To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The thermal conductivity of a molecular gas consists of the translational and internal parts. Although in continuum flows the total thermal conductivity itself is adequate to describe the heat transfer, in rarefied gas flows they need to be modelled separately, according to the relaxation rates of translational and internal heat fluxes in an homogeneous system. This paper is dedicated to quantifying how these relaxation rates affect rarefied gas dynamics. The kinetic model of Wu et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 763, 2015, pp. 24–50) is adapted to recover the relaxation of heat fluxes, which is validated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Then the model of Wu et al., which has the freedom to adjust the relaxation rates, is used to investigate the rate effects of thermal relaxation in problems such as the normal shock wave, creep flow driven by Maxwell's demon and thermal transpiration. It is found that the relaxation rates of heat flux affect rarefied gas flows significantly, even when the total thermal conductivity is fixed.
Schizophrenia is considered a polygenic disorder. People with schizophrenia and those with genetic high risk of schizophrenia (GHR) have presented with similar neurodevelopmental deficits in hemispheric asymmetry. The potential associations between neurodevelopmental abnormalities and schizophrenia-related risk genes in both schizophrenia and those with GHR remains unclear.
To investigate the shared and specific alternations to the structural network in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR. And to identify an association between vulnerable structural network alternation and schizophrenia-related risk genes.
A total of 97 participants with schizophrenia, 79 participants with GHR and 192 healthy controls, underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans at a single site. We used graph theory to characterise hemispheric and whole-brain structural network topological metrics. For 26 people in the schizophrenia group and 48 in the GHR group with DTI scans we also calculated their schizophrenia-related polygenic risk scores (SZ-PRSs). The correlations between alterations to the structural network and SZ-PRSs were calculated. Based on the identified genetic–neural association, bioinformatics enrichment was explored.
There were significant hemispheric asymmetric deficits of nodal efficiency, global and local efficiency in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Hemispheric asymmetric deficit of local efficiency was significantly positively correlated with SZ-PRSs in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Bioinformatics enrichment analysis showed that these risk genes may be linked to signal transduction, neural development and neuron structure. The schizophrenia group showed a significant decrease in the whole-brain structural network.
The shared asymmetric deficits in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR, and the association between anomalous asymmetry and SZ-PRSs suggested a vulnerability imaging marker regulated by schizophrenia-related risk genes. Our findings provide new insights into asymmetry regulated by risk genes and provides a better understanding of the genetic–neural pathological underpinnings of schizophrenia.
Epilobium belongs to the family Onagraceae, which consists of approximately 200 species distributed worldwide, and some species have been used as medicinal plants. Epilobium nankotaizanense is an endemic and endangered herb that grows in the high mountains in Taiwan at an elevation of more than 3300 m. Alpine herbs are severely threatened by climate change, which leads to a reduction in their habitats and population sizes. However, only a few studies have addressed genetic diversity and population genetics. In the present study, we developed a new set of microsatellite markers for E. nankotaizanense using high-throughput genome sequencing data. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and tested on 30 individuals collected from three natural populations. These loci were successfully amplified, and polymorphisms were observed in E. nankotaizanense. The number of alleles per locus (A) ranged from 2.000 to 3.000, and the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.929 and from 0.034 to 0.631, respectively. The developed polymorphic microsatellite markers will be useful in future conservation genetic studies of E. nankotaizanense as well as for developing an effective conservation strategy for this species and facilitating germplasm collections and sustainable utilization of other Epilobium species.
