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We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
An ion-exchange adduct of saponite with tetra-n-decylammonium cation ((n-decyl)4N+) was prepared and dispersed in chloroform. The material was spread on a water surface to form a thin film at the air-water interface. From the measurements of surface pressure vs. area, it was concluded that the film consisted of the very thin layer which was a mixture of single and double layers of saponite adduct. A clay-modified electrode was prepared by depositing the film on a glassy carbon substrate using the Langmuir-Blodgett method. When the electrode was soaked in an aqueous solution of [Fe(phen)3](ClO4)2 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), (n-decyl)4N+ cations were replaced by [Fe(phen)3]2+ ions from solution. This process was followed by measuring the cyclic voltammogram.
An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case–control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12–48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case–control study by local public health centres, but our matched case–control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00–124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.
A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O111 and O157 occurred in Japan in April 2011. We conducted an unmatched case-control study and trace-back investigation to determine the source of EHEC O111 infection and risk factors for severe complications. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to help define cases. A total of 86 individuals met the case definition. Of these, 40% experienced haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), 24% acute encephalopathy, and 6% died. Illness was significantly associated with eating the raw beef dish yukhoe (odds ratio 19·64, 95% confidence interval 7·03–54·83), the likely food vehicle. EHEC O111 and its closely related stx-negative variants were found in the beef. HUS occurred most frequently in individuals aged 5–9 years, and this age group was significantly associated with acute encephalopathy. The prevalence of HUS and acute encephalopathy was higher than in previous non-O157-related outbreaks, indicating a high risk of severe complications.
The prevalence and epidemiological traits of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in high-risk populations (HRPs) remained unclarified in Japan. We determined the prevalence of HIV, HBV and Treponema pallidum (TP) and the viral genotypes in HRPs who attended primary sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Osaka province during 2006–2011. Of 7898 specimens, 133 (1·7%) were HIV positive, which was significantly higher than the figures reported by Japanese Red Cross (0·0019%) and public health centres (0·27%) in Japan. The frequency of HIV-1 subtype B was 88·7%, followed by CRF01_AE (2·3%) and C (0·8%), which were almost identical to the national trend. HBV seroprevalence was surprisingly high in the HIV-positive group (63·2%), which was significantly higher than that in the HIV-negative group (25·6%). By contrast, there was no statistical correlation between HIV and TP infection. Interestingly, the distinct HBV genotypes Ae and G were prevalent in the HIV-positive population (60·0% and 20·0%, respectively), although both were rarely detected during nationwide surveillance. The transmission of HIV and HBV appeared to occur largely within a closed community early in life. Of note, about one-quarter of HIV-positive cases would have remained untested if health professionals had not motivated individuals to undergo HIV testing. This is the first evidence-based assessment of HIV positivity and HIV/HBV co-infection in HRPs at primary STIs in Japan and the effect of the involvement of health professionals in the diagnosis of HIV infections in asymptomatic carriers. The genotyping of HBV provided valuable information for understanding HIV epidemical traits.
Chemical properties of AGNs and their redshift evolution are of interest to understand the star-formation history of AGN host galaxies and the co-evolution between galaxies and supermassive black holes (SMBHs). One important observational clue on this issue is a tight correlation between the AGN luminosity and the metallicity of the broad-line region. Surprisingly this relation shows no redshift evolution, even up to z ~ 6. This correlation is attributable mainly to the positive correlation between metallicity and SMBH mass, rather than to the relation between metallicity and Eddington ratio. A significant positive correlation between the metallicity and the AGN luminosity is also seen in narrow-line regions, not only in broad-line regions. Possible implications of these results on the galaxy–SMBH co-evolution are briefly mentioned.