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The long-distance stable transport of relativistic electron beams (REBs) in plasmas is studied by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Theoretical analysis shows that the beam transport is mainly influenced by three transverse instabilities, where the excitation of self-modulation instability, and the suppression of the filamentation instability and the hosing instability are important to realize the beam stable transport. By modulating the transport parameters such as the electron density ratio, the relativistic Lorentz factor, the beam envelopes and the density profiles, the relativistic bunches having a smooth density profile and a length of several plasma wave periods can suppress the beam-plasma instabilities and propagate in plasmas for long distances with small energy losses. The results provide a reference for the research of long-distance and stable transport of REBs, and would be helpful for new particle beam diagnosis technology and space active experiments.
Intense Compton-scattering γ-ray radiation driven by laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) and generation of ultrashort positron beams are investigated by Monte Carlo simulation. Using an LWFA driven GeV electron bunch and a 45 femtosecond, 90 mJ/pulse, and 10 Hz Ti:Sapphire laser for driving the Compton scattering, fs γ-ray pulses were generated. The latter have a flux of ≥108/s, peak brightness of ≥1020 photons/(s mm2 mrad2 0.1% bandwidth), and photon energy of 5.9 to 23.2 MeV. The γ-ray pulses then impinge on a thin high-Z target. More than 107 positrons/s in the form of sub-100 fs pulses at several MeV can be produced. Such ultrashort positron pulses can be useful as the pump-probe type positron annihilation spectroscopy as well as in other applications.
Collimated proton beams from laser interaction with a slab having a hole on its backside are investigated using particle-in-cell simulation. The hot target electrons driven by the laser expand rapidly into the hole. However, at the hole's corners the electrons are strongly compressed and an intense electron jet is emitted from each corner, tightly followed by the ions. The plasma jets focus and collimate along the axis of the hole and can propagate without divergence within the hole. The effect of the hole diameter on the collimated proton beam is considered.
A three-dimensional aggregate generation and packing algorithm applicable for modeling asphalt mixture with high content of graded aggregates is presented in this paper. In the algorithm, arbitrary-shaped polyhedra are used to model aggregates, so that the effect of aggregate shape on the mechanical performance of asphalt mixture can be considered. The algorithm consists of two steps: Aggregate generation and packing. Polyhedra are created by extending triangular fundaments and treated as visualized aggregates after passing through convex control and sharpness judgment. After that, graded aggregates are taken out from the aggregate base and randomly packed in a given cylindrical or cubical region one by one equiprobably. Overlapping between nearby aggregates is avoided by the help of Boolean partition operation in ANSYS. Finally, some asphalt mixture samples with a given gradation are modeled as examples, and their effective elastic properties and creep behaviors under uniaxial compression are simulated.
We use two methods to establish the relationship between galaxies and dark matter halos. One is based the conditional luminosity function model, which links galaxies and dark matter halos by matching the number density and clustering properties of galaxies with those of dark matter halos in the current CDM model. The second is based on galaxy systems identified from large redshift surveys of galaxies. The galaxy – dark halo relationships established by these two methods match well, and can provide important constraints on how galaxies form and evolve in the universe.
The microstructure and composition of TiN films, formed by ion beam enhanced deposition (IBED) with different energy (40 keV and 90 keV) xenon ion bombardment and by simple physical vapor deposition (hereafter S-PVD) without any ion beam enhancement, and the interfaces between TiN films and Si substrates have been studied by cross-sectional view analytical electron microscopy in this work. Both the IBED TiN films prepared by Xe+ bombardment with either 40 keV or 90 keV energy ions and the S-PVD TiN film consist of nanocrystals. The TEM observations in the S-PVD case reveal an amorphous layer and a mixed layer of TiN grains and amorphous material at the TiN/Si interface. The thicknesses of the amorphous layer and the mixed layer are about 210 nm and at least 40 nm, respectively. Upon 40 keV Xe+ bombardment, an amorphous Si transition layer of about 50 nm thickness is found at the TiN/Si interface, and the TiN grains close to the TiN/Si interface are of weak preferred orientation. Upon 90 keV Xe+ bombardment, amorphous TiN and Si layers are found with a total thickness of 80 nm at the TiN/Si interface, and the TiN grains near the TiN/Si interface are of preferred orientation TiN ‖ Si. The energy of xenon ion bombardment has a strong effect on the microstructural characteristics of TiN films and the interfaces between the TiN films and the Si substrates, as well as the size and the preferred orientation of TiN grains.
GaN films and GaN/AlGaN heterostructures have been gro wn by MBE. GaN films doped with varying levels of Mg indicate effective mass acceptor at low doping concentrations, as determined from strong photoluminescence emission at about 380 nm. As the Mg concentration is increased the photoluminescence emission line red shifts considerably, indicating the formation of Mg-related or induced complexes whose lifetimes are relatively short. GaN/AlGaN separate confinement heterostructures grown on sapphire show strong near ultraviolet stimulated emission at room temperature in a side-pumping configuration. The pumping threshold for stimulated emission at room temperature was found to be ∼90 kW/cm2. Initial GaN films grown on ZnO substrates show the A exciton in low temperature photoluminescence. ZnO is being considered for nitride growth because of its stacking order and close lattice match.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron diffraction, and S K edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure were used to characterize the air-stable S-passivated InP(100)-(lxl) surface prepared in (NH4)2S solution. The results show that one monolayer of sulphur which is bonded only to In is adsorbed on the surface. The S is found to occupy bridge-bonded sites, and the orientation of the In-S bond is determined to be in the  azimuth, with an In-S-In bridge-bond angle of about 100°.
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