To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The role of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) as a wildlife host has complicated the management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle. Badger ranging behaviour has previously been found to be altered by culling of badgers and has been suggested to increase the transmission of bTB either among badgers or between badgers and cattle. In 2014, a five-year bTB intervention research project in a 100 km2 area in Northern Ireland was initiated involving selective removal of dual path platform (DPP) VetTB (immunoassay) test positive badgers and vaccination followed by release of DPP test negative badgers (‘Test and Vaccinate or Remove’). Home range sizes, based on position data obtained from global positioning system collared badgers, were compared between the first year of the project, where no DPP test positive badgers were removed, and follow-up years 2–4 when DPP test positive badgers were removed. A total of 105 individual badgers were followed over 21 200 collar tracking nights. Using multivariable analyses, neither annual nor monthly home ranges differed significantly in size between years, suggesting they were not significantly altered by the bTB intervention that was applied in the study area.
One salient characteristic of twin studies and the related behavioral genetics paradigm is the requirement of a large sample size. Countries or regions that are large in size and highly populated are at an advantage when implementing twin studies. However, given the fascinating and promising results obtained from twin studies, many researchers based in smaller countries or regions may still want to conduct twin studies in order to address local and theoretical issues. In this article, we have outlined the development of twin studies in Hong Kong, one of the Special Administrative Regions of China. The historical development and design of the two major twin studies of language and reading development implemented within Hong Kong are discussed, providing insights to researchers who also aspire to conduct twin studies in small regions.
In the nineteenth century, the Mormons were a minority religious group living on the fringes of the United States in both a geographic and social sense. Yet, in the twenty-first century, historians are increasingly realizing that the history of this marginal religious “other” sheds a great deal of light on the American past broadly conceived. This essay briefly describes an important moment in early Mormon history that illuminates our developing understanding of religious liberty in the early American republic, and the political obstacles Americans outside mainstream protestant Christianity faced in their efforts to obtain equal treatment under the law as American citizens.
Adverse uterine environments caused by maternal stress (such as bacterial endotoxin) can alter programming of the fetal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPAA) rendering offspring susceptible to various adulthood diseases. Thus, protection against this type of stress may be critical for ensuring offspring health. The present study was designed to determine if maternal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) during pregnancy helps to protect against stress-induced fetal programming. Briefly, 53 ewes were fed a diet supplemented with fishmeal (FM) or soybean meal (SM) from day 100 of gestation (gd100) through lactation. On gd135, half the ewes from each dietary group were challenged with either 1.2 μg/kg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, or saline as the control. The offspring’s cortisol response to weaning stress was assessed 50 days postpartum by measuring serum cortisol concentrations 0, 6 and 24 h post weaning. Twenty-four hours post-weaning, lambs were subjected to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (0.5 μg/kg) and serum cortisol concentrations were measured 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h post injection. At 5.5 months of age, offspring were also challenged with 400 ng/kg of LPS, and serum cortisol concentrations were measured 0, 2, 4 and 6 h post challenge. Interestingly, female offspring born to FM+LPS mothers had a greater cortisol response to weaning and endotoxin challenge compared with the other treatments, while female offspring born to SM+LPS mothers had a faster cortisol response to the ACTH stressor. Additionally, males born to FM+LPS mothers had a greater cortisol response to the ACTH challenge than the other treatments. Overall, FM supplementation during gestation combined with LPS challenge alters HPAA responsiveness of the offspring into adulthood.
