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The mode of action of BAS 517 in a susceptible plant species, corn, was investigated using an excised root system and 14C-tracer techniques. The root system of a tolerant species, soybean, was used for comparison. When UL-14C- glucose was used as a precursor, 14C incorporation into lipids was reduced in BAS 517-treated corn roots, although 14C incorporation from UL-14C-glucose into lipids was relatively low. Inhibition of 14C incorporation into water-soluble compounds was not definite because of a high degree of variability. Using 14C-acetate as a precursor, 49, 43, and 34% of the recovered radioactivity was found in the lipid fractions of root tips treated with 0, 1.0, and 10 μM BAS 517, respectively. In nontreated soybean root tips, 47% of the recovered radioactivity was found in the lipid fraction compared to 49% in root tips treated with 10 μM BAS 517. Further analysis of lipids showed that BAS 517 inhibited the incorporation of 14C from 14C-acetate into phosphatidylethanolamine, a phospholipid, whereas the labeling of sterols in treated corn roots was not adversely affected. Acetyl CoA carboxylase extracted from root systems of corn and soybean showed different sensitivity to BAS 517, suggesting its role as the herbicide target site and as a basis for the selectivity.
Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the selectivity and inhibitory activity of BAS 517 using whole seedlings or root tips of corn and soybean. Effects of BAS 517 on the morphology of corn root tips were examined as well. Etiolated corn seedlings showed high sensitivity to BAS 517; soybean seedlings were not affected. Growth inhibition of corn varied with concentrations of BAS 517 and incubation time. Radicles of corn were more sensitive than mesocotyls and coleoptiles. Root meristems were the first to show symptoms (reddening tissue followed by cessation of root growth). Results using root tips were similar to those using whole seedlings. However, root tips appeared to be more sensitive than whole seedlings. Concentrations of 0.1 and 10 μM of BAS 517 caused severe vacuolization of cells in the 0.2-cm root tip of corn. A pattern of decreasing injury from epidermal cells toward the centers of roots was observed.
To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the quantitative FFQ used in the Tzu Chi Health Study (TCHS).
The reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with the 2-year follow-up FFQ. The validity was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with 3 d dietary records and biomarkers (serum folate and vitamin B12). Median comparison, cross-classification and Spearman correlation with and without energy adjustment and deattenuation for day-to-day variation were assessed.
TCHS is a prospective cohort containing a high proportion of true vegetarians and part-time vegetarians (regularly consuming a vegetarian diet without completely avoiding meat).
Subsets of 103, seventy-eight and 1528 TCHS participants were included in the reproducibility, dietary record-validity and biomarker-validity studies, respectively.
Correlations assessing the reproducibility for repeat administrations of the FFQ were in the range of 0·46–0·65 for macronutrients and 0·35–0·67 for micronutrients; the average same quartile agreement was 40%. The correlation between FFQ and biomarkers was 0·41 for both vitamin B12 and folate. Moderate to good correlations between the baseline FFQ and dietary records were found for energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated and monounsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin A, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Zn (average crude correlation: 0·47 (range: 0·37–0·66); average energy-adjusted correlation: 0·43 (range: 0·38–0·55); average energy-adjusted deattenuated correlation: 0·50 (range: 0·44–0·66)) with same quartile agreement rate of 39% (range: 35–45%), while misclassification to the extreme quartile was rare (average: 4% (range: 0–6%)).
The FFQ is a reliable and valid tool to rank relative intake of major nutrients for TCHS participants.
The present study was designed to examine the effects of habitual consumption of Taiwanese vegetarian diets on hormonal secretion, and on lipid and glycaemic control. Of the ninety-eight healthy female adults recruited from Hualien, Taiwan (aged 31–45 years), forty-nine were Buddhist lactovegetarians and forty-nine were omnivores. Dietary intakes were measured, and blood levels of nutrients and hormones were analysed. Vegetarians consumed less energy, fat and protein, but more fibre than the omnivores. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had, on average, lower BMI and smaller waist circumference. Except for slightly lower levels of thyroxine (T4) in vegetarians, vegetarians and omnivores both showed similar levels of triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, T3:T4 ratio and cortisol. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had significantly lower levels of fasting insulin (median: 35·3 v. 50·6pmol/l) and plasma glucose (mean: 4·7 (se 0·05) v. 4·9 (se 0·05) mmol/l). Insulin resistance, as calculated by the homeostasis model assessment method, was significantly lower in the vegetarians than in the omnivores (median: 1·10 v. 1·56), while β-cell function was not different between the two groups. BMI and diet were both independent predictors for insulin resistance, and contributed 18 and 15% of the variation in insulin resistance, respectively. In conclusion, Taiwanese vegetarians had lower glucose and insulin levels and higher insulin sensitivity than did the omnivores. Diet and lower BMI were partially responsible for the high insulin sensitivity observed in young Taiwanese vegetarians.
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