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A mathematical model of variable inclination continuous transverse stub (VICTS) antenna for low sidelobe design is proposed in this paper. VICTS antenna is an antenna with continuous transverse stubs on the parallel-plate waveguide and additional branches attached to the transverse stubs to generate radiation. The antenna using this technique has high aperture efficiency and keeps a significant solution for high-gain antenna. However, the sidelobe level (SLL) of this antenna is relatively high and increases continuously as the pitch angle decreases. This paper presents a fast calculation model for the SLL of VICTS antennas using leaky-wave theory and antenna array theory. The full-wave simulation results and model calculation results are in good agreement, so this model can be used for SLL suppression of VICTS antennas in different frequency bands. By controlling the aperture field distribution to be tapered, the SLL is suppressed to − 23.7 dB using this mathematical model.
The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between spicy food intake and serum lipids levels in Chinese rural population.
Information on spicy food flavor and intake frequency was obtained using a two-item questionnaire survey. Dietary data was collected using a validated thirteen-item food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected and measured for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were employed to examine the relationship between spicy food and serum lipids levels according to the spicy food flavor and intake frequency, respectively.
A cross-sectional study in Henan Province.
38238 participants aged 18–79 years old.
Spicy flavor and intake frequency were consistently associated with decreased TC and Non-HDL-C levels, but mildly associated with elevated TG levels. Each level increment in spicy flavor was inversely associated with High TC (odds ratio (OR): 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.93)” and High Non-HDL-C (OR: 0.88; 95%CI: 0.85-0.91), while positively associated with High TG (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.01-1.07). Similarly, one day increment in spicy food intake frequency was also inversely associated with High TC (OR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.91-0.94)” and High Non-HDL-C (OR: 0.91; 95%CI: 0.89-0.93), while positively associated with High TG (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.02-1.06).
Spicy food intake was mildly associated with increased risk of abnormal TG level, significantly associated with decreased risk of abnormal TC and Non-HDL levels. Spicy food intake may be contribute to the management of lipid levels.
This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of supplementing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in breeder hens diet on development and hepatic lipid metabolism of chick offspring. Hy-Line Brown breeder hens were allocated into two groups, supplemented with 0 (CT) or 0.5% CLA for 8 weeks. Offspring chicks were grouped according to the mother generation and fed for 7 days. CLA treatment had no significant influence on development, egg quality, and fertility of breeder hens, but darkened the egg yolks in shade and increased yolk sac mass compared to CT group. Addition of CLA resulted in increased body mass and liver mass, and decreased deposition of subcutaneous adipose tissue in chick offspring. The serum triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (TC) levels of chick offspring were decreased in CLA group. CLA treatment increased the incorporation of both CLA isomers (c9t11 and t10c12) in liver of chick offspring, accompanied by the decreased hepatic TG levels, related to the significant reduction of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzyme activities and the increased of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) enzyme activity. Meanwhile, CLA treatment reduced the mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS, ACC, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c), and induced the expression of genes related to β-oxidative (CPT1, AMP-activated protein kinase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α) in chick offspring liver. In summary, the addition of CLA in breeder hens diet significantly increased incorporation of CLA in liver of chick offspring, which further regulate hepatic lipid metabolism.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) affects 10-20% of women with breast cancer and is biologically more aggressive than other subtypes. The novel compound we have developed, DL7076, would give clinicians a vital strategy to improve the commonly used cyclophosphamide (CPA) and doxorubicin (DOX) regimen in the treatment of TNBC. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objective of this research project is to develop a novel compound which can activate both 1) the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and subsequently enhance the CYP2B6-mediated activation of CPA, and 2) the nuclear factor erythroid- related factor-2 (Nrf2) leading to the cardiomyocyte protection from DOX-associated cardiotoxicity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Following the identification of the compound candidate, DL7076 was evaluated for tissue specific induction of CAR and Nrf2 using qPCR, western blot analysis, and luciferase reporter assays.