Poor utilisation efficiency of carbohydrate always leads to metabolic phenotypes in fish. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in carbohydrate degradation. Whether the intestinal bacteria could alleviate high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced metabolic phenotypes in fish remains unknown. Here, a strain affiliated to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was isolated from the intestine of Nile tilapia. A basal diet (CON), HCD or HCD supplemented with B. amy SS1 (HCB) was used to feed fish for 10 weeks. The beneficial effects of B. amy SS1 on weight gain and protein accumulation were observed. Fasting glucose and lipid deposition were decreased in the HCB group compared with the HCD group. High-throughput sequencing showed that the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria was increased in the HCB group relative to the HCD group. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the concentration of intestinal acetate was increased dramatically in the HCB group compared with that in the HCD group. Glucagon-like peptide-1 was also increased in the intestine and serum of the HCB group. Thus, fish were fed with HCD, HCD supplemented with sodium acetate at 900 mg/kg (HLA), 1800 mg/kg (HMA) or 3600 mg/kg (HHA) diet for 8 weeks, and the HMA and HHA groups mirrored the effects of B. amy SS1. This study revealed that B. amy SS1 could alleviate the metabolic phenotypes caused by HCD by enriching acetate-producing bacteria in fish intestines. Regulating the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites might represent a powerful strategy for fish nutrition modulation and health maintenance in future.
The most important issue for the clinical application of sarcopenic obesity is the lack of a consensus definition. The aim of this study was to determine the best measurement for sarcopenic obesity by estimating the association between various definitions and the risk of falls and metabolic syndrome. We studied a community of 765 adults aged 65 and older in 2015-2017. Sarcopenia obesity was measured by sarcopenia (defined by low muscle mass with either low handgrip strength or low gait speed or both) plus obesity (defined by waist circumference, body fat percentage, and BMI). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationships between sarcopenia obesity and risk of fall and metabolic syndrome. In the analysis of the fall risk with sarcopenic obesity defined by waist circumference, the participants with nonsarcopenia/nonobesity were treated as the reference group. The odds ratio to fall in participants with sarcopenic obesity was 10.16 (95% CI, 2.71-38.13) after adjusting for confounding covariates. In the analysis of the risk of metabolic syndrome between participants with individual components of sarcopenia coupled with obesity defined by waist circumference, the risk was statistically significant for low gait speed (OR: 7.19; 95% 3.61-14.30) and low grip strength (OR: 9.19; 95% CI: 5.00-16.91). A combination of low grip strength and abdominal obesity for identifying sarcopenic obesity may be a more precise and practical method for predicting target populations with unfavorable health risks, such as falls risk and metabolic syndrome.
Embryogenic callus induction and regeneration are useful in many aspects of plant biotechnology, especially in the functional characterization of economically important genes. However, in sugarcane, callus induction and regeneration vary across genotypes. Saccharum spontaneum is an important wild germplasm that confers disease resistance and stress tolerance to modern sugarcane cultivars, and its genome has been completely sequenced. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic variations on embryogenic callus induction and regeneration in S. spontaneum and to screen genotypes having high tissue culture susceptibility. The study was performed using nine genotypes of S. spontaneum and the following five parameters were assessed to determine the response of genotypes to embryogenic callus induction and regeneration: callus induction, embryogenic callus ratio, embryogenic callus induction, embryonic callus regeneration and regeneration capacity. All the genotypes varied significantly (P < 0.01) in all the parameters, except for embryonic callus regeneration, which was high (>80%) for all the genotypes. High broad-sense heritability (86.1–96.8%) indicated that genetic differences are the major source of genotypic variations. Callus induction was found to be strongly positively correlated with embryogenic callus induction (r = 0.890, P < 0.01) and regeneration capacity (r = 0.881, P < 0.01). Among the nine tested genotypes, VN2 was found to be the most responsive to tissue culture and could therefore be used to characterize functional genes in S. spontaneum. We also suggested an approach with potential applications in facilitating the rapid identification of sugarcane genotypes susceptible to tissue culture.
To establish optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Chinese pregnant women by Chinese-specific body mass index (BMI) categories and compare the new recommendations with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 guidelines.
Multicenter, prospective cohort study. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the predicted probabilities of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The optimal GWG range was defined as the range that did not exceed a 1% increase from the lowest predicted probability in each pre-pregnancy BMI group.
From nine cities in mainland China.
A total of 3731 women with singleton pregnancy were recruited from April 2013 to December 2014.
