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The findings regarding the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the metabolic syndrome (Mets) have been inconclusive, and evidence from Chinese populations is scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the prevalence of the Mets and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 4424 participants were eligible for the analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI for the prevalence of the Mets and its components according to red meat, fish and poultry consumption. In addition, the data of our cross-sectional study were meta-analysed under a random effects model along with those of published observational studies to generate the summary relative risks (RR) of the associations between the highest v. lowest categories of red meat, fish and poultry consumption and the Mets and its components. In the cross-sectional study, the multivariable-adjusted OR for the highest v. lowest quartiles of consumption was 1·23 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·48) for red meat, 0·83 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·97) for fish and 0·93 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·18) for poultry. In the meta-analysis, the pooled RR for the highest v. lowest categories of consumption was 1·20 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·35) for red meat, 0·88 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·96) for fish and 0·97 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·10) for poultry. The findings of both cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses indicated that the association between fish consumption and the Mets may be partly driven by the inverse association of fish consumption with elevated TAG and reduced HDL-cholesterol and, to a lesser extent, fasting plasma glucose. No clear pattern of associations was observed between red meat or poultry consumption and the components of the Mets. The current findings add weight to the evidence that the Mets may be positively associated with red meat consumption, inversely associated with fish consumption and neutrally associated with poultry consumption.
People with serious mental illness are at great risk of suicide, but little is known about the suicide rates among this population. We aimed to quantify the suicide rates among people with serious mental illness (bipolar disorder, major depression, or schizophrenia).
PubMed and Web of Science were searched to identify studies published from 1 January 1975 to 10 December 2020. We assessed English-language studies for the suicide rates among people with serious mental illness. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. Changes in follow-up time and the suicide rates were presented by a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing (LOESS) curve. Suicide rate ratio was estimated for assessments of difference in suicide rate by sex.
Of 5014 identified studies, 41 were included in this analysis. The pooled suicide rate was 312.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 230.3–406.8). Europe was reported to have the highest pooled suicide rate of 335.2 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 261.5–417.6). Major depression had the highest suicide rate of 534.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 30.4–1448.7). There is a downward trend in suicide rate estimates over follow-up time. Excess risk of suicide in males was found [1.90 (95% CI 1.60–2.25)]. The most common suicide method was poisoning [21.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 3.7–50.4)].
The suicide rates among people with serious mental illness were high, highlighting the requirements for increasing psychological assessment and monitoring. Further study should focus on region and age differences in suicide among this population.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: We are developing the 3D perfusion system for use with patient-derived bacteria to further characterize the mechanism behind bacterial-induced inflammation and cancer. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We previously reported the adherent invasive E. coli NC101 promote colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice. FimH, a mannose-specific adhesin on type 1 fimbriae, is involved in bacterial surface adhesion. Herein, we investigated the role of FimH in E. coli NC101-induced adherence and carcinogenesis in a novel 3D perfusion culture imaging plate. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: E. coli NC101 gene fimH was deleted byï ŲRed Recombinase System. Biofilm formation was assessed by crystal violet and congo red staining. 5 dpf (wild-type strain) zebrafish embryos were infected in 6x107 cfu/ml wild type (WT) or fimH-deleted (ï ,,fimH) E. coli NC101 for 24hr and gut dissected for bacterial culture. A 2D/3D infection culture system for IEC-6 and HT-29 cells was infected for 4 hr and imaged and then DNA damage examined by comet assay, cell cycle andÎ3H2AX accumulation. Germ-free (GF) Il10-/- (colitis) mice were orally gavaged with 108 cfu WT orï ,,fimH E. coli NC101 for 16 weeks. E. coli colonization were quantified by plate culture and qPCR. Lipocalin2 was quantified by ELISA. PCNA and β-catenin were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Biofilm formation was reduced by more than 40% (p<0.05) in E. coli NC101ï ,,fimH compared to WT strain. Zebrafish larvae showed a 41% decrease in intestinal colonization ofï ,,fimH compared to WT (p<0.05). E. coli NC101-induced DNA damage was reduced by 67% (p<0.0001) in HT-29 cells infected withï ,,fimH compared to WT strain. Using the 3D infection system, a 46% decrease in yH2AX (p<0.05) and 42% decrease in G2 cell cycle arrest (p<0.05) was observed inï ,,fimH infected IEC-6 cells compared to WT strain. Furthermore, ï ,,fimH infected Il10-/- mice showed decreased colonization (p<0.01), decreased intestinal inflammation (p<0.05), decreased stool lipocalin2 level (p<0.01), and reduction of PCNA positive cells in the intestine (p<0.05) compared to mice infected with WT strain. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Adhesin protein FimH is required by E. coli NC101 to colonize and promote colitis and carcinogenesis both in a 3D perfusion culture and in mice and may serve as potential therapeutic target.