Further, we have developed a multicellular coculture model incorporating human primary hepatocytes for metabolism, TNBC spheroids as the target, and cardiomyocytes as a side target of DOX. We have investigated the anticancer effects of CPA/DOX on TNBC cells and the toxic effects on cardiomyocytes with/without a CAR-Nrf2 activator, in a multicellular environment where hepatic metabolism is well-retained. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found that our dual activator of CAR and Nrf2, DL7076, exhibits tissue specific induction of CAR and Nrf2. Inclusion of DL7076 in combination with the CPA/DOX regimen improves anticancer efficacy, through the subsequent increase in the formation of the active CPA metabolite. With the addition of DL7076, DOX-mediated off-target cardiotoxicity was markedly reduced.
Lastly, utilizing the novel coculture system with human primary hepatocytes, TNBC spheroids, and cardiomyocytes, the inclusion of DL7076 to the CPA/DOX regimen shows decreased spheroid viability and improved cardiomyocyte viability and function. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our findings suggest that DL7076 can facilitate DOX/CPA containing regimens by increasing CAR-mediated metabolism and subsequent CPA bioactivation while selectively protecting cardiomyocytes from DOX-induced toxicity. This research is expected to translate our basic scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for women with TNBC.
A multicenter study of sharps injuries (SIs) and other blood or body fluid (OBBF) exposures was conducted among 33,156 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 175 hospitals in Anhui, China. In total, 12,178 HCWs (36.7%) had experienced at least 1 SI in the previous 12 months and 8,116 HCWs (24.5%) had experienced at least 1 OBBF exposure during the previous 12 months.
We aimed to investigate whether dietary patterns were associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or pre-diabetes in adults of rural area in Henan.
Cross-sectional study. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, while multivariate logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and both pre-diabetes and T2DM.
Rural area of Henan province, China.
A total of 38 779 adults aged 18–79 years were recruited from the Henan rural cohort study as the subjects.
The prevalence of pre-diabetes and T2DM in rural Henan was 6·8 % and 9·4 %, respectively. A total of three dietary patterns were assessed in the present study. Dietary pattern I with a high intake of red meat and white meat; dietary pattern II with a high intake of grains, nuts, milk and eggs and dietary pattern III with a high intake of vegetables, staple food and fruits. The highest quintile (Q5) of pattern III could reduce 32·7 % risk of pre-diabetes. The Q5 of pattern II showed a 15·5 % decreased risk of T2DM, in a U-shaped dose–response manner; meanwhile, the Q5 of pattern III was significantly associated with reduced risks of T2DM (OR: 0·582, 95 % CI (0·497, 0·682)).
Pattern III is beneficial for reducing risk of pre-diabetes or T2DM. Though a higher consumption of ‘grains-nuts-egg’ may associate with a reduced risk of T2DM, excessive intakes should be avoided. This study may provide a reference for the prevention of diabetes on dietary precautions.
This meta-analysis aimed to study the relationship between abdominal obesity and the risk of CVD by waist circumference (WC), waist:hip ratio (WHR) and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. Prospective studies that estimated cardiovascular events by WC, WHR and WHtR were included in this study. Pooled relative risks with 95 % CI were calculated using random effects models. A total of thirty-one studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 669 560 participants and 25 214 cases. Compared the highest with the lowest category of WC, WHR and WHtR, the summary risk ratios were 1·43 (95 % CI, 1·30, 1·56, P < 0·001), 1·43 (95 % CI, 1·33, 1·54, P < 0·001) and 1·57 (95 % CI, 1·37, 1·79, P < 0·001), respectively. The linear dose–response analysis revealed that the risk of CVD increased by 3·4 % for each 10 cm increase of WC, and by 3·5 and 6·0 % for each 0·1 unit increase of WHR and WHtR in women, respectively. In men, the risk of CVD increased by 4·0 % for each 10 cm increase of WC, and by 4·0 and 8·6 % for each 0·1 unit increase of WHR and WHtR, respectively. Collectively, abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of CVD. WC, WHR and WHtR are good indicators for the prediction of CVD.
Examine mother-son, mother-daughter, father-son, and father-daughter resemblance in weight status, and potential modifying effects of socio-demographic and childcare characteristics.
1,973 school-age children and their parents from five mega-cities across China in 2017.
