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Voices are commonly experienced as communication with a personified ‘other’ with ascribed attitudes, intentionality and personality (their own ‘character’). Phenomenological work exploring voice characterisation informs a new wave of relational therapies. To date, no study has investigated the role of characterisation in behavioural engagement with voices or within psychological therapy for distressing voices.
Baseline characterisation (the degree to which the voice is an identifiable and characterful entity) of the dominant voice was rated (high, medium or low) using a newly developed coding framework, for n = 60 people prior to starting AVATAR therapy. Associations between degree of characterisation and (i) everyday behavioural engagement with voices (The Beliefs about Voices Questionnaire-Revised; n = 60); and (ii) interaction within avatar dialogue [Session 4 Time in Conversation (participant–avatar); n = 45 therapy completers] were explored.
Thirty-three per cent reported high voice characterisation, 42% medium and 25% low. There was a significant association between characterisation and behavioural engagement [H(2) = 7.65, p = 0.022, ɛ2 = 0.130] and duration of participant–avatar conversation [F(2,42) = 6.483, p = 0.004, η2 = 0.236]. High characterisation was associated with increased behavioural engagement compared with medium (p = 0.004, r = 0.34; moderate effect) and low (p = 0.027, r = 0.25; small−moderate effect) with a similar pattern observed for the avatar dialogue [high v. medium: p = 0.008, Hedges’ g = 1.02 (large effect); high v. low: p = 0.023, Hedges' g = 1.03 (large effect)]. No differences were observed between medium and low characterisation.
Complex voice characterisation is associated with how individuals interact with their voice(s) in and out of therapy. Clinical implications and future directions for AVATAR therapy and other relational therapies are discussed.
We present new estimates of the outcomes of first-generation Mexicans and their descendants between 1880 and 1940. We find zero convergence of the economic gap between Mexicans and non-Mexican whites across three generations. The great-grandchildren of immigrants also had fewer years of education. Slow convergence is not simply due to an inheritance of poverty; rather, Mexican Americans had worse outcomes conditional on the father’s economic status. However, the gap between third-generation Mexican Americans and non-Mexican whites is about half the size today as it was in 1940, suggesting that barriers to Mexican American progress have significantly decreased over time.
People living in poverty are particularly vulnerable to shocks, including those caused by natural disasters such as floods and droughts. This paper analyses household survey data and hydrological riverine flood and drought data for 52 countries to find out whether poor people are disproportionally exposed to floods and droughts, and how this exposure may change in a future climate. We find that poor people are often disproportionally exposed to droughts and floods, particularly in urban areas. This pattern does not change significantly under future climate scenarios, although the absolute number of people potentially exposed to floods or droughts can increase or decrease significantly, depending on the scenario and region. In particular, many countries in Africa show a disproportionally high exposure of poor people to floods and droughts. For these hotspots, implementing risk-sensitive land-use and development policies that protect poor people should be a priority.
We estimate the self-selection of Mexican migrants into and out of the United States in the 1920s. Officials recorded migrant height on border crossing manifests, which we use to proxy migrant quality and to measure self-selection into migration in 1920. Migrants were positively selected on height compared to the Mexican population. We link these migrants to the 1930 U.S. and Mexican censuses to obtain samples of permanent and return migrants and to estimate the selection into return migration. Return migrants were not differentially self-selected on height relative to permanent migrants.
We define the notion of smooth supercritical compositional structures. Two well-known examples are compositions and graphs of given genus. The ‘parts’ of a graph are the subgraphs that are maximal trees. We show that large part sizes have asymptotically geometric distributions. This leads to asymptotically independent Poisson variables for numbers of various large parts. In many cases this leads to asymptotic formulas for the probability of being gap-free and for the expected values of the largest part sizes, number of distinct parts and number of parts of multiplicity k.
The seventh annual Teaching and Learning Conference (TLC) was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from February 5 to 7, 2010, with 224 attendees onsite. The theme for the meeting was “Advancing Excellence in Teaching Political Science.” Using the working-group model, the TLC track format encourages in-depth discussion and debate on research dealing with the scholarship of teaching and learning.
One of the earliest subjects of undergraduate mathematics education research was students' difficulties in writing formal mathematical proofs. Some research focused on the heuristics involved in proof-writing, but early attempts to show that the teaching of heuristics and strategies benefited students' proof-writing skills (Bittinger, 1968; Goldberg, 1973) failed to produce statistically significant results. Other difficulties have been identified, including students' weak understanding of logic and/or mathematical concepts and their definitions (cf. Hart, 1986; Moore, 1994). Several recent studies have looked further at students' proof-writing skills (cf. Dreyfus, 1999, Harel & Sowder, 1998; Selden & Selden, 2003); this topic is also addressed in this volume in chapters by Selden & Selden, Harel & Brown, and Zazkis. The purpose of this chapter is to look closely at one topic that arose from research on proof-writing, mathematical definitions, and most importantly, the role that these definitions play in the mathematical enterprise as well as in the teaching of undergraduate mathematics courses.
Mathematical definitions are of fundamental importance in the axiomatic structure that characterizes mathematics. The enculturation of college mathematics students into the field of mathematics includes their acceptance and understanding of the role of mathematical definitions, that the words of the formal definition embody the essence of and completely specify the concept being defined. But definitions also play a role in the students' experiences in mathematics courses themselves, in the sense that definitions are often used as a vehicle toward a more robust understanding of a given concept.
This first chapter of Advances in Decision Analysis presents definitions for decision analysis that will be used consistently throughout this volume and provides a list of references on the subject of decision analysis. As this is an edited volume on “advances” in decision analysis, it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the subject to the level presented in one or more of the introductory decision analysis texts listed in the Preface.
This book attempts to maintain consistent distinctions among normative, prescriptive, and descriptive decision theories—distinctions that we find inconsistent in the literature. There is a rich and related literature on microeconomics, decision theory, behavioral psychology, and management science, which is only touched on in the following chapters.
Advances in Decision Analysis presents methodologies and applications of decision analysis as derived from prescriptive decision theory. Each of the first six parts of the book concentrates on different aspects of decision analysis. Part VII is devoted to applications of decision analysis.
The Rational Decision Maker
Many books in economics and decision analysis propose theories and methodologies that claim to be “rational.” Philosophers disagree on what is rational (Mele and Rawling 2004; Searle 2001). Many decision theories define the “rational decision maker” through mathematical principles or axioms, which, if combined, imply rational behavior (e.g., to maximize expected utility). But how compelling are these axioms? We would be remiss not to define what we mean by rationality.