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With rapid development in hardware storage, precision instrument manufacturing, and economic globalization etc., data in various forms have become ubiquitous in human life. This enormous amount of data can be a double-edged sword. While it provides the possibility of modeling the world with a higher fidelity and greater flexibility, improper modeling choices can lead to false discoveries, misleading conclusions, and poor predictions. Typical data-mining, machine-learning, and statistical-inference procedures learn from and make predictions on data by fitting parametric or non-parametric models. However, there exists no model that is universally suitable for all datasets and goals. Therefore, a crucial step in data analysis is to consider a set of postulated candidate models and learning methods (the model class) and select the most appropriate one. We provide integrated discussions on the fundamental limits of inference and prediction based on model-selection principles from modern data analysis. In particular, we introduce two recent advances of model-selection approaches, one concerning a new information criterion and the other concerning modeling procedure selection.
The use of a submerged inlet is advantageous in modern aircrafts because of its low drag resistance, small radar cross section and ease of maintenance. Although it is well known that the forebody boundary layer deteriorates the aerodynamic performance of a submerged inlet, the level of impact has not yet been fully quantified. To quantify the forebody boundary-layer effect, a submerged diverter was designed to remove a portion of the low-energy boundary flow. The flow pattern and aerodynamic performance of a submerged inlet, with and without the diverter, were investigated by wind-tunnel experimentation and numerical simulations. The effects of mass flow, free stream speed, angle-of-attack and sideslip angle on the aerodynamic characteristics of the inlet with and without the submerged diverter were studied, over an operating envelope of M0 = 0.3 ∼ 0.6,
. The results indicate that both the total pressure loss and the circumferential distortion can be significantly reduced with the removal of the forebody boundary-layer low-energy flow. Meanwhile, the main mechanisms for losses in the submerged inlet were also analysed.
Calcification within breast cancer is a diagnostically significant radiological feature that generally consists of hydroxylapatite. Samples from 30 cases of breast carcinoma with calcification were investigated using optical microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission-electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. Under optical microscopy, the calcifications were found to consist of either irregular aggregates with widths > 200 μm or spherical aggregates similar to psammoma bodies with an average diameter of 30 μm. Transmission-electron microscopy showed that short columnar or dumbbell-shaped crystals with widths of 10–15 nm and lengths of 20–50 nm were the most common morphology; spherical aggregates (~1 μm in diameter) with amorphous coatings of fibrous nanocrystals were also observed. Results indicated that hydroxylapatite was the dominant mineral phase in the calcifications, and both CO32– and cation substitutions (Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Sr, Cu and Mn) were present in the hydroxylapatite structure. Fourier-transform infrared spectra show peaks at 872 and 880 cm–1 indicating that CO32– substituted both the OH– (A type) and PO43– (B type) sites of hydroxylapatite, making it an A and B mixed type. The ratio of B- to A-type substitution was estimated in the range of 1.1–18.7 from the ratio of peak intensities (I872/I880), accompanied with CO32– contents from 1.1% to 14.5%. Trace arsenic, detected in situ by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was found to be distributed uniformly in the calcifications in the form of AsO43– substituting for PO43–. It is therefore proposed that identifying these trace elements in breast cancer calcifications may be promising for future clinical diagnostics.
This chapter analyzes the progress that Chinese universities and public research institutes have made in the fields of research and education as well as the factors that hinder the growth of knowledge transfer from universities and public research institutes to firms in China. The chapter describes how the role of universities and public research institutes in China has evolved in recent decades with the transition to a market economy. It reviews the laws and policies governing knowledge transfer activities in China. It examines the various channels of knowledge transfer that universities and public research institutes in China use to transfer technology such as making new knowledge publicly available at no cost and through cooperative arrangements, including contract research and collaboration, licensing, and establishing spinoff enterprises. The chapter concludes that while Chinese universities and public research institutes have been dramatically transformed in order to meet government policy goals of producing cutting-edge scientific and technological developments to support economic and social advancement since the 1980s, there are challenges in the areas of limited licensing opportunities for leading technologies, lack of long-term financial support, ambiguous corporate governance and regulations, and underdeveloped intermediary agencies resulting in high transaction costs that remain to be addressed.
Stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δD) in Antarctic snow and ice are basic proxy indices of climate in ice core studies. The relation between the ratios has important indicative significance for moisture sources. In general, the fractionation characteristics of the two isotopes vary with different meteorological and topographical conditions. This paper presents the spatial and temporal distribution of meteoric water line (MWL) slopes along a traverse from the Zhongshan Station (ZSS) to Dome A in East Antarctica. It is found that the slopes decrease with the increasing distance inland from the coast and the lowest slope occurred at Dome A, where the long-range transported moisture dominates and clear sky snowing have an influence. The slopes in different layers of the snowpack showed a decreasing trend with depth and this is attributed to the fractionation during the interstitial sublimation and re-condensation processes of the water vapor. Frost flower development on the interior plateau surface can greatly alter the depth evolution of the MWL slope. The coastal snow pits also go through the post-depositional smoothing effect, but their influences are not so significant as the inland regions.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerged disease with various clinical manifestations and imaging features. The diagnosis of COVID-19 depends on a positive nucleic acid amplification test by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the clinical manifestations and imaging features of COVID-19 are non-specific, and nucleic acid test for SARS-CoV-2 can have false-negative results. It is presently believed that detection of specific antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is an effective screening and diagnostic indicator for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, a combination of nucleic acid and specific antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 will be more effective to diagnose COVID-19, especially to exclude suspected cases.
The loess deposits in Shandong Province in eastern China potentially provide valuable insights into past environmental changes. However, their precise provenance and paleoclimatic implications are unclear. We studied three loess sections located in the piedmont of the Central Shandong Mountains (PCSM) and in an offshore island in Bohai Gulf. Both the glacial loess and interglacial paleosol units are characterized by a coarse grain size, indicating a proximal sediment source. Using the “grain size–transport distance” model established for the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), the estimated source-sink distance is ~200–300 km for the PCSM loess and ~100–200 km for the coastal loess. This suggests that fluvial deposits of the Yellow River system in the North China Plain and sediments on the adjacent continental shelf are the major provenance for the Shandong loess. In contrast to the CLP, the Shandong loess does not show a consistent pattern of coarse grain size and low magnetic susceptibility values in glacial loess compared with interglacial paleosols, likely due to frequent changes in dust sources caused by diversions of the Yellow River and local hydroclimatic conditions. Nevertheless, the loess-paleosol alternations in the Shandong loess are a product of global glacial–interglacial cycles.
We investigated motor cortical excitability (CE) in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and its relationship to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure (BTCS) using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).
In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 46 unilateral TLE patients and 16 age-and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting motor thresholds (RMT); short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, GABAA receptor-mediated); facilitation (ICF, glutamatergic-mediated) with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 2, 5, 10, and 15 ms; and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI, GABAB receptor-mediated) with ISIs of 200–400 ms were measured via paired-pulse TMS. Comparisons were made between controls and patients with TLE, and then among the TLE subgroups (no BTCS, infrequent BTCS and frequent BTCS subgroup).
Compared with controls, TLE patients had higher RMT, lower SICI and higher LICI in both hemispheres, and higher ICF in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In patients with frequent BTCS, cortical hyperexcitability in the ipsilateral hemisphere was found in a parameter-dependent manner (SICI decreased at a stimulation interval of 5 ms, and ICF increased at a stimulation interval of 15 ms) compared with patients with infrequent or no BTCS.
Our results demonstrate that motor cortical hyper-excitability in the ipsilateral hemisphere underlies the epileptogenic network of patients with active BTCS, which is more extensive than those with infrequent or no BTCS.