Pearson correlation coefficients (r) for body mass index (BMI) of father-son, father-daughter, mother-son, and mother-daughter pairs were 0·16, 0·24, 0·26, and 0·24, respectively, while their weighted kappa coefficients (k) were 0·09, 0·14, 0·04, and 0·15, respectively. Children aged 6–9 years (r ranged from 0·30 to 0·35) had larger BMI correlation with their parents than their counterparts aged 10–14 years or 15–17 years (r ranged from 0·15 to 0·24). Children residing at home (r ranged from 0·17 to 0·27) had greater BMI correlations with their parents than children residing at school/other places. BMI correlation coefficients were significant if children were mainly cared for by their mothers (r ranged from 0·17 to 0·29) but non-significant if they were mainly cared for by others. Only children who ate the same meal as their parents “most times” (r ranged from 0·17 to 0·27) or had dinner with their parents “at most times” (r ranged from 0·21 to 0·27) had significant BMI correlation with their parents. Similarly, children who had dinner with their parents “most times” but not “sometimes,” had significant BMI correlation coefficients.
Parent-child resemblance in weight status was modest, and varied by child age, gender, primary caregiver, whether having similar food or dinner with parents in China.
In this study, we analysed the prevalence of diabetes in Inner Mongolia and explored the relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes using the Chinese Dietary Balance Index-16 (DBI-16). This study was a surveillance survey of Chronic Disease and Nutrition Monitoring among Chinese Adults in Inner Mongolia in 2015. Dietary data were collected using the 24-h dietary recall and weighing method over three consecutive days. Dietary quality was evaluated via the DBI-16. A generalised linear model was used to examine the associations between the DBI-16 and dietary patterns. The relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes was analysed using logistic regression. In Inner Mongolia, the diabetes prevalence was 8·5 % and the estimated standardised prevalence was 6·0 %. Four major dietary patterns were identified: ‘meat/dairy products’, ‘traditional northern’, ‘high cereal/tuber’ and ‘high-salt/alcohol’. Generalised linear models showed that the ‘meat/dairy product’ pattern was relatively balanced (βLBS = –1·993, βHBS = –0·206, βDQD = –2·199; all P < 0·05) and was associated with a lower diabetes risk (OR 0·565; 95 % CI 0·338, 0·945; P < 0·05) after adjusting for potential confounders. The other three dietary patterns (i.e. ‘traditional northern’, ‘high cereal/tuber’ and ‘high-salt/alcohol’) exhibited relatively unbalanced dietary quality and were unassociated with diabetes risk. Diabetes prevalence in Inner Mongolia was moderate. The dietary quality of the ‘meat/dairy product’ pattern was relatively balanced and was correlated with a decreased risk of diabetes prevalence, suggesting that dietary quality may help decrease diabetes prevalence and provide a suggestion for local dietary guidelines.
Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia hydatigena formerly referred to as Cysticercus tenuicollis is a disease of veterinary importance that constitutes a significant threat to livestock production worldwide, especially in endemic regions due to condemnation of visceral organs and mortality rate of infected young animals. While the genetic diversity among parasites is found to be potentially useful in many areas of research including molecular diagnostics, epidemiology and control, that of T. hydatigena across the globe remains poorly understood. In this study, analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of adult worms and larval stages of T. hydatigena isolated from dogs, sheep and a wild boar in China showed that the population structure consists of two major haplogroups with very high nucleotide substitutions involving synonymous and non-synonymous changes. Compared with other cestodes such as Echinococcus spp., the genetic variation observed between the haplogroups is sufficient for the assignment of major haplotype or genotype division as both groups showed a total of 166 point-mutation differences between the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences. Preliminary analysis of a nuclear protein-coding gene (pepck) did not reveal any peculiar changes between both groups which suggests that these variants may only differ in their mitochondrial makeup.
Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a public health emergency of international concern. The current study aims to explore whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are associated with the development of death in patients with COVID-19. A total of 131 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from 13 February 2020 to 14 March 2020 in a hospital in Wuhan designated for treating COVID-19 were enrolled in the current study. These 131 patients had a median age of 64 years old (interquartile range: 56–71 years old). Furthermore, among these patients, 111 (91.8%) patients were discharged and 12 (9.2%) patients died in the hospital. The pooled analysis revealed that the NLR at admission was significantly elevated for non-survivors, when compared to survivors (P < 0.001). The NLR of 3.338 was associated with all-cause mortality, with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 84.0% (area under the curve (AUC): 0.963, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.911–1.000; P < 0.001). In view of the small number of deaths (n = 12) in the current study, NLR of 2.306 might have potential value for helping clinicians to identify patients with severe COVID-19, with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 56.7% (AUC: 0.729, 95% CI 0.563–0.892; P = 0.063). The NLR was significantly associated with the development of death in patients with COVID-19. Hence, NLR is a useful biomarker to predict the all-cause mortality of COVID-19.
