bilateral cerebellum was positively correlated with the performance of trail making test in LOD (r = 0.367, P = 0.040).
Altered linkage pattern of intrinsic homotopic connectivity and cognition was firstly investigated in LOD, and it would provide a novel clue to reveal the neural substrates underlying the cognitive dysfunction in LOD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Emerging evidences indicate that the alteration of interhemispheric functional coordination may be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). In present study, we aim to explore the potential marker by using the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach, which may be contributing to predict the clinical prognosis in MDD.
Eighty-two MDD patients and 50 normal control (NC) subjects participated in this study. We divided the MDD group into unremitted and remitted group according to the reduction rate of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) within 2 weeks.
The study detected significantly decreased VMHC in bilateral precuneus (pCu), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and increased VMHC in middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and caudate nucleus when compared remitted depression (RD) group to unremitted depression (URD) group. Meanwhile, when compared with NC group, the URD group presented reduced VMHC in bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, thalamus and postcentral gyrus. Furthermore, the VHMC in media frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and precentral gyrus were significantly decreased in RD group. Correlation analysis suggested that reduced VMHC in bilateral pCu was negatively correlated with the baseline HAMD score of URD (r = −0.325, P = 0.041). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that three regional VMHC changes could identify depressed patient with poorer treatment response: ITG [area under curve (AUC) = 0.699, P = 0.002, 95% CI = 0.586–0.812], MFG (AUC = 0.692, P = 0.003, 95% CI = 0.580–0.805), pCu (AUC = 0.714, P = 0.001, 95% CI = 0.603–0.825).
The current study combined with previous evidence indicates that the subdued intrinsic interhemispheric functional connectivity might represents a novel neural trait involved in the pathophysiology of MDD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Cinnamomum chago is a woody species of the family Lauraceae endemic to Yunnan province, China, previously known from only one location, and categorized as a Plant Species with Extremely Small Population. We surveyed to determine the distribution and population size of C. chago, characterize its habitat, identify any threats, assess its conservation status, and provide guidelines for its management and conservation. During 2014–2017 we found only 64 mature C. chago, in five locations. These small, fragmented populations occur along Lancang River in Dali Prefecture at altitudes of 2,200–2,400 m. The species' extent of occurrence is c. 923 km2, with an area of occupancy of c. 60 km2. The habitat of the species has been degraded by expansion of pastoral activities and deforestation. We recommend categorization of C. chago as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, prevention of the collection of seeds and wood of the species, protection and monitoring, and ex situ propagation for future reintroductions.
Multi-functions devices attract much attention due to their great potential and large demands in wearable electronics. Besides some studies of integrated different functional devices as one, there is a novel strategy to fabricate multi-functions devices, that using one device to achieve two or more functions. Herein, we report the temperature sensing and energy storage multi-functions device based on graphene supercapacitor. By measuring the change of leakage current of supercapacitor, the obtained device could detect the environmental temperature. Integrating the planar-structure supercapacitor on one flexible printed circuit board with electronic components together, the obtain device presents perfect mechanical stability that no noticeable difference of both capacitance and leakage current under any bending status. Importantly, the temperature sensing function exhibits a high accuracy of 1 °C with a high resolution of 0.0588 °C. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the strategy of one device achieve two functions: using one supercapacitor to achieve temperature sensing and energy storage dual function simultaneously.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
Salt, promoting oxidative stress, contributes to insulin resistance, whereas K, inhibiting oxidative stress, improves insulin sensitivity. Oxidative stress activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is a central player in the induction of insulin resistance. Therefore, we hypothesised that NLRP3 inflammasome may mediate the effects of salt and K on insulin resistance. In all, fifty normotensive subjects were recruited from a rural community of Northern China. The protocol included a low-salt diet for 7 d, then a high-salt diet for 7 d and a high-salt diet with K supplementation for another 7 d. In addition, THP-1 cells were cultured in different levels of Na with and without K. The results showed that salt loading elevated fasting blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels, as well as insulin resistance, whereas K supplementation reversed them. Meanwhile, additional K reversed the active effects of high salt on NLRP3 inflammasome in both the subjects and THP-1 cells, and the change of insulin resistance index notably related with the alteration of plasma IL-1β, the index of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, during intervention in the subjects. Additional K ameliorated oxidative stress induced by high salt in both the subjects and cultured THP-1 cells, and the change of oxidative stress related with the alteration of plasma IL-1β during intervention in the subjects. In vitro, antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly prevented the active effects of high Na or oxidant Rosup on NLRP3 inflammasome, so did K. Our study indicates that oxidative stress modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome may be involved in the impacts of Na and K on insulin resistance.
System architecture is important for the design of complex mechatronic systems because it acts as an intermediator between conceptual design and detail design. An explicit and exact system modeling language is imperative for successful architecture design. However, some deficiencies remain, such as the lack of geometry elements, hybrid behavior description, and specific association semantics for existing architecture modeling languages. In this study, a Systems Modeling Language extension for mechatronic system architecture modeling called ArchME is proposed. The requirements for the mechatronic System Modeling Language are analyzed, and the metamodels are defined. Then, the modeling elements are determined. Finally, the profiles based on the systems modeling language are defined to support the modeling of function, behavior, structure, and their association. This enables system designers to model the system architecture and facilitates communication between different stakeholders. A case study is provided to demonstrate the modeling capability of ArchME.
Leaders’ implicit followership theory describes leaders’ personal assumptions about the traits and behaviors that characterize followers. Unlike traditional organizational behavior research, studies on leaders’ implicit followership theory can deepen our understandings of ‘how leaders and followers perceive, decide and take action’ from follower-centric perspective. Adopting 267 follower–leader dyads from 16 Chinese enterprises as our final sample, we found that: (1) positive leaders’ implicit followership theory had significant positive effect on followers’ creativity; (2) followers’ leader–member exchange with leader, intrinsic motivation and creative self-efficacy mediated the positive relationship between positive leaders’ implicit followership theory and followers’ creativity; (3) no significance difference was found between the mediating effects of leader–member exchange, intrinsic motivation and creative self-efficacy. The current study not only extended the application of social cognitive theory in leadership research, but also made contributions to the enrichment of social exchange theory and componential theory of creativity.
Previous studies have yielded conflicting results on the associations of maternal Fe intake with birth outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the associations between maternal Fe intake (total Fe from diet and supplements, dietary total Fe, haeme Fe, non-haeme Fe and Fe supplements use) and adverse birth outcomes in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. In all, 7375 women were recruited using a stratified multistage random sampling method at 0–12 months (median 3; 10th–90th percentile 0–7) after delivery. Diets were collected by a validated FFQ and maternal characteristics were obtained via a standard questionnaire. The highest tertile of haeme Fe intake compared with the lowest tertile was negatively associated with low birth weight (LBW) (OR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·94), small for gestational age (SGA) (OR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·62, 0·94) and birth defects (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·32, 0·89). Maternal haeme Fe intake was associated with a lower risk of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) (medium tertile v. lowest tertile: OR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·61, 0·95; highest tertile v. lowest tertile: OR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·93; Ptrend=0·045). The OR of LBW associated with Fe supplements use were as follows: during pregnancy: 0·72 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·95); in the second trimester: 0·67 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·98); in the third trimester: 0·47 (95 % CI 0·24, 0·93). We observed no associations of total Fe, dietary total Fe or non-haeme Fe intake with birth outcomes. The results suggest that maternal haeme Fe intake is associated with a reduced risk of LBW, SGA, IUGR and birth defects, and Fe supplements use during pregnancy reduces LBW risk.