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No instrument has been developed to explicitly assess the professional culture of mental health workers interacting with severely mentally ill people in publicly or privately run mental health care services. Because of theoretical and methodological concerns, we designed a self-administered questionnaire to assess the professional culture of mental health services workers. The study aims to validate this tool, named the Mental Health Professional Culture Inventory (MHPCI). The MHPCI adopts the notion of ‘professional culture’ as a hybrid construct between the individual and the organisational level that could be directly associated with the professional practices of mental health workers.
The MHPCI takes into consideration a multidimensional definition of professional culture and a discrete number of psychometrically derived dimensions related to meaningful professional behaviour. The questionnaire was created and developed by a conjoint Italian-Canadian research team with the purpose of obtaining a fully cross-cultural questionnaire and was pretested in a pilot study. Subsequently, a validation survey was conducted in northern Italy and in Canada (Montreal area, Quebec). Data analysis was conducted in different steps designed to maximise the cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire through a recursive procedure consisting of performing a principal component analysis (PCA) on the Italian sample (N = 221) and then testing the resulting factorial model on the Canadian sample (N = 237). Reliability was also assessed with a test-retest design.
Four dimensions emerged in the PCA and were verified in the confirmatory factor analysis: family involvement, users' sexuality, therapeutic framework and management of aggression risk. All the scales displayed good internal consistency and reliability.
This study suggests the MHPCI could be a valid and reliable instrument to measure the professional behaviour of mental health services workers. The content of the four scales is consistent with the literature on psychosocial rehabilitation, suggesting that the instrument could be used to evaluate staff behaviour regarding four crucial dimensions of mental health care.
Much can be learned from terrestrial planets that appear to have had the potential to be habitable, but failed to realize that potential. Mars shows evidence of a once hospitable surface environment. The reasons for its current state, and in particular its thin atmosphere and dry surface, are of great interest for what they can tell us about habitable zone planet outcomes. A main goal of the MAVEN mission is to observe Mars’ atmosphere responses to solar and space weather influences, and in particular atmosphere escape related to space weather ‘storms’ caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Numerical experiments with a data-validated MHD model suggest how the effects of an observed moderately strong ICME compare to what happens during a more extreme event. The results suggest the kinds of solar and space weather conditions that can have evolutionary importance at a planet like Mars.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause bacteraemia, meningitis, and complications during pregnancy. In July 2012, molecular subtyping identified indistinguishable L. monocytogenes isolates from six patients and two samples of different cut and repackaged cheeses. A multistate outbreak investigation was initiated. Initial analyses identified an association between eating soft cheese and outbreak-related illness (odds ratio 17·3, 95% confidence interval 2·0–825·7) but no common brand. Cheese inventory data from locations where patients bought cheese and an additional location where repackaged cheese yielded the outbreak strain were compared to identify cheeses for microbiological sampling. Intact packages of imported ricotta salata yielded the outbreak strain. Fourteen jurisdictions reported 22 cases from March–October 2012, including four deaths and a fetal loss. Six patients ultimately reported eating ricotta salata; another reported eating cheese likely cut with equipment also used for contaminated ricotta salata, and nine more reported eating other cheeses that might also have been cross-contaminated. An FDA import alert and US and international recalls followed. Epidemiology-directed microbiological testing of suspect cheeses helped identify the outbreak source. Cross-contamination of cheese highlights the importance of using validated disinfectant protocols and routine cleaning and sanitizing after cutting each block or wheel.
Aperiodic one dimensional Si/SiO2 Thue-Morse (T-M) multilayer structures have been fabricated, for the first time, in order to investigate both the band-gap behavior, with respect to the system size (band-gap scaling), and the omnidirectional reflectance of the fundamental optical band-gap. Variable angle reflectance data have experimentally demonstrated a large reflectance band-gap in the optical spectrum of a T-M quasicrystal, in agreement with transfer matrix simulations. We have explained the physical origin of the T-M omnidirectional band-gap as a result of periodic spatial correlations in the self-similar T-M structure, as revealed by Fourier Transform and Wavelet analysis. The unprecedented degree of structural flexibility showed by T-M systems can provide an attractive alternative to photonic crystals for the fabrication of photonic devices.
Growth, tolerance and zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation of Thlaspi caerulescens populations from three metal
contaminated soils and three normal soils were compared under controlled conditions. Individuals of six
populations were cultivated on five soils with increasing concentrations of zinc (50–25000 μg g−1) and cadmium
(1–170 μg g−1). There was no mortality of normal soil populations in the four metal-contaminated soils, but plant
growth was reduced to half that of populations from metal-contaminated soils. However, in noncontaminated soil,
the growth of individuals from normal soils was greater than that of individuals from metal-contaminated soils.