No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.
Accurate torque control is a critical issue in the compliant human–robot interaction scenario, which is, however, challenging due to the ever-changing human intentions, input delay, and various disturbances. Even worse, the performances of existing control strategies are limited on account of the compromise between precision and stability. To this end, this paper presents a novel high-performance torque control scheme without compromise. In this scheme, a new nonlinear disturbance observer incorporated with equivalent control concept is proposed, where the faster convergence and stronger anti-noise capability can be obtained simultaneously. Meanwhile, a continuous fractional power control law is designed with an iteration method to address the matched/unmatched disturbance rejection and global finite-time convergence. Moreover, the finite-time stability proof and prescribed control performance are guaranteed using constructed Lyapunov function with adding power integrator technique. Both the simulation and experiments demonstrate enhanced control accuracy, faster convergence rate, perfect disturbance rejection capability, and stronger robustness of the proposed control scheme. Furthermore, the evaluated assistance effects present improved gait patterns and reduced muscle efforts during walking and upstair activity.
This paper investigates the electromechanical behavior of functionally graded piezoelectric composite beams containing axially functionally graded (AFG) beam and piezoelectric actuators subjected to electrical load. The mechanical properties of the AFG beam are assumed to be graded along the axial direction. Employing the electromechanical coupling theory and load simulation method, the expression for the simulation load of the piezoelectric actuators is obtained. Based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the obtained simulation load, the differential governing equation of the piezoelectric composite beams subjected to electrical load is derived. The integration-by-parts approach is utilized to solve the differential governing equation, and the expression for the deflection of the piezoelectric composite beams is obtained. The accuracy of the proposed method is validated by the finite element method. The bending response of the functionally graded piezoelectric composite beams is investigated through the proposed method. In the numerical examples, the effects of electrical load, actuator thickness, AFG beam thickness and AFG beam length on the electromechanical behavior of the functionally graded piezoelectric composite beams are studied.
In this paper the configurations of shock wave–boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) are studied theoretically and experimentally in Mach number 2 and 2.5 flows on test models with various wedge angles ranging from
. The proposed theoretical method couples the free interaction theory (FIT) with the minimum entropy production (MEP) principle to predict the appearance of separation shock, resulting in convex, straight and concave separation shock waves according to different solution combinations, which agree well with current experiments. Additionally, several influences on SWBLI are studied experimentally, in which the parameters related to theoretical solutions are found mostly determining the flow configuration, and SWBLI is much more sensitive to incident shock strength than incoming flow properties. Separation could be suppressed by incident shock when the MEP solution is smaller than the FIT, while it could be intensified when the MEP solution is larger than FIT; by contrast, the effects of separation position and model mounting height could be very weak.
Aiming at planning the welding path of complex ship components, a welding path planning optimization model was constructed with the shortest welding path and using the target and the welding process and welding starting and ending points as constraints. Based on the model, an improved ant colony algorithm with dynamic adaptive parameters was proposed to complete the path planning work. Simulation results showed that, compared with other classical optimization algorithms, the proposed algorithm improved optimization speed while ensuring optimization effect and achieving better results in path planning of complex ship components.
Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were fabricated in a metal-assisted chemical etching method with two steps including dipping silicon wafers in AgNO3/HF solutions and then in H2O2/HF solutions. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements with a set of incidence angles were carried out on the resulting samples to detect characteristics of silver nanoparticles in the etched silicon. Compared with the uniform size of silver nanoparticles on the surface, the silver nanoparticles in etched silicon were found with size increasing and content decreasing corresponding to the depths. Based on the silver size increasing phenomenon, a detailed supplementary hypothesis about SiNWs formation was proposed about silver disintegration and redeposition in the later stage of silicon etching. For 2, 3, 4, and 8 mM AgNO3 solutions used to study their effect on the SiNWs, it was found that a higher quantity of Ag+ concentration such as 8 mM were not beneficial for producing good quality SiNWs.