In this article, the electron trapping and acceleration in the wake field driven by an ultrarelativistic hollow electron beam is studied. When the hollow driver injects into plasma, there is a doughnut-shaped electron bubble formed because of the existence of a special ‘backflow’ beam in the centre of the electron bubble. At the same time, there is a transverse convergence of the hollow driver, which leads to the weakening of the backflow beam. This results in a local electron density transition at the rear of the bubble. During this process, there is an expansion of the longitudinal electron bubble size, and a bunch of background electrons is trapped by the wake field at the rear of the bubble. The tracks for the trapped electrons show that there are two sources: one is from the bubble sheath and the other is from the unique backflow beam. In the particle-in-cell simulation where the driving beam has initial energy of $1.0$ GeV per particle, the trapped beam can be accelerated to energy of more than $1.5$ GeV per particle and the corresponding transformer ratio is $1.5$. With the increase of driving beam energy up to $40.0$ GeV, a transformer ratio of $1.4$ still can be achieved. By adjusting the hollow beam density, it is possible to control the trapped beam charge value and beam quality, such as its energy spread and transverse emittance.
Given the possibility of cultural differences in the meaning and levels of gratitude among children, we evaluated the measurement invariance of the Gratitude Questionnaire–5 (GQ–5) and differences in latent means across adolescents from two distinct cultures, China and America. Data were obtained from 1,991 Chinese and 1,685 American adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis and multigroup confirmatory factor analysis were performed to examine the factor structure and the measurement equivalence across Chinese and American adolescents. The Cronbach’s alpha and Item-total Correlations of the GQ–5 were also evaluated. Results of confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the expected one-factor structure. Also, a series of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses supported full configural invariance, full metric invariance, and partial scalar invariance between the two groups. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the GQ–5 is suitable for conducting mean level comparisons. The subsequent comparison of latent means revealed that the Chinese adolescents reported significantly lower gratitude than American adolescents.
We study the axisymmetric evolution of a liquid film on a solid sphere governed by gravity, capillarity and viscous forces. The lubrication equations established in spherical coordinates are numerically solved using finite elements and local similarity solutions are obtained. Results show that the evolution behaves differently at early and late stages. At the early stage, the interface evolves in such a way that the capillary effect can be ignored. At the late stage, there emerge four zones from top to bottom: a thin film, a ridge ring, a dimple ring and a pendant drop. Each zone is governed by the balance of different forces, and hence is characterized by an individual physical mechanism. Consequently, the pendant drop is quasi-static, and the film thicknesses of other regions follow different scaling laws. The position of the dimple remains unchanged at the late stage.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common debilitating disorder characterized by impaired spontaneous brain activity, yet little is known about its alterations in dynamic properties and the molecular mechanisms associated with these changes.
Based on the resting-state functional MRI data of 65 first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with MDD and 66 healthy controls, we compared dynamic regional homogeneity (dReHo) of spontaneous brain activity between the two groups, and we investigated gene expression profiles associated with dReHo alterations in MDD by leveraging transcriptional data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas and weighted gene co-expression network analysis.
Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD consistently showed reduced dReHo in both fusiform gyri and in the right temporal pole and hippocampus. The expression profiles of 16 gene modules were correlated with dReHo alterations in MDD. These gene modules were enriched for various biological process terms, including immune, synaptic signalling, ion channels, mitochondrial function and protein metabolism, and were preferentially expressed in different cell types.
Patients with MDD have reduced dReHo in brain areas associated with emotional and cognitive regulation, and these changes may be related to complex polygenetic and polypathway mechanisms.
Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a public health emergency of international concern. The current study aims to explore whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are associated with the development of death in patients with COVID-19. A total of 131 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from 13 February 2020 to 14 March 2020 in a hospital in Wuhan designated for treating COVID-19 were enrolled in the current study. These 131 patients had a median age of 64 years old (interquartile range: 56–71 years old). Furthermore, among these patients, 111 (91.8%) patients were discharged and 12 (9.2%) patients died in the hospital. The pooled analysis revealed that the NLR at admission was significantly elevated for non-survivors, when compared to survivors (P < 0.001). The NLR of 3.338 was associated with all-cause mortality, with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 84.0% (area under the curve (AUC): 0.963, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.911–1.000; P < 0.001). In view of the small number of deaths (n = 12) in the current study, NLR of 2.306 might have potential value for helping clinicians to identify patients with severe COVID-19, with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 56.7% (AUC: 0.729, 95% CI 0.563–0.892; P = 0.063). The NLR was significantly associated with the development of death in patients with COVID-19. Hence, NLR is a useful biomarker to predict the all-cause mortality of COVID-19.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including obesity, diabetes, and allergy are chronic, multi-factorial conditions that are affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Over the last decade, the microbiome has emerged as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of NCDs. Microbiome profiles were altered in patients with NCDs, and shift in microbial communities was associated with improvement in these health conditions. Since the genetic component of these diseases cannot be altered, the ability to manipulate the microbiome holds great promise for design of novel therapies in the prevention and treatment of NCDs. Together, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept and the microbial hypothesis propose that early life exposure to environmental stimuli will alter the development and composition of the human microbiome, resulting in health consequences. Recent studies indicated that the environment we are exposed to in early life is instrumental in shaping robust immune development, possibly through modulation of the human microbiome (skin, airway, and gut). Despite much research into human microbiome, the origin of their constituent microbiota remains unclear. Dust (also known as particulate matter) is a key determinant of poor air quality in the modern urban environment. It is ubiquitous and serves as a major source and reservoir of microbial communities that modulates the human microbiome, contributing to health and disease. There are evidence that reported significant associations between environmental dust and NCDs. In this review, we will focus on the impact of dust exposure in shaping the human microbiome and its possible contribution to the development of NCDs.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We seek to develop a 3D perfusion culture imaging plate for human fecal bacteria co-culture with epithelial cells in a structure that mimics the gut epithelium. We will develop this system for use with patient fecal samples to characterize patient risk of developing cancer. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: E. coli NC101, a strain that harbors the pks gene island, produces the genotoxin colibactin which causes DNA damage that can lead to colorectal cancer development. The genotoxic ability of this bacterium is dependent upon cell-to-cell contact. Here, we present 3D printed E. coli NC101 and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) in a perfusion imaging plate, enabling visualization of the cytotoxic effects of the bacteria in real time using confocal microscopy, in combination with flow cytometry analysis for cell cycle arrest (a surrogate marker of DNA damage). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 40,000 IEC-6 cells were 3D printed in a cylindrical layer in our triple well imaging plate. The cells were infected at an MOI of 100 for 18 hours and time lapse images of the infection were recorded by confocal microscopy. The cells were then harvested for analysis by flow cytometry for cell cycle arrest as a measure of DNA damage. Our images and flow cytometry data show that E. coli NC101 co-localizes with IEC-6 cells and causes cell cycle arrest in phase G2 (infected %G2 = 40.1), compared to uninfected cells (%G2 = 24.7, P = 0.034). Mutant strains lacking adhesion protein FimH or the ability to produce colibactin do not cause G2 cell cycle arrest (P = 0.844 and P = 0.644, respectively). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We are able to recapitulate the DNA damage phenotype of E. coli NC101 in our 3D culture system. We show here that host-microbe interactions leading to cancer can be modeled in our 3D perfusion system, and we will next use patient fecal samples in our culture system.
We aimed to investigate the associations between school-level characteristics and obesity among Chinese primary school children with consideration of individual-level characteristics.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015/2016. School-level characteristics were assessed using an interviewer-administered school questionnaire, and a ‘school-based obesity prevention index’ was further developed. Individual-level characteristics were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Objectively measured height and weight of students were collected, and obesity status was classified according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria for Asian children. Generalised linear mixed models were used to estimate the associations among the school- and individual-level characteristics and obesity of students.