The optimal GWG (ranges) by Chinese-specific BMI was 15.0 (12.8-17.1), 14.2 (12.1-16.4) and 12.6 (10.4-14.9) kg for underweight, normal weight and overweight pregnant women, respectively. Inappropriate GWG was associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Compared with women gaining weight within our proposed recommendations, women with excessive GWG had higher risk for macrosomia, large for gestational age and cesarean section; whereas those with inadequate GWG had higher risk for low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm delivery. The comparison between our proposed recommendations and IOM 2009 guidelines showed that our recommendations were comparable with the IOM 2009 guidelines and could well predict the risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Inappropriate GWG was associated with higher risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimal GWG recommendations proposed in the present study could be applied to Chinese pregnant women.
To explore the relationship between parameters of sodium and potassium excretion using 24-hour urine sample and Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in general population.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Community-based general population in Emin China.
Totally 1,147 subjects aged ≥18 years were selected to complete the study, with a multistage proportional random sampling method. Cognitive status was assessed with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) questionnaire and timed 24-hour urine specimens were collected. Finally, 561 participants aged ≥35 years with complete urine sample and MMSE data were included for the current analysis and divided into groups by tertiles of 24-hour urinary sodium to potassium ratio (24-h UNa/K) as lowest (T1), middle (T2), and highest (T3) groups.
The MMSE score was significantly lower in T3, compared with the T1 group (26.0 vs 25.0, P=0.002) and the prevalent MCI was significantly higher in T3 than in T1 group (11.7% vs 25.8%, P>0.001). In multiple linear regression, 24-UNa/K [β: -0.184, 95%CI: (-0.319, -0.050), p=0.007] were negatively associated with MMSE score. In multivariable logistic regression, compared with T1 group, 24-h UNa/K in the T2 and T3 group showed 2.01 (95%CI: 1.03-3.93, P=0.041) and 3.38 (95%CI: 1.77-6.44, P<0.001) fold odds for presence of MCI, even after adjustment for confounders. More augmented results were demonstrated in sensitivity analysis by excluding individuals taking anti-hypertensive agents.
Higher 24-h UNa/K is in an independent association with prevalent MCI.
Individuals with HIV are at increased risk for osteoporosis. A healthy diet with adequate calcium is recommended to promote bone health. However, lengthy nutritional assessments pose barriers to routine screenings in clinical practice. This study aimed to examine the validity and reproducibility of a six-item dietary calcium screening tool among Chinese individuals with HIV.
We conducted a two time-point study in an outpatient setting. Volunteers self-administered the six-item tool upon enrollment and again at one-month follow-up. At baseline, participants also completed a validated food frequency questionnaire and surveys regarding demographic and clinical risk factors.
Beijing, China; Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
Upon enrollment, 127 individuals with HIV participated in the study, of whom 83 completed the follow-up screening.
Mean age of participants was 35.2±9.3 years, average BMI was 22.8±3.8 kg/m2, and 89% were men. Among the participants, 54.7% reported calcium intake less than 800 mg/day. The six-item tool demonstrated fair-to-moderate relative validity with a correlation of 0.39 and 75.7% of subjects classified in same/adjacent quartiles as the reference, and moderate-to-good reproducibility with a correlation of 0.60 and 83.1% of subjects classified in same/adjacent quartiles. Finally, ROC analyses yielded a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 39.4% with optimized cut-off level.
The six-item tool presented adequate validity and reproducibility to identify individuals with low calcium intake among the target population, providing a convenient instrument for categorizing calcium intake in clinical practice, prompting referrals for further assessment, and raising awareness of dietary calcium in bone disease prevention.
