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Using a step-by-step approach, this textbook provides a modern treatment of the fundamental concepts, analytical techniques, and software tools used to perform multi-domain modeling, system analysis and simulation, linear control system design and implementation, and advanced control engineering. Chapters follow a progressive structure, which builds from modeling fundamentals to analysis and advanced control while showing the interconnections between topics, and solved problems and examples are included throughout. Students can easily recall key topics and test understanding using Review Note and Concept Quiz boxes, and over 200 end-of-chapter homework exercises with accompanying Concept Keys are included. Focusing on practical understanding, students will gain hands-on experience of many modern MATLAB® tools, including Simulink® and physical modeling in Simscape™. With a solutions manual, MATLAB® code, and Simulink®/Simscape™ files available online, this is ideal for senior undergraduates taking courses on modeling, analysis and control of dynamic systems, as well as graduates studying control engineering.
Moral education is an enduring concern for societies committed to the value of justice and the wellbeing of children. What kind of moral guidance do young people need to navigate the social world today? Which theories, perspectives, values, and ideals are best suited for the task? This volume offers educators insight into both the challenges and promises of moral education from a variety of ethical perspectives. It introduces and analyses several important developments in ethics and moral psychology and discusses how some key moral problems can be addressed in contemporary classrooms. In doing so, Moral Education in the 21st Century helps readers develop a deeper understanding of the complexities of helping young people grow into moral agents and ethical people. As such, researchers, students, and professionals in the fields of moral education, moral psychology, moral philosophy, ethics, educational theory, and philosophy of education will benefit from this volume.
Approximately one in twenty men have sperm counts low enough to impair fertility but little progress has been made in answering fundamental questions in andrology or in developing new diagnostic tools or management strategies in infertile men. Many of these problems increase with age, leading to a growing population of men seeking help. To address this, there is a strong movement towards integrating male reproductive and sexual healthcare involving clinicians such as andrologists, urologists, endocrinologists and counselors. This book will emphasize this integrated approach to male reproductive and sexual health throughout the lifespan. Practical advice on how to perform both clinical and laboratory evaluations of infertile men is given, as well as a variety of methods for medically and surgically managing common issues. This text ties together the three major pillars of clinical andrology: clinical care, the andrology laboratory, and translational research.
All too often heterosexual first-time parents are treated as the unmarked norm within research on reproduction. First-Time Parenting Journeys maps out what it means to be situated within the norm, while providing a critical account of how social norms about parenthood shape, regulate, and potentially delimit experiences of new parenthood for heterosexual couples. Based on qualitative longitudinal research, this book tells the story of journeys to parenthood, highlighting the impact of gender norms, moral claims, emotion work, and generativity. While drawing on Australian data, the critical conceptual framework has broader applicability across Western contexts in terms of understanding normative family structures and parenting practices. By focusing on expectations about, and the reality of, new parenthood, it explicates the ways in which institutionalised norms about parenthood are internalised and explores what this can tell us about the broader contours of parenthood discourses.
Suffering is ubiquitous. Quests to make sense of it in relation to the existence of God – and to find meaning in our lives in the face of it – are significant aspects of the human experience. Evil and Theodicy motivates the project of theodicy by examining arguments rooted in evil against God's existence and by critically assessing the response of skeptical theism. Ekstrom explores eight different lines of theodicy. She argues that, even if the prospects for theodicy are dim with respect to defending the rationality of theistic belief in light of suffering, nonetheless, work in theodicies is practically useful.