Thirty-seven primary schools from an urban and a rural district of Beijing, China.
School staffs, 2201 students and their parents.
The school-based obesity prevention index involved the number of health professionals, availability of students’ health records, monitoring students’ nutrition status, frequency of health education activities, reporting achievements of obesity prevention activities to parents, duration of physical activity during school time and availability of playground equipment. The prevalence of obesity was lower in schools with the higher index value compared with that in schools with the lower index value (OR 0·56; 95 % CI 0·40, 0·79). Some individual-level characteristics were negatively associated with childhood obesity: liking sports, duration of screen time ≤2 h/d, perceived lower eating speed, parental non-overweight/obesity.
Irrespective of individual-level characteristics, the specific school-level characteristics had a cumulative effect on obesity among Chinese primary school children. Further school-based obesity intervention should consider these characteristics simultaneously.
The safe and efficient capture of radioactive iodine is highly necessary, but still remains an ongoing challenge. Herein, because of its special layer structure, CuBi–CO3-layered double hydroxides (CuBi–CO3-LDHs) are used to serve as a generic platform, and 3D hierarchical flowerlike ZIF-67/CuBi–CO3-LDH composites are synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method. After immobilization, the flowerlike morphology of CuBi–CO3-LDHs can be completely preserved and proved by scanning electron microscope. Various affecting factors on adsorption performance are investigated, including adsorbent dose, initial concentration of iodine, and temperature. The experimental and modeling results manifest that iodine adsorption is accurately elucidated by pseudo-second-order model, and the equilibrium isotherm is accordant with the Freundlich model. Moreover, the regeneration experiment indicates that ZIF-67/CuBi–CO3-LDH composites possess good stability and reusability for the removal of iodine. The possible adsorption mechanisms of iodine on ZIF-67/CuBi–CO3-LDHs involve particular layer structure and the strong interaction between nitrogen of imidazole ring and iodine, which were investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra. The good performance for the iodine adsorption indicates that ZIF-67/CuBi–CO3-LDHs may be identified as a promising adsorbent in the field of iodine capture.
The association between milk consumption and the metabolic syndrome remains inconclusive, and data from Chinese populations are scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between milk consumption and the metabolic syndrome and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 5149 participants were included in the final analysis. A logistic regression model was applied to estimate the OR and 95 % CI for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components according to milk consumption. In addition, the results of our study were further meta-analysed with other published observational studies to quantify the association between the highest v. lowest categories of milk consumption and the metabolic syndrome and its components. There was no significant difference in the odds of having the metabolic syndrome between milk consumers and non-milk consumers (OR 0·86, 95 % CI 0·73, 1·01). However, milk consumers had lower odds of having elevated waist circumference (OR 0·78, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·92), elevated TAG (OR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·70, 0·99) and elevated blood pressure (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·99). When the results were pooled together with other published studies, higher milk consumption was inversely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (relative risk 0·80, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·88) and its components (except elevated fasting blood glucose); however, these results should be treated with caution as high heterogeneity was observed. In summary, the currently available evidence from observational studies suggests that higher milk consumption may be inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome.
The effect of holly polyphenols (HP) on intestinal inflammation and microbiota composition was evaluated in a piglet model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury. A total of twenty-four piglets were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design including diet type and LPS challenge. After 16 d of feeding with a basal diet supplemented with or without 250 mg/kg HP, pigs were challenged with LPS (100 μg/kg body weight) or an equal volume of saline for 4 h, followed by analysis of disaccharidase activities, gene expression levels of several representative tight junction proteins and inflammatory mediators, the SCFA concentrations and microbiota composition in intestinal contents as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma. Our results indicated that HP enhanced intestinal disaccharidase activities and reduced plasma proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-challenged piglets. Moreover, HP up-regulated mRNA expression of intestinal tight junction proteins such as claudin-1 and occludin. In addition, bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HP altered hindgut microbiota composition by enriching Prevotella and enhancing SCFA production following LPS challenge. These results collectively suggest that HP is capable of alleviating LPS-triggered intestinal injury by improving intestinal disaccharidase activities, barrier function and SCFA production, while reducing intestinal inflammation.