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) is a serious pest of agriculture that does particular damage to Gramineae crops in Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Metamorphosis is a key developmental stage in insects, although the genes underlying the metamorphic transition in M. separata remain largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the transcriptomes of five stages; mature larvae (ML), wandering (W), and pupation (1, 5, and 10 days after pupation, designated P1, P5, and P10) to identify transition-associated genes. Four libraries were generated, with 22,884, 23,534, 26,643, and 33,238 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the ML-vs-W, W-vs-P1, P1-vs-P5, and P5-vs-P10, respectively. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of DEGs showed that genes regulating the biosynthesis of the membrane and integral components of the membrane, which includes the cuticular protein (CP), 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, were enriched. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that DEGs were enriched in the metabolic pathways. Of these DEGs, thirty CP, seventeen 20E, and seven JH genes were differentially expressed across the developmental stages. For transcriptome validation, ten CP, 20E, and JH-related genes were selected and verified by real-time PCR quantitative. Collectively, our results provided a basis for further studies of the molecular mechanism of metamorphosis in M. separata.
The current study explores how multilingual speakers with three typologically different languages (satellite-framed, verb-framed and equipollent-framed) encode and gauge event similarity in the domain of caused motion. Specifically, it addresses whether, and to what extent, the acquisition of an L2-English and an L3-Japanese reconstructs the lexicalization and conceptualization patterns established in the L1-Cantonese when the target language is actively involved in the decision-making process. Results show that multilingual speakers demonstrated an ongoing process of cognitive restructuring towards the target language (L3) in both linguistic encoding (event structures and semantic representations) and non-linguistic conceptualization (reaction time). And the degree of the restructuring is modulated by the amount of language contact with the L2 and L3. The study suggests that learning a language means internalizing a new way of thinking and provides positive evidence for L3-biased cognitive restructuring within the framework of thinking-for-speaking.
The TanDEM-X DEM is a valuable data source for estimating glacier mass balance. However, the accuracy of TanDEM-X elevation over glaciers can be affected by microwave penetration and phase decorrelation. To investigate the bias of TanDEM-X DEMs of glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau, these DEMs were subtracted from SPOT-6 DEMs obtained around the same time at two study sites. The average bias over the studied glacier areas in West Kunlun (175.0 km2) was 2.106 ± 0.012 m in April 2014, and it was 1.523 ± 0.011 m in Geladandong (228.8 km2) in October 2013. By combining backscatter coefficients and interferometric coherence maps, we found surface decorrelation and baseline decorrelation can cause obvious bias in addition to microwave penetration. If the optical/laser data and winter TanDEM-X data were used as new and historic elevation sources for mass-balance measurements over an arbitrary observation period of 10 years, the glacier mass loss rates in West Kunlun and Geladandong would be potentially underestimated by 0.218 ± 0.016 and 0.158 ± 0.011 m w.e. a−1, respectively. The impact is therefore significant, and users should carefully treat the bias of TanDEM-X DEMs when retrieving a geodetic glacier mass balance.
Previous studies have reported inverse associations between certain healthy lifestyle factors and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but limited evidence showed the synergistic effect of those lifestyles. This study examined the relationship of a combination of lifestyles, expressed as Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS), with NAFLD.
A community-based cross-sectional study. Questionnaires and body assessments were used to collect data on the six-item HLS (ranging from 0 to 6, where higher scores indicate better health). The HLS consists of non-smoking (no active or passive smoking), normal BMI (18·5–23·9 kg/m2), physical activity (moderate or vigorous physical activity ≥ 150 min/week), healthy diet pattern, good sleep (no insomnia or <6 months) and no anxiety (Self-rating Anxiety Scale < 50), one point each. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography.
Two thousand nine hundred and eighty-one participants aged 40–75 years.
The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 50·8 %. After adjusting for potential covariates, HLS was associated with lower presence of NAFLD. The OR of NAFLD for subjects with higher HLS (3, 4, 5–6 v. 0–1 points) were 0·68 (95 % CI 0·51, 0·91), 0·58 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·78) and 0·35 (95 % CI 0·25, 0·51), respectively (P-values < 0·05). Among the six items, BMI and physical activity were the strongest contributors. Sensitivity analyses showed that the association was more significant after weighting the HLS. The beneficial association remained after excluding any one of the six components or replacing BMI with waist circumference.