In recent years, livestock producers have been supplementing animal diets with fish meal (FM) to produce value-added products for health conscious consumers. As components of FM have unique neuroendocrine–immunomodulatory properties, we hypothesize that livestock producers may be influencing the overall health of their animals by supplementing diets with FM. In this study, 40 pregnant ewes were supplemented with rumen protected (RP) soybean meal (SBM: control diet) or RP FM, commencing gestation day 100 (gd100), in order to evaluate the impact of FM supplementation on the innate and acquired immune response and neuroendocrine response of sheep during pregnancy and lactation. On gd135, half the ewes from each diet (n = 10 FM, n = 10 SBM) were challenged iv with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate a systemic bacterial infection and the febrile, respiratory and neuroendocrine responses were monitored over time; the other half (n = 10 FM, n = 10 SBM) of the ewes received a saline injection as control. On lactation day 20 (ld20), all ewes (n = 20 FM, n = 20 SBM) were sensitized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and the serum haptoglobin (Hp) response was measured over time. The cutaneous hypersensitivity response (CHR) to HEWL challenge was measured on ld30 (n = 20 FM, n = 20 SBM), and blood samples were collected over time to measure the primary and secondary immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to HEWL. There was an attenuated trend in the LPS-induced febrile response by the FM treatment when compared with the SBM treatment (P = 0.06), as was also true for the respiratory response (P = 0.07), but significant differences in neuroendocrine function (serum cortisol and plasma ACTH) were not observed between treatments. Basal Hp levels were significantly lower in the FM supplemented ewes when compared with the SBM supplemented ewes (P < 0.01), and the Hp response to HEWL sensitization differed significantly over time between treatments (P < 0.01). The CHR to HEWL was also significantly attenuated in the FM treatment compared with the SBM (P < 0.01); however, treatment differences in the primary and secondary IgG responses to HEWL were not observed. These results indicate that FM supplementation differentially affects the innate and acquired immune responses in pregnant and lactating sheep compared with a typical SBM diet of commercial flocks. The long-term implications of this immunomodulation warrant further investigation.
Ehrlichia are small obligately intracellular bacteria in the order Rickettsiales that are transmitted by ticks and associated with emerging life-threatening human zoonoses. Vaccines are not available for human ehrlichiosis, and therapeutic options are limited to a single antibiotic class. New technologies for exploring host–pathogen interactions have yielded recent advances in understanding the molecular interactions between Ehrlichia and the eukaryotic host cell and identified new targets for therapeutic and vaccine development, including those that target pathogen virulence mechanisms or disrupt the processes associated with ehrlichial effector proteins. Animal models have also provided insight into immunopathological mechanisms that contribute significantly to understanding severe disease manifestations, which should lead to the development of immunomodulatory approaches for treating patients nearing or experiencing severe disease states. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of molecular and cellular pathobiology and the immunobiology of Ehrlichia infection. We identify new molecular host–pathogen interactions that can be targets of new therapeutics, and discuss prospects for treating the immunological dysregulation during acute infection that leads to life-threatening complications.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ruminal infusion of soybean oil (SBO) with either a moderate- or high-forage diet on fat concentration, yield and composition in milk from dairy cows. Six rumen-fistulated Holstein dairy cows (639±51 kg body weight, 140±59 days in milk) were used in the study. Cows were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments, a high forage:concentrate (HFC, 74:26) or a moderate forage:concentrate (MFC, 56:44) total mixed ration. Cows were fed at 08.00 and 13.00 h and pulse-dosed ruminally at 13.00 h over a 10-min duration with 2% of diet dry matter of SBO. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously. Cows receiving the MFC treatment had lower daily mean ruminal pH and ruminal pH was below 6·0 for a longer duration compared with the HFC treatment (640 vs. 262 min/d, P<0·05). Cows receiving the MFC treatment had a greater reduction (diet by week interaction, P<0·05) in milk fat concentration and yield than cows receiving the HFC treatment (42 vs. 22% and 45 vs. 21%, respectively). Additionally, cows receiving the MFC diet had a greater reduction in milk fat concentration (g/100 g FA) of FA <C16 (14 vs. 8%), and a greater increase in concentration of FA >C16 (17 vs. 9%), trans-10 18:1 (159 vs. 21%) and trans-9, cis-11 conjugated linoleic acid (121 vs. 55%) (P<0·05) compared with cows receiving the HFC diet. This study demonstrated that cows fed the MFC diet had lower ruminal pH and showed a greater rate of milk fat depression when infused with SBO.