First published in 1973, this influential work discusses Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to show how two of its predictions arise: first, that the ultimate fate of many massive stars is to undergo gravitational collapse to form 'black holes'; and second, that there was a singularity in the past at the beginning of the universe. Starting with a precise formulation of the theory, including the necessary differential geometry, the authors discuss the significance of space-time curvature and examine the properties of a number of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations. They develop the theory of the causal structure of a general space-time, and use it to prove a number of theorems establishing the inevitability of singularities under certain conditions. A Foreword contributed by Abhay Ashtekar and a new Preface from George Ellis help put the volume into context of the developments in the field over the past fifty years.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGGs) are the most recently discovered photoreceptor class in the human retina. This Element integrates new knowledge and perspectives from visual neuroscience, psychology, sleep science and architecture to discuss how melanopsin-mediated ipRGC functions can be measured and their circuits manipulated. It reveals contemporary and emerging lighting technologies as powerful tools to set mind, brain and behaviour.
The Navier-Stokes equations describe the motion of fluids and are an invaluable addition to the toolbox of every physicist, applied mathematician, and engineer. The equations arise from applying Newton's laws of motion to a moving fluid and are considered, when used in combination with mass and energy conservation rules, to be the fundamental governing equations of fluid motion. They are relevant across many disciplines, from astrophysics and oceanic sciences to aerospace engineering and materials science. This Student's Guide provides a clear and focused presentation of the derivation, significance and applications of the Navier-Stokes equations, along with the associated continuity and energy equations. Designed as a useful supplementary resource for undergraduate and graduate students, each chapter concludes with a selection of exercises intended to reinforce and extend important concepts. Video podcasts demonstrating the solutions in full are provided online, along with written solutions and other additional resources.
Over recent decades the global economy has tilted from a trans-Atlantic Euro-American economy towards an Asia-Pacific one, a shift encapsulated by the term Pacific Century. Nine Group of Twenty (G20) nations – Australia, Canada China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Korea, and the USA – are contiguous with the Pacific Rim. Yet despite common use of the adjectives Pacific, trans-Pacific, and Asia-Pacific, the boundaries and structure of this notional economy are still vague. This chapter maps the articulation of a Pacific economy since 1945 through geologistics as a two-stage process, first reformation and densification of pre-war networks until the end of the 1960s, then transformation through the new technologies of container shipping, jet aircraft, and the Internet. It becomes apparent that this transformation had had much greater impact upon adjacent continental economies than upon the vast coastal and almost hollow archipelagic region that may be denoted as Pacifica.
Developmental programming predisposes to life-course disease, impairing multi-organ function. Cumulative changes in cellular phenotype influence healthspan and lifespan. Poor maternal nutrition is a major fetal challenge programming changes in offspring phenotype. We review longitudinal studies showing that nutritional programming accelerates sexually dimorphic ageing in multiple organs. Few studies contain the necessary data over multiple life-course ages to evaluate ageing trajectories. We focus on rodent models designed to address influences of maternal nutritional programming of offspring health and evaluate their effects on functional ageing. We report age-related outcomes in offspring of low protein fed and obese, over-nourished mothers. Effects of exercise and dietary interventions are presented to elucidate mechanisms of ageing-programming interactions. We present in vitro and in vivo data on programming-ageing interaction involving the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reproductive function. We hypothesize that glucocorticoids and ROS represent interactive molecular systems responsible for many programming-ageing interactive outcomes.
Chronic obstructive respiratory diseases, including asthma, are common and a major public health problem. Childhood asthma is associated with increased risks of chronic obstructive respiratory diseases in later adult life. This chapter describes the origins of chronic obstructive respiratory diseases in relation to genetic susceptibility, environmental exposures and their interactions preconceptionally, in utero and postnatally. Asthma in childhood has a strong hereditable component, and genome-wide association studies have identified >400 different genetic variants associated with childhood asthma. Additionally, large-scale epidemiological studies have identified important and potentially modifiable early life exposures related to growth, lifestyle and microbial factors associated with risk of asthma development. Epigenome wide studies focussed on DNA methylation could infer a mechanistic link between these early life exposures and childhood asthma risk. Causality and underlying mechanisms of these associations, as well as potential interactions, need to be further explored. Ultimately, improved mechanistic understanding will inform early life intervention strategies with potential for optimizing later life respiratory health.