Higher HLS was associated with lower presence of NAFLD, suggesting that a healthy lifestyle pattern might be beneficial to liver health.
The tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest with a highly selective and sensitive chemosensory system involved in complex physiological behaviors such as searching for food sources, feeding, courtship, and oviposition. However, effective management strategies for controlling the insect pest populations under threshold levels are lacking. Therefore, there is an urgent need to formulate eco-friendly pest control strategies based on the disruption of the insect chemosensory system. In this study, we identified 158 putative chemosensory genes based on transcriptomic and genomic data for S. litura, including 45 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs, nine were new), 23 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 60 odorant receptors (ORs, three were new), and 30 gustatory receptors (GRs, three were new), a number higher than those reported by previous transcriptome studies. Subsequently, we constructed phylogenetic trees based on these genes in moths and analyzed the dynamic expression of various genes in head capsules across larval instars using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nine genes–SlitOBP8, SlitOBP9, SlitOBP25, SlitCSP1, SlitCSP7, SlitCSP18, SlitOR34, SlitGR240, and SlitGR242–were highly expressed in the heads of 3- to 5-day-old S. litura larvae. The genes differentially expressed in olfactory organs during larval development might play crucial roles in the chemosensory system of S. litura larvae. Our findings substantially expand the gene inventory for S. litura and present potential target genes for further studies on larval feeding in S. litura.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Cardi-O-Fix plug used for the treatment of muscular ventricular septal defects.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of five patients with muscular ventricular septal defects who underwent transcatheter closure using the Cardi-O-Fix Plug, from November 2017 to August 2019. The median age was 5.1 years (range: 3.2–6.5). Their median body weight was 18.1 kg (range: 13.4–21.8). All the patients underwent detailed two-dimensional Doppler and colour flow imaging by transthoracic echocardiography. The left ventricular median defect size of the muscular ventricular septal defects was 5.6 mm (range: 5.3–7.0). The right ventricular median defect size of the muscular ventricular septal defects was 3.9 mm (range: 3.3–4.7). All the procedures were performed on beating hearts.
All the patients underwent successful device implantation with no displacement or detachment, they have complete echocardiographic closure at the 1-year follow-up. There were no occluder-related arrhythmia, chordae tendineae rupture, tricuspid insufficiency, aortic regurgitation, haemolysis, or embolisation.
Application of the Cardi-O-Fix plug appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with muscular ventricular septal defects. Longer follow-up periods are warranted to prove the conclusion for long-term outcomes.
This study aimed to evaluate to what extent the different interval times between trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and vitrification influence the clinical outcomes in preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) cycles. Patients who underwent frozen embryo transfer (FET) after PGT between 2015 and 2019 were recruited. In total, 297 cycles with single day 5 euploid blastocyst transfer were included. These cycles were divided into three groups according to the interval times: <1 h group, 1–2 h group, and ≥2 h group. Blastocyst survival, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and ongoing pregnancy rates were compared. The results showed that, in PGT-SR cycles, survival rate in the ≥2 h group (96.72%) was significantly lower than in the <1 h group (100%, P = 0.047). The clinical pregnancy rate in the ≥2 h group was 55.93%, significantly lower than in the <1 h group (74.26%, P = 0.017). The ongoing pregnancy rates in the 1–2 h group and the ≥2 h group were 48.28% and 47.46%, respectively, significantly lower than that in the <1 h group (67.33%, P < 0.05). The miscarriage rate in the 1–2 h group was 18.42%, significantly higher than that in the <1 h group (5.33%, P = 0.027). In PGT-A cycles, the clinical pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates in the <1 h group were 67.44% and 53.49%, respectively, higher than that in the 1–2 h group (52.94%, 47.06%, P > 0.05) and the ≥2 h group (52.63%, 36.84%, P > 0.05). In conclusion, vitrification of blastocysts beyond 1 h after biopsy significantly influences embryo survival and clinical outcomes and is therefore not recommended.