Investigations to determine the electrical contact
performance under repeated cycles at low force conditions for
carbon-nanotube (CNT) coated surfaces were performed. The surfaces under
investigation consisted of multi-walled CNT synthesized on a silicon
substrate and coated with a gold film. These planar surfaces were mounted on
the tip of a PZT actuator and contacted with a plated Au hemispherical
probe. The dynamic applied force used was 1 mN. The contact resistance
(Rc) of these surfaces was investigated with the applied force and with
repeated loading cycles performed for stability testing. The surfaces were
compared with a reference Au–Au contact under the same experimental
conditions. This initial study shows the potential for the application of
gold coated CNT surfaces as an interface in low force electrical contact
A better understanding of the factors regulating feed efficiency and their potential as predictors of feed efficiency in cattle is needed. Therefore, the potential of three classes of traits, namely, feeding behavior characteristics: daily time at feeder (TF; min/day), time per meal (TM; min), meal size (MS; g DM), eating rate (ER; g DM/min), number of daily meals (NM) and daily visits to the feeder (VF); infrared (IR) thermography traits (°C): eye (EY), cheek (CK), snout (SN), ribs (RB) and hind area (HA); and glucocorticoid levels: fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM; ng/g) and plasma cortisol (PC; ng/ml) as predictors of efficiency were evaluated in 91 steers (436 ± 37 kg) over 2 years (Y1 = 46; Y2 = 45). Additionally, the individual traits of each of these three classes were combined to define three single traits. Individual daily feed intake of a corn silage and high-moisture corn-based diet was measured using an automated feeding system. Body weight and thermographs were taken every 28 days over a period of 140 days. Four productive performance traits were calculated: daily dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed to gain ratio (F : G) and residual feed intake (RFI). Steers were also classified into three RFI categories (low-, medium- and high-RFI). Among the feeding behavior characteristics, MS and ER were correlated with all efficiency traits (range: 0.26 to 0.75). Low-RFI (more efficient steers) had smaller MS, lower ER and fewer VF in comparison to high-RFI steers. Less efficient steers (high-RFI) performed more VF during the nocturnal period than more efficient steers. More efficient steers had lower CK and SN temperatures than less efficient steers (28.1°C v. 29.2°C and 30.0°C v. 31.2°C), indicating greater energetic efficiency for low-RFI steers. In terms of glucocorticoids, PC was not correlated with efficiency traits. In contrast, more efficient steers had higher FCM in comparison to less efficient steers (51.1 v. 31.2 ng/g), indicating that a higher cortisol baseline is related to better feed efficiency. The overall evaluation of the three classes of traits revealed that feeding behavior, IR thermography and glucocorticoids accounted for 18%, 59% and 7% of the total variation associated with RFI, respectively. These classes of traits have usefulness in the indirect assessment of feed efficiency in cattle. Among them, IR thermography was the most promising alternative to screen cattle for this feed efficiency. These findings might have application in selection programs and in the better understanding of the biological basis associated with productive performance.
Offshore seismic reflection profiles crossing the Caledonian orogenic front (locally, ?Moine thrust) between Shetland and the Scottish Highlands show a singular coherent east-dipping reflection underlain by a highly reflective dipping zone in the middle crust extending down to the Moho discontinuity. This reflector pattern varies spatially with respect to the eastern edge of the Precambrian Lewisian foreland as well as to previously mapped locations of the Moine thrust. Southwest of Shetland, the reflector pattern coincides with the offshore projection of the Moine thrust, but further south, toward the Highlands, the reflector diverges to the west of the thrust and actually underlies autochthonous Lewisian foreland basement. Where this reflector pattern diverges from the Moine thrust, two interpretations are possible: the prominent reflector is part of a basement imbricate thrust duplex within the footwall (or ‘lower plate’) of the Moine thrust that merges with the thrust zone further north and/or it was originally a Proterozoic normal fault which, further north around Shetland, was reactivated or over-printed by the Moine thrust. The latter interpretation supports the importance of pre-existing crustal structure in controlling Caledonian compressional deformation.