Parent-child relationships are extremely important for sexual and gender minoritized youth as they and their families navigate the challenges of “coming out” and living in a highly heteronormative and often homonegative and transnegative society. This chapter presents the current terminology for and demography of LGBTQ youth in the United States; discusses the unique experiences of LGBTQ children and their parents, including child and parent reactions to the coming out process and its reverberations through the family system; reviews the emerging scientific literature on parenting effects on LGBTQ child health and well-being; and considers the implications for policy and clinical practice that support parents of LGBTQ youth in ways that foster nurturance, advocacy, and the health and well-being of both youth and parents.
One key objective of management research is to explain business phenomena. Yet understanding the nature of explanation is essentially a topic in philosophy. This is the first book that bridges the gap between a technical, philosophical treatment of the topic and the more practical needs of management scholars, as well as others across the social sciences. It explores how management phenomena can be explained from a philosophical perspective, and renders sophisticated philosophical arguments understandable by readers without specialized training. Covering virtually all the major aspects of the nature of explanation, this work will enhance empirical and theoretical research, as well as approaches combining the two. With many examples from management literature and business news, this study helps scholars in those fields to improve their research outcomes.
Infants are born predisposed to develop strong relationships to those most likely to protect them; this emotional connection from the child to the protective adult is described as attachment (Ainsworth, 1979; Bowlby, 1983; Crittenden, 2006; Spierling et al., 2019). In turn, parents’ behavioral and physiological responses prime them to respond to attachment behaviors, such as crying, with protective behaviors (Ainsworth, 1979; Bowlby, 1983; Cong et al., 2015). This emotional connection from the attachment figure to the child is described as bonding (Scatliffe et al., 2019). Parental bonding is more often studied in biological mothers, but similar processes of bonding can occur in fathers and other caregivers who act in the role of parents (Bowlby, 1983; Cong et al., 2015; Dayton, Malone, & Brown, 2020). Relationships are a dyadic experience, influenced by both the parent and the child, dynamically changing over time, and shaped by the family context (Ainsworth, 1979; Crittenden, 2006; Wilson et al., 2000). Bonding and attachment are distinct concepts, even though the labels are sometimes used interchangeably (Habib & Lancaster, 2006; McNamara, Townsend, & Herbert, 2019).
This chapter concerns two elemental aspects of parenting research: foundational theories and the establishment of research into parent-child relationships. The six essential theories that have formed the groundwork for understanding parenting are reviewed. These theories are: evolution, attachment, socialization, behavioral genetics, social cognition, and systems. While the earliest theories were developing, research into parenting began to be published. Empirical studies about child rearing appeared in journals with some regularity beginning in the 1930s. Around the same time, child study centers and the interest in child guidance and parent education emerged. Researchers into parent-child relationships have adopted different theoretical approaches, taken multiple and often dissimilar methods, and addressed diverse questions. Many of the studies can be characterized into one of eight approaches: trait, child effects and transactions, social learning, social address, social cognition, behavioral genetics, ecological momentary, and large sample, longitudinal datasets. These approaches are described and contrasted. The chapter ends with discussion of some of the current research trends.
Over the past decade, there have been massive developments in web-based and internet technologies, along with the introduction of smartphones. Smartphones represent a new generation of mobile technology that has fundamentally changed telecommunications (Abboudi and Amin 2011). They are equipped with immense computing capabilities that allow constant access to the internet and they enable more than just voice- and text-based communication. Smartphones are generally regarded as handheld computers rather than merely mobile telephones (Abboudi and Amin 2011). The release of Apple’s iPhone in 2007 most likely sparked a revolution in the telecommunications and information technology arena. The launch of the Apple App Store in July 2008 is also regarded as a pivotal moment in the advancement of smartphone technologies (Payne et al. 2012). The store enables users to download smartphone-based applications (apps) – computer programs that give smartphones capabilities and functions beyond accessing the internet.