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Mycobacterium lentiflavum is a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium that is widely distributed in soil and water systems, but it is sometimes pathogenic to humans. Although cases of M. lentiflavum infections are rare, 22 isolates of M. lentiflavum were identified at a single hospital in Japan. We suspected a nosocomial outbreak; thus, we conducted transmission pattern and genotype analyses.
Cases of M. lentiflavum isolated at Kushiro City General Hospital in Japan between May 2020 and April 2021 were analyzed. The patient samples and environmental culture specimens underwent whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Additionally, we retrospectively collected clinical data from patient medical records.
Altogether, 22 isolates of M. lentiflavum were identified from sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Clinically, the instances with M. lentiflavum isolates were considered contaminants. In the WGS analysis, 19 specimens, including 18 patient samples and 1 environmental culture from the hospital’s faucet, showed genetic similarity. The frequency of M. lentiflavum isolation decreased after we prohibited the use of taps where M. lentiflavum was isolated.
WGS analysis identified that the cause of M. lentiflavum pseudo-outbreak was the water used for patient examinations, including bronchoscopy.
We have shown that hole mobilities of a wide variety of organic thin films can be estimated using a steady-state space-charge-limited current (SCLC) technique due to formation of Ohmic hole injection by introducing a very thin hole-injection layer of molybdenum oxide (MoO3) between an indium tin oxide anode layer and an organic hole-transport layer. Organic hole-transport materials used to estimate hole mobilities are 4,4′,4″-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA), 4,4′,4″-tris(N-2-naphthyl-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (2-TNATA), rubrene, N,N′-di(m-tolyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), and N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine (α-NPD). These materials are found to have electric-field-dependent hole mobilities. While field dependence parameters (β) estimated from SCLCs are almost similar to those estimated using a widely used time-of-flight (TOF) technique, zero field SCLC mobilities (μ0) are about one order of magnitude lower than zero field TOF mobilities.
Polycrystalline diamond films, single crystal bulk diamonds, and diamond powder were treated in microwave plasma of hydrogen at 1.6 torr under a negative direct-current bias of −150 to −300 V without metal catalyst. It was found that fibrous structures, uniformly elongated along the direction normal to the specimen surface, were formed on the diamond surfaces. Similar experiments for glasslike carbon resulted in conical structures with frizzy fibers at the tops. Transmission electron microscopy measurements indicated that the fibers formed on diamond consisted of randomly oriented diamond nanocrystals with diameters of less than 10 nm, while the conical structures formed on glasslike carbon consisted of graphite nanocrystals. Field emission measurements of the fibrous specimens exhibited better emission efficiency than untreated ones. The field emission electron microscopy of the fibrous glasslike carbon showed a presence of discrete electron emission sites at a density of approximately 10,000 sites/cm2.
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