In view of many problems associated with the availability of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals in high-altitude space, this paper presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis. First, the coverage and strength characteristics of GNSS signals in high-altitude space (i.e., space above the GNSS constellation) are presented, and the visibility of GNSS signals is evaluated by combining these two factors. Second, the geometric configuration and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) of visible GNSS satellites are analysed. Then, the Doppler shift range of the GNSS signals is deduced based on the dynamic performance of high-altitude spacecraft. Finally, taking GaoFen-4 (GF-4) as the application object, the availability of GNSS signals is simulated and evaluated. GNSS signals in high-altitude space are generally weak, and the visible GNSS satellites are concentrated in the high-elevation range. The combination of main and side lobe signals and compatibility of multiple constellations can increase the number of visible satellites, improve the geometry configuration, reduce GDOP, and thus improve the availability of GNSS signals. The results of this research can provide technical support for the design and development of GNSS receivers suitable for high-altitude space.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, which can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, leading to toxoplasmosis. Currently, the effective treatment for human toxoplasmosis is the combination of sulphadiazine and pyrimethamine. However, both drugs have serious side-effects and toxicity in the host. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new anti-T. gondii drugs with high potency and less or no side-effects. Our findings suggest that lumefantrine exerts activity against T. gondii by inhibiting its proliferation in Vero cells in vitro without being toxic to Vero cells (P ≤ 0.01). Lumefantrine prolonged mice infected with T. gondii from death for 3 days at the concentration of 50 μg L−1 than negative control (phosphate-buffered saline treated only), and reduced the parasite burden in mouse tissues in vivo (P ≤ 0.01; P ≤ 0.05). In addition, a significant increase in interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production was observed in high-dose lumefantrine-treated mice (P ≤ 0.01), whereas interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-4 levels increased in low-dose lumefantrine-treated mice (P ≤ 0.01). The results demonstrated that lumefantrine may be a promising agent to treat toxoplasmosis, and more experiments on the protective mechanism of lumefantrine should be undertaken in further studies.
In order to clarify fine structures of the hypothetical meridian conduits of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM) in the skin, the present study used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine fasciae in different vertebrate species. Collagen fiber bundles and layers were arranged in a crisscross pattern, which developed into a special tissue micro-channel (TMC) network, in a manner that was analogs to the proposed skin meridian conduits. It was further revealed that tissue fluid in lateral TMC branches drained into wide longitudinal channels, which were distinctly different from lymphatic capillary. Mast cells, macrophages, and extracellular vesicles such as ectosomes and exosomes were distributed around telocytes (TCs) and their long processes (Telopodes, Tps) within the TMC. Cell junctions between TCs developed, which could enable the communication between contiguous but distant Tps. On the other hand, winding free Tps without cell junctions were also uncovered inside the TMC. Tissue fluid, cell junctions of TCs, mast cells, macrophages, and extracellular vesicles within the TMC corresponded to the circulating “气血” (“Qi-Xue”, i.e., information, message, and energy) of meridian conduits at the cytological level. These results could provide morphological evidence for the hypothesis that “meridians are the conduit for Qi-Xue circulation” in CTM.
Neurological and neurosurgical disorders represent a particularly salient area for interventions using practices of wellness medicine. Due to the complex physiology and functions of the nervous system, disease processes can have a wide range of clinical presentations, each with unique hardships. Because the nervous system itself provides individuals with cognition, sense of self, and identity, the loss of normal neurological function in day-to-day activities can elicit substantial emotional distress. Neurological disorders are also somewhat unique in that a large number of conditions lack curative treatments and require lifelong symptom management and supportive care . Medical and surgical interventions for such diseases often come with their own set of complications, side effects, and impacts on quality of life . It is therefore important for care providers to understand the ways in which patients can improve their health by seeking personalized cognitive, behavioral, physical, and spiritual interventions alongside their standard course of treatment.
Using frequency-modulated continuous wave radar data from the 32nd Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition in 2015/16, subsurface profiles were obtained along an East Antarctic inland traverse from Zhongshan station to Dome A, and four distinct regions were selected to analyze the spatiotemporal variability in historical surface mass balance (SMB). Based on depth, density, and age data from ice cores along the traverse, the radar data were calibrated to yield average SMB data. The zone 49–195 km from the coast has the highest SMB (235 kg m−2 a−1). The 780–892 km zone was most affected by the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age, and the SMB during ad 1454–1836 (71 kg m−2 a−1) was only one-quarter of that in the 20th century. The SMB in the 1080–1157 km zone fluctuates the most, possibly due to erosion or irregular deposition of snow by katabatic winds in low SMB areas with surface elevation fluctuations. Dome A (1157–1236 km) has the lowest SMB (29 kg m−2 a−1) and did not decrease during Little Ice Age. Understanding the spatiotemporal variability of SMB in a larger space can help us understand the complex climate history of Antarctica.