A variety of factors influence the voluntary intake of ruminants including reticulo-rumen fill or distension (Campling & Balch, 1961; Welch, 1967; Grovum, 1979) and rate of passage of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract (Bines & Davey, 1970). The exit point of the reticulo-rumen, the reticulo-omasal orifice, potentially serves as a control site in regulation of particle movement from the rumen.
However, little definitive information on the functional behaviour of this anatomical location is available. Therefore, a fibre-optic endoscopic technique was designed to allow visual observation of the reticulo-omasal orifice in conscious, fed cattle.
America, New Hyde Park, NY) and a 35 mm camera (Olympus 0M-2N with 1–9 focusing screen) was attached. Photographs were taken at a shutter speed of 1/30 or 1/60 sec. The film used was Kodak (ASA 160) tungsten balanced slide film. Prints were generated from slides using the Cibachrome P30 process. An Olympus CLK-3 cold light source, having a colour temperature of 3200 °K, provided the illumination for projection through the endoscope. Opening and closing of the reticuloomasal orifice were photographed using this procedure.
This study examines the relationship of child sexual abuse to classroom academic performance and behavior in a sample of 6–16-year-old girls. Half of the sample was sexually abused by a family member. The other half is a demographically similar nonabused comparison group. Measures of academic performance include school records, teacher's ratings of classroom behavior and performance, and parental reports of school performance. Possible mediators of the impact of sexual abuse on classroom performance and behavior – cognitive capability, perceived competence, and behavior problems–are also measured. Results can be summarized as follows, (a) A history of sexual abuse does predict academic performance: Abuse is directly negatively related to ratings of classroom social competence, competent learner, and overall academic performance and positively related to school avoidant behavior, but is not related to grades, (b) Sexual abuse is negatively related to cognitive ability and positively related to measures of behavior problems indicating depression, destructiveness, and dissociation, (c) Cognitive ability and perceived competence predict the more “academic” aspects of academic performance—grades, ratings as a competent learner, and overall academic performance. Behavior problems predict ratings as a competent learner, classroom social competence, school avoidant behavior, and overall academmic performance.
Sensitivity analysis is routinely carried out in the evaluation of simulation models to identify the degree to which parameters influence model outputs. This type of sensitivity analysis is much less frequently applied to real systems, but a technique called metabolic control analysis (MCA) was developed in the 1970s for the purpose of experimentally identifying the degree to which individual enzymes in a metabolic pathway influence flux through the pathway. MCA is applied to the results of inhibition, activation or genetic manipulation of enzymatic steps in a biochemical pathway. Flux control coefficients for each enzyme are defined as the fractional change in steady-state flux through the entire pathway for an infinitesimal change in the activity of that one enzyme. The sum of control coefficients in a linear, non-branching pathway is equal to one. It is a common finding in MCA that the control, or sensitivity, is distributed over multiple enzymes and not in a single rate-limiting enzyme. The fundamental principles of MCA are reviewed and an overview of experimental methods to measure control coefficients is provided, with the objective of introducing this approach to the fields of agricultural biochemistry and modelling, where it is little known. The application of MCA to the study of glucose metabolism and fatty acid synthesis in bovine mammary tissue are reviewed. The analyses indicated that mammary hexokinase activity exerts more control than transmembrane transport of glucose over lactose synthesis, and that control of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis is shared between acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, contrary to the widely held view that acetyl CoA carboxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme. It is suggested that MCA could be a valuable aid in the integration of proteomic and metabolomic data with metabolic flux measurements to engineer desired changes in the composition of milk from dairy animals.