To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between spicy food intake and serum lipids levels in Chinese rural population.
Information on spicy food flavour and intake frequency was obtained using a two-item questionnaire survey. Dietary data were collected using a validated thirteen-item FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and measured for total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were employed to examine the relationship between spicy food and serum lipids levels according to the spicy food flavour and intake frequency, respectively.
A cross-sectional study in Henan Province.
38 238 participants aged 18–79 years old.
Spicy flavour and intake frequency were consistently associated with decreased TC and non-HDL-cholesterol levels but mildly associated with elevated TAG levels. Each level increment in spicy flavour was inversely associated with high TC (OR: 0·91; 95 % CI 0·88, 0·93) and high non-HDL-cholesterol (OR: 0·88; 95 % CI 0·85, 0·91) but positively associated with high TAG (OR: 1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·07). Similarly, 1-d increment in spicy food intake frequency was also inversely associated with high TC (OR: 0·92; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·94) and high non-HDL-cholesterol (OR: 0·91; 95 % CI 0·89, 0·93) but positively associated with high TAG (OR: 1·04; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·06).
Spicy food intake was mildly associated with increased risk of abnormal TAG level, significantly associated with decreased risk of abnormal TC and non-HDL levels. Spicy food intake may be contribute to the management of lipid levels.
Traditionally, elder care in China has been confined to the familial sphere, long enshrined by the Confucian norm of filial piety. However, in recent years demographic shifts and rapid socioeconomic changes have escalated concerns about whether Chinese families will still be able to take care of a rapidly growing elderly population. These concerns are compounded by China’s one-child policy, which has been in effect for more than thirty years, further straining the capacities of family caregivers. Against this backdrop, formal long-term care services have emerged and expanded rapidly in China, a process catalysed both by government policies and private-sector initiatives.
In this chapter, we begin with an outline of the unprecedented challenges for Chinese elder care in the context of population ageing and profound socioeconomic transformations, followed by an overview of the evolving long-term care landscape in China. Next, we document the rise of formal long-term care services for the elderly, and summarize major policy efforts mounted by the Chinese government in spurring the growth of these services over the last decade. This is followed by a description of the current regulatory structure and process from the perspectives of both central and local government authorities. We conclude by highlighting the need for strengthening regulatory oversight through the building of an information infrastructure in this rapidly growing long-term care service sector.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.