The Wulian complex is located on the northern margin of the Sulu orogenic belt, and was formed by collision between the North China Craton (NCC) to the north and South China Craton (SCC) to the south. It consists of the metasedimentary Wulian Group, gneissic granite and meta-diorite. The U–Pb analyses for the detrital zircons from the Wulian Group exhibit one predominant age population of 2600–2400 Ma with a peak at c. 2.5 Ga and several secondary age populations of > 3000, 3000–2800, 2800–2600, 2200–2000, 1900–1800, 1500–1300 and 1250–950 Ma; some metamorphic zircons have metamorphic ages of c. 2.7, 2.55–2.45, 2.1–2.0 and 1.95–1.80 Ga, which are consistent with magmatic-metamorphic events in the SCC. Additionally, the Wulian Group was intruded by the gneissic granite and meta-diorite at c. 0.76 Ga, attributed to Neoproterozoic syn-rifting bimodal magmatic activity in the SCC and derived from partial melting of Archaean continental crust and depleted mantle, respectively. The Wulian Group therefore has tectonic affinity to the SCC and was mainly sourced from the SCC. The detrital zircons have positive and negative ϵHf(t) values, indicating that their source rocks were derived from reworking of both ancient and juvenile crustal rocks. The major early Precambrian crustal growth took place during c. 3.4–2.5 Ga with a dominant peak at 2.96 Ga and several secondary peaks at 3.27, 2.74 and 2.52 Ga. The two oldest zircons with ages of 3307 and 3347 Ma record the recycling of ancient continental crust (> 3.35 Ga) and crustal growth prior to c. 3.95 Ga in the SCC.
This study aims to ascertain the long-term epidemic trends of malaria and evaluates the probability of achieving the eradication goal by 2020 in China. Data on malaria incidence and deaths were extracted from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemic trends by sex, age and spatial distribution and predictions of malaria were estimated by using Joinpoint and Poisson regressions. From 1950 to 2016, 227 668 374 malaria cases were reported in China, with an annualised average incidence of 337.02 (336.98–337.07, 95% confidence interval (CI)) per 100 000 population. The incidence decreased with an average annual per cent change (AAPC) of −11.4% (−16.6 to −6.0). There were 36 085 malaria deaths, with an annualised average mortality of 0.534 (0.529–0.540) per 1 000 000 population. The mortality decreased with an AAPC of −8.7% (−13.7 to −3.4). The predicted number of malaria cases and deaths for 2020 is 2 562 and 10, respectively, and zero for indigenous cases. The disease burden of malaria dramatically decreased in China. Though, the goal of malaria elimination is realistic by 2020 in China, routine clinical and entomological surveillance should be continually conducted, especially for the cross-border areas and imported malaria cases.
The rhoptry kinase 18 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgROP18) has been identified as a key virulence factor that allows the parasite to escape from host immune defences and promotes its proliferation in host cells. Although much research is focused on the interaction between host cells and TgROP18, the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TgROP18 has not been reported till date. To produce mAbs targeting TgROP18, two hybridomas secreting mAbs against TgROP18, designated as A1 and T2, were generated using cell fusion technology. The subtypes of the A1 and T2 mAbs were identified as IgG3 λ and IgM κ, and peptide scanning revealed that the core sequences of the antigenic epitopes were 180LRAQRRRSELVFE192 and 351NYFLLMMRAEADM363, respectively. The T2 mAb specifically reacted with both T. gondii type I and Chinese I, but not with T. gondii type II, Plasmodium falciparum or Schistosoma japonicum. Finally, the sequences of heavy chain and light chain complementarity-determining regions of T2 were amplified, cloned and characterized, making the modification of the mAb feasible in the future. The development of mAbs against TgROP18 would aid the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of host cellular functions by TgROP18, and in the development of strategies to diagnose and treat Toxoplasmosis.
Ventilation-associated changes in blood carbon dioxide levels are associated with various physiological changes in infants undergoing surgery. Studies on the effects of mechanical ventilation on cerebral haemodynamics especially for infants with CHD are scarce.
This study was done to compare the changes in regional cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral blood flow velocity when the end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure changed during different minute ventilation settings in infants undergoing ventricular septal defect repair.