Individuals from normal soils concentrated three times more zinc in the aboveground biomass than those from
metal-contaminated soils, but the latter accumulated twice as much cadmium. We conclude that populations of
T. caerulescens from both normal and metal-contaminated soils are interesting material for phytoextraction of zinc
and cadmium, but to optimize the process of phytoextraction it is necessary to combine the extraction potentials
of both type of populations.
World maize production in 1992–94 oscillated between 470 and 569 million t produced on about 127–132 million ha. The average yields were in the range of 3.7–4.3 t/ha, which are the highest among the most important world cereal food crops: wheat, rice and maize (FAO 1995). Its production, however, is not evenly distributed. More than 40% of world maize production comes from the United States. Maize is widely adapted between 55°N and S latitudes (Guidry 1964) and at altitudes from sea level to 3600 m in cool tropical highlands of the Andes. Adapted maize germplasm is cultivated in tropical lowlands, tropical and subtropical mid-altitudes, temperate and cool tropical highland climates.
Hybrid maize was first introduced in the United States before World War II and further development of single-cross hybrids from the 1960s in most temperate maize-growing countries has been a significant factor in increasing maize production (Hallauer et al. 1988). Hybrid maize technology is being employed for the other maize types grown in tropical, mid-altitude and highland maize production regions where, however, an important part of maize production is the use of landraces (traditional local maize varieties) and improved varieties for food preparations of preferred grain texture and colour.
BOTANY AND DISTRIBUTION
Cultivated maize is Zea mays L. (Species Plantarum 971. 1753) or Zea mays L. subsp. mays Iltis (Iltis and Doebley 1980), and two of its relatives, Tripsacum and Teosinte, are described later in this volume.
Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), the CBF/CBV ratio – an index of the hemodynamic reserve capacity – the rate of oxygen metabolism (CMRO2), and the fractional extraction of oxygen by the brain (OEF) were studied by positron emission tomography (PET) in the cortical territory of both internal carotid arteries in 15 cases of transiently symptomatic or progressive extracranial atherosclerotic carotid disease. None of the patients had a major stroke or had a significant neurological deficit except 1 whose damaged hemisphere is excluded from study. All were asymptomatic at the time of PET scanning. Values were obtained in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) distribution, and in the anterior and posterior borderzone regions. Eight cases had unilateral carotid stenosis of 80% or greater and 7 had unilateral or bilateral occlusion of the origin of the internal carotid artery. Results obtained in patients were compared using Student's t-test, to those obtained in neurologically normal, elderly volunteers. Patients with carotid stenosis had a significantly decreased CBF (p<.025) and CBF/CBV ratio (p<.025) selectively in the anterior borderzone regions. This was accompanied by a trend toward elevated OEF and declining CMRO2 values. Patients with carotid occlusion had significantly decreased CBF (p<.005), decreased CBF/CBV ratio (p<.005) and decreased CMRO2 (p<.025) in the ipsilateral anterior borderzone and MCA territories. Similar changes were present in the opposite hemisphere of patients with bilateral carotid disease. These results indicate that carotid stenosis is associated with hypoperfusion and diminished hemodynamic reserve capacity in the anterior borderzone, and that carotid occlusion produces more widespread hypoperfusion and metabolic depression.
Neurotransmitter replacement therapy in Alzheimer's Disease is currently being attempted using bethanechol chloride (Urecholine) infused intracerebroventricularly with an Infusaid continuous infusion pump. The rationale of this therapy is based on the severe cortical pre-synaptic cholinergic deficit in the presence of relatively normal post-synaptic muscarinic receptor density. Patients are selected on the basis of strict clinical criteria at a functional stage 4 or 5 of Reisberg. A cortical biopsy at the time of pump and catheter implantation confirms the diagnosis by histological and biochemical examination. Pre-operative, post-operative and serial mental status assessments combined with functional ADL assessments monitor changes in behavior. A 6 months double-blind treatment period is done in every patient, who is then free to continue if he has improved on active treatment. This specific study is part of a multi-centre trial. Other therapeutic trials using somatostatin analogs, such as Sandostatin, could then be done. The biological effects of the latter compound are being studied currently in adult Green Vervet monkeys, prior to its use in Alzheimer patients. Furthermore autoradiography of bethanechol and peptides labeled with 14C administered in these animals by intracerebroventricular infusion will allow a better knowledge of their pharmacological site of action.
The Planetary Radio Astronomy receivers aboard the Voyager spacecraft have been recording solar bursts of Types II (Boischot et al. 1930) and III (Riddle 1979) since launch in August and September 1977. The receivers themselves have been described in detail elsewhere (Lang and Peltzer 1977, Warwick et al. 1977). This study restricts itself to data from the 69 channels uniformly spaced between 20.4 and 1326.0 kHz. Each of these channels can be sampled once each six seconds, and the signal to noise ratio on each sample is about 0.8 dB. The sense of circular polarization to which a receiver responds alternates with each sample.
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