Patients with severe mental disorders in low-resource settings have limited access to services, resulting in overwhelming caregiving burden for families. In extreme cases, this has led to the long-term restraining of patients in their homes. China underwent a nationwide initiative to unlock patients and provide continued treatment. This study aims to quantify household economic burden in families after unlocking and treatment, and to identify factors associated with increased burden due to schizophrenia.
A total of 264 subjects were enrolled from three geographically diverse provinces in 2012. Subjects were patients with schizophrenia who were previously put under restraints and had participated in the ‘unlocking and treatment’ intervention. The primary outcome was the current household economic burden, obtained from past year financial information collected through on-site interview. Patient disease characteristics, treatment, outcomes and family caregiving burden were collected as well. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to construct risk factor models for indirect economic burden.
After participating in the intervention, 85% of patients continued to receive mental health services, 70% used medication as prescribed and 80% were never relocked. Family members reported significantly decreased caregiving burden after receiving the intervention. Mean direct and indirect household economic burdens were CNY963 (US$31.7) and CNY11 724 (US$1670) per year, respectively, while family total income was on average CNY12 108 (US$1913) per year. Greater disease severity and poorer patient psychosocial function at time of study were found to be independent factors related to increased indirect burden.
The ‘unlocking and treatment’ intervention has improved the lives of patients and families. Indirect burden due to disease is still a major economic issue that needs to be addressed, potentially through improving treatment and patient functioning. Our findings contribute to the unravelling and eventual elimination of chronic restraining of mentally ill patients in low-resource settings.
Metabolically healthy obesity refers to a subset of obese people with a normal metabolic profile. We aimed to explore the association between metabolically healthy and obesity status and risk of hypertension among Chinese adults from The Rural Chinese Cohort Study. This prospective cohort study enrolled 9137 Chinese adults without hypertension, type 2 diabetes or treatment for lipid abnormality at baseline (2007–2008) and followed up during 2013–2014. Modified Poisson regression models were used to examine the risk of hypertension by different metabolically healthy and obesity status, estimating relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. During 6 years of follow-up, we identified 1734 new hypertension cases (721 men). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking and other confounding factors, risk of hypertension was increased with metabolically healthy general obesity (MHGO) defined by BMI (RR 1·75, 95 % CI 1·02, 3·00) and metabolically healthy abdominal obesity (MHAO) defined by waist circumference (RR 1·51, 95 % CI 1·12, 2·04) as compared with metabolically healthy non-obesity. The associations between metabolically healthy and obesity status and hypertension outcome were consistent after stratifying by sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. Both MHGO and MHAO were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Obesity control programmes should be implemented to prevent or delay the development of hypertension in rural China.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently revealed that a variant of microRNA 137 (MIR137) shows a quite significant association with schizophrenia. Identifying the network of genes regulated by MIR137 could provide insights into the biological processes underlying schizophrenia. In addition, DLPFC functional connectivity, a robust correlate of MIR137, may provide plausible endophenotypes. However, the regulatory role of the MIR137 gene network in the disrupted functional connectivity remains unclear. Here, we tested the effects of the MIR137 regulated genes on the risk for schizophrenia and DLPFC functional connectivity.
To evaluate the additive effects of the MIR137 regulated genes (N = 1274), we calculated a MIR137 polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia and tested its association with the risk for schizophrenia in the genomic data of a Han Chinese population that included schizophrenia patients (N = 589) and normal controls (N = 575). We then investigated the association between MIR137 PRS and DLPFC functional connectivity in two independent young healthy cohorts (N = 356 and N = 314).
We found that the MIR137 PRS successfully captured the differences in genetic structure between the patients and controls, but the single gene MIR137 did not. We then consistently found that a higher MIR137 PRS was correlated with lower functional connectivities between the DLPFC and both the superior parietal cortex and the inferior temporal cortex in two independent cohorts.
The findings suggested that these two functional connectivities of the DLPFC could be important endophenotypes linking the MIR137-regulated genetic structure to schizophrenia.