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Comparative study of CO2 laser-produced tin-droplet plasma with and without pre-pulse laser has been presented. A pre-pulse laser and the CO2 laser was combined and focused to tin-droplet with a diameter of 180 µm. The emitted Sn ions were detected by several Faraday cups to obtain angular distribution of ions in the laser-produced tin-droplet plasma. The influence of pre-pulse laser energy and delay time between pumping laser and pre-pulse laser on the ion characteristics was investigated. It is illustrated that ion average kinetic energy from CO2 laser-produced plasma (LPP) can be reduced when the tin-droplet target has been replaced by the preformed Sn plasma. The obtained optimal delay time with the lowest ion average kinetic energy is about hundreds of nanoseconds. The ion time-of-flight spectra show a twin peak structure in laser-irradiating preformed Sn plasma. And a superimposed Maxwell–Boltzmann (MB) distribution is proposed to describe this twin peak ion time-of-flight spectra. The fitting results quite agree with the raw ion time-of-flight spectra in current experiment. Then, the fitted plasma temperatures and mass-center velocities with various delay times in laser-irradiating preformed plasma are obtained, and the fitted plasma temperatures can be comparable with ion average kinetic energy in double-pulse LPP, which justified the rationality using this superimposed MB distribution.
Aberrant functional connectivity within the default network is generally assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the genetic risk of default network connectivity in OCD remains largely unknown.
Here, we systematically investigated default network connectivity in 15 OCD patients, 15 paired unaffected siblings and 28 healthy controls. We sought to examine the profiles of default network connectivity in OCD patients and their siblings, exploring the correlation between abnormal default network connectivity and genetic risk for this population.
Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients exhibited reduced strength of default network functional connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and increased functional connectivity in the right inferior frontal lobe, insula, superior parietal cortex and superior temporal cortex, while their unaffected first-degree siblings only showed reduced local connectivity in the PCC.
These findings suggest that the disruptions of default network functional connectivity might be associated with family history of OCD. The decreased default network connectivity in both OCD patients and their unaffected siblings may serve as a potential marker of OCD.
Although patients with chronic schizophrenia have substantially higher smoking rates than either the general population or patients with other mental illnesses, drug-naive patients with a first episode of schizophrenia have received little systemic study. This study examined smoking rates, the association between smoking and symptom severity and cognitive function in Chinese first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients using cross-sectional and case-control designs.
Two hundred and forty-four drug-naive FES patients and 256 healthy controls matched for gender, age and education completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Patients were also rated on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS).
The rate and quantity of smoking were not significantly higher among FES patients compared to the general population. Among patients, smokers scored higher than non-smokers on the total PANSS and the positive symptom subscale scores. There were no significant associations between cognitive function and smoking in either FES patients or healthy controls.
In contrast to studies in patients with chronic schizophrenia, drug-naive FES patients did not smoke more frequently than the general population. Furthermore, patients with psychotic disorders who smoked did not exhibit significant cognitive differences compared with those who did not smoke. However, smoking may have other detrimental effects on physical and mental health, for example on positive symptoms.
We report here a comparative study of the in-plane strain
states of standard GaN epilayer grown on sapphire (001) and flip-chip GaN
epilayer bonded on Si (111) wafer by means of X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman
spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It is confirmed that
the in-plane tensile strains can be largely reduced after the flip-chip
process. The reduction of the biaxial strains determined by XRD, Raman, and
PL analysis is found to be consistent.
Chronic rhinosinusitis is commonly treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery involving excision of the uncinate process and opening of the osteomeatal complex.
Computational fluid dynamics were used to compare nasal airflow after two different surgical interventions which involved opening the paranasal sinuses, excising the ethmoid sinus, and excising or preserving the uncinate process, in a cadaveric head model. Cross-sectional computed tomography images were obtained before and after the interventions. Imaging data were used to prepare computer simulations, which were used to assess the airflow characteristics of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses during inspiration and expiration, before and after intervention.
Significantly larger nasal cavity airflow velocity changes were apparent following the uncinate process excising procedure. Nasal cavity airflow distribution remained relatively unchanged following the uncinate process preserving procedure. There was a significantly greater increase in airflow volume following the uncinate process excising procedure, compared with the uncinate process preserving procedure.
Preservation of the uncinate process may significantly reduce the alteration of nasal cavity airflow dynamics occurring after functional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis.
H2A histone family, member Z (H2A.Z) is required for early mammalian development. In the present study, the 932 bp of full-length cDNA encoding a 128 amino-acid protein and the sequences of intron 2 to 4 of the porcine H2A histone family, member Z (pH2AFZ) gene were obtained. By comparative sequencing of pH2AFZ gene in Large White and Meishan pigs, a 4 bp deletion/insertion in intron 2 was detected and a PCR-Bsu15I-RFLP was established to detect this variation. In DIV (4th Dam line of Chinese lean-type new lines) pigs, the first-parity females with AA genotype had fewer piglets born alive (−2.64 and −1.83 piglets per litter) than those with AB (P < 0.01) and BB (P < 0.05) genotype. The additive allelic and dominance effect were estimated to be 0.92 (P < 0.05) and −0.87 piglets per litter (P < 0.01) for number of piglets born alive, respectively. This result suggests that the pH2AFZ gene might be a good candidate gene of litter-size trait and provides some marker information for marker-assisted selection.
Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and ontogenetic regulation of sodium/proton exchanger isoform 2 (NHE-2) mRNA expression were evaluated in the pig small intestine during postnatal development. The 2872-bp porcine full cDNA sequence of the NHE-2 (EF672046) cloned in this study showed 80% and 70% homology with known human and mouse gene sequence, respectively. Hydrophobic prediction suggests 13 putative membrane-spanning domains within porcine NHE-2. The porcine NHE-2 mRNA was detected in the brain, liver, kidney, heart, lung, small intestine and muscle. The small intestine had the highest NHE-2 mRNA abundance and the brain, lung and liver had the lowest NHE-2 mRNA abundance (P < 0.05). Along the longitudinal axis, the duodenum had the highest NHE-2 mRNA abundance and the ileum and colon had the lowest NHE-2 mRNA abundance (P < 0.05). The NHE-2 mRNA level was increased from day 1 to day 26 in the duodenum (P < 0.05) and dropped dramatically on day 30 (P < 0.05). There is no difference between day 1 and day 7 (P > 0.05). After day 30, the NHE-2 mRNA level remained the same except on day 90 (P > 0.05). The mRNA expression of NHE-2 was not only differentially regulated by age but also differentially distributed along the small intestine of piglets at early stages and growing stages of life, which may contribute to changes in NHE activity.
A ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy Ni48Mn25Ga22Co5 was prepared by the induction melting and isothermal forging process. Dynamic recrystallization occurs during the isothermal forging. The deformation texture was studied by the neutron diffraction technique. The main texture components consist of (110) and (001), which suggested that in-plane plastic flow anisotropy should be expected in the as-forged condition. The uniaxial compression fracture strain in the forged alloy reaches over 9.5%. The final room-temperature fracture of the polycrystalline Ni48Mn25Ga22Co5 is controlled mainly by intergranular mode.
Barium hexaferrite films having thickness from 3 to 30 μm were deposited onto 0.5 mm Magnesium Oxide (111) substrates, and were examined by vibrating sample magnetometry, torque magnetometry, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope measurements. Ferrimagnetic resonance measurements were taken with the magnetic field applied perpendicular to the film plane. The FMR linewidth values for as-produced 3 - 30 μm films was 0.45 - 0.70 kOe, and was reduced to 0.06 - 0.45 kOe after annealing at 1000 °C for 2 hours. Further annealing increased the linewidth. The FMR linewidth for the 30 μm thick film was also found to decrease upon mechanically removing 55 ∼ 77 % of the substrate thickness. A 6-fold in-plane anistropy symmetry in the anisotropy energy was observed in torque magnetometry measurements for films thicker than 30 μm. These results can be interpreted as due to film inhomogeneity, stress, and the growth of small regions of non c-axis textured material.
We report an investigation of optical-limiting behavior in two neutral nickel complexes with multi-sulfur 1,2 dithiolene ligands, [Ni(medt)2] I (medt = 5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-1,4-dithiin-2,3- dithiolate) and [Ni(phdt)2] 2 (phdt = 5,6-dihydro-5-phenyl-l,4-dithiin-2,3-dithiolate) in benzene solution. The fluence-dependent transmission of the complexes was observed with nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses at 532-nm wavelength. The limiting thresholds of the complexes were ˜0.3 J/cm2, when measured with the picosecond pulses. Both picosecond time-resolved pump-probe and Z-scan measurement revealed that the limiting effects should originate from excited-state absorption and refraction. The transparency window (400˜900 nm), observed in the linear absorption spectra of the complexes, indicated that their limiting response should cover a wider range than those of fullerenes and phthalocyanines.
Thick films of scandium-substituted BaScxFe12−xO19 (x=0, 0.4, 0.6) were deposited by pulsed laser ablation deposition onto A-plane (1120) sapphire (Al2O3) substrates to yield highly oriented films having the crystallographic c-axis () in the film plane. Selected films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, magnetometry and torque magnetometry measurements. These structural and magnetic measurements show that dense films have excellent in-plane uniaxial anisotropies and good square loop behaviors. Such films will be useful for planar latched phase shifters that can be integrated into microwave integrated circuits.
Natural anti-proteases (α1-protease inhibitor
(α1-PI; α1-antitrypsin) and α2-macroglobulin (α2-M))
were found in the
blood of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss and brook charr,
Salvelinus fontinalis. The α2-M inhibited Cryptobia
salmositica proteases and was significantly higher in brook charr
than in rainbow trout. Under in vitro conditions it took
longer for the same number of parasites to neutralize the α2-M in
charr than in trout blood. The haemolysis which occurred
when C. salmositica was incubated in the blood of rainbow trout
due to neutralization of α2-M. This in vitro study
also showed that it was the metalloprotease of C. salmositica
lysed red blood cells and the plasma of the two species
of fishes initially prevented haemolysis by inhibiting the proteolytic
activity. We suggest that the natural plasma α2-M
plays an important role in defence against cryptobiosis in fishes.
We report the results on x-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility study of Y–Ba–(Cu1−xScx)–O. The materials were prepared in a stoichiometry corresponding to Y1Ba2(Cu1−xScx)3O7. Although x-ray analysis reveals the increasing presence of a subtle second phase with increasing Sc content, the superconducting transition temperature and resistivity did not change substantially in the composition range 0.0 x ≤ 0.15. In contrast, the magnetic susceptibility studies showed dramatic changes. Although Sc3+ has no spin by itself, an enhanced paramagnetic Curie susceptibility was observed above Tc with a moment of 1.5 μB per Sc. At 16 K a sharp cusp is observed in the temperature dependent susceptibility corresponding to the onset of a three-dimensionally ordered antiferromagnetic state. These results are discussed in terms of an additional previously unreported phase of Y–Ba–(Cu–Sc)–O that has an antiferromagnetic Néel temperature of 16 K. For composition of x = 1.0, a new phase is formed which is nonmagnetic.