A total of 67 patients less than 1 year old with ventricular septal defect were enrolled, and 65 patients (age: 6.7 ± 3.4 months, weight: 6.4 ± 1.5 kg) were studied. After anaesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation, the same mechanical ventilation mode (The fraction of inspired oxygen was 50%, and the inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio was 1:1.5.) was adopted. The end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure of 30 mmHg (T1), 35 mmHg (T2), 40 mmHg (T3), or 45 mmHg (T4) were obtained, respectively, by adjusting tidal volume and respiratory rate. Minute ventilation per kilogram was calculated by the formula: minute ventilation per kilogram = tidal volume * respiratory rate/kg. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation was monitored by real-time near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral blood flow velocity (systolic flow velocity, end-diastolic flow velocity, and mean flow velocity), pulsatility index, and resistance index were measured intermittently by transcranial Doppler. Systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, stroke volume index, and cardiac index were recorded using the pressure recording analytical method.
As the end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure increased from 30 to 45 mmHg, regional cerebral oxygen saturation increased significantly from 69 ± 5% to 79 ± 4% (p < 0.001). Cerebral blood flow velocity (systolic flow velocity, end-diastolic flow velocity, and mean flow velocity) increased linearly, while pulsatility index and resistance index decreased linearly from T1 (systolic flow velocity, 84 ± 19 cm/second; end-diastolic flow velocity, 14 ± 4 cm/second; mean flow velocity, 36 ± 10 cm/second; pulsatility index, 2.13 ± 0.59; resistance index, 0.84 ± 0.12) to T4 (systolic flow velocity, 113 ± 22 cm/second; end-diastolic flow velocity, 31 ± 6 cm/second; mean flow velocity, 58 ± 11 cm/second; pulsatility index, 1.44 ± 0.34; resistance index, 0.72 ± 0.07) (p < 0.001). There were significant differences in changes of systolic flow velocity, end-diastolic flow velocity, mean flow velocity, pulsatility index, and resistance index as the end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure increased from 30 to 45 mmHg between subgroups of infants ≤6 and infants >6 months, while the changes of regional cerebral oxygen saturation between subgroups were not statistically different. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral blood flow velocity (systolic flow velocity, end-diastolic flow velocity, and mean flow velocity) were negatively correlated with minute ventilation per kilogram (r = −0.538, r = −0.379, r = −0.504, r = −0.505, p < 0.001). Pulsatility index and resistance index were positively related to minute ventilation per kilogram (r = 0.464, r = 0.439, p < 0.001). The diastolic pressure was significantly reduced from T1 (41 ± 7 mmHg) to T4 (37 ± 6 mmHg) (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in systolic pressure, stroke volume index, and cardiac index with the change of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure from T1 to T4 (p = 0.063, p = 0.382, p = 0.165, p > 0.05).
A relative low minute ventilation strategy increases regional cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral blood flow, which may improve cerebral oxygenation and brain perfusion in infants undergoing ventricular septal defect repair.
The linear complexity and the error linear complexity are two important security measures for stream ciphers. We construct periodic sequences from function fields and show that the error linear complexity of these periodic sequences is large. We also give a lower bound for the error linear complexity of a class of nonperiodic sequences.
Terrorist attacks can occur anywhere. As the threat of terrorism develops, the China-Eurasia Expo held in Ürümqi, China is attracting fewer potential visitors. A nationwide survey of 2034 residents from 31 provinces and municipalities in China was conducted to examine the relation between the distance to respondents’ city of residence from Ürümqi and their levels of concern for safety and security concerning the Expo. The two were found to be positively related: the closer the respondents lived to Ürümqi, the less concerned they were with the safety and security of the Expo. This is consistent with the “psychological typhoon eye” effect, which states that people living closer to the center of an unfortunate event (whether natural or man-made hazards) are less concerned with the event’s negative consequences. This effect appears to hold for terrorism. There are implications of this finding for international counter-terrorism practice, tourism, and research.
The hygiene hypothesis posits that the decreased incidence of parasitic infection in developed countries may underlie an increased prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases in these countries. As unique inflammation modulator of intracellular parasitism, Trichinella spiralis, or its excretory–secretory (ES) product, shows improved responses to allergies, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatic arthritis and autoimmune encephalomyelitis by exerting immunomodulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune cells in animal models. Research has shown that T. spiralis differs from other helminths in manipulation of the host immune response not only by well-known characteristics of its life cycle, but also by its inflammation modulation pathway. How the parasite achieves inflammation modulation has not been fully elucidated yet. This review will generalize the mechanism and focuses on ES immunomodulatory molecules of T. spiralis that may be important for developing new therapeutics for inflammatory disorders.