Antipsychotics are widely used for treating patients with psychosis, and target threshold psychotic symptoms. Individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis are characterized by subthreshold psychotic symptoms. It is currently unclear who might benefit from antipsychotic treatment. Our objective was to apply a risk calculator (RC) to identify people that would benefit from antipsychotics.
Drawing on 400 CHR individuals recruited between 2011 and 2016, 208 individuals who received antipsychotic treatment were included. Clinical and cognitive variables were entered into an individualized RC for psychosis; personal risk was estimated and 4 risk components (negative symptoms-RC-NS, general function-RC-GF, cognitive performance-RC-CP, and positive symptoms-RC-PS) were constructed. The sample was further stratified according to the risk level. Higher risk was defined based on the estimated risk score (20% or higher).
In total, 208 CHR individuals received daily antipsychotic treatment of an olanzapine-equivalent dose of 8.7 mg with a mean administration duration of 58.4 weeks. Of these, 39 (18.8%) developed psychosis within 2 years. A new index of factors ratio (FR), which was derived from the ratio of RC-PS plus RC-GF to RC-NS plus RC-CP, was generated. In the higher-risk group, as FR increased, the conversion rate decreased. A small group (15%) of CHR individuals at higher-risk and an FR >1 benefitted from the antipsychotic treatment.
Through applying a personal risk assessment, the administration of antipsychotics should be limited to CHR individuals with predominantly positive symptoms and related function decline. A strict antipsychotic prescription strategy should be introduced to reduce inappropriate use.
The aim of this study was to assess the current status of disease-related knowledge and to analyze the relationship among the general condition, illness perception, and psychological status of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 118 patients using convenience sampling. The general questionnaire, disease-related knowledge questionnaire of COVID-19, Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used to measure the current status of participants.
The overall average score of the disease-related knowledge of patients with COVID-19 was (79.19 ± 14.25), the self-care situation was positively correlated with knowledge of prevention and control (r = 0.265; P = 0.004) and total score of disease-related knowledge (r = 0.206; P = 0.025); the degree of anxiety was negatively correlated with the knowledge of diagnosis and treatment (r = −0.182; P = 0.049). The score of disease-related knowledge was negatively correlated with negative cognition (volatility, consequences, emotional statements) and negative emotions (tension, fatigue, depression) (P < 0.05); positively correlated with positive cognition (disease coherence) and positive emotion (self-esteem) (P < 0.05).
It was recommended that we should pay more attention to the elderly and low-income groups, and increase the knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 and self-care in the future health education for patients.
To evaluate age-related differences in the independent/combined association of added sugar intake from soda and body adiposity with hyperuricaemia in gender-stratified US adults.
Consumption of added sugar from soda was calculated from 24-h dietary interviews and categorised into none, regular and excessive consumption. Hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid levels >417 mmol/l in men and >357 mmol/l in women. Multiple regression models with interaction terms and logistic models adjusted for covariates were conducted under survey-data modules.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2007–2016.
15 338 adults without gout, failing kidneys, an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 or diabetes were selected.
The age-stratified prevalence rate of hyperuricaemia was 18·8–20·4 % in males and 6·8–17·3 % in females. Hyperuricaemia prevalence of approximately 50 % was observed in young and middle age males who consumed excessive added sugar from soda. Excessive added sugar intake was observed to be associated with 1·5- to 2·0-fold and 2·0- to 2·3-fold increased risk of the probability of hyperuricaemia in young and middle age males and middle age females, respectively. Study participants, regardless of age or gender, who were obese and consumed excessive added sugar from soda had the highest risk of having hyperuricaemia.
Our study revealed that the association between hyperuricaemia and consumption of excessive added sugar from soda may vary by age and gender. Obese adults who consumed excessive added sugar from soda had the highest risk of hyperuricaemia, a finding that was found across all age-specific groups for both genders.