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Six on-farm studies determined the effects of a rolled rye cover crop, herbicide program, and planting technique on cotton stand, weed control, and cotton yield in Georgia. Treatments included: (1) rye drilled broadcast with 19-cm row spacing and a broadcast-herbicide program (2) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row and a broadcast-herbicide program (3) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row with PPI and PRE herbicides banded in the cotton planting row, and (4) no cover crop (i.e., weedy cover) with broadcast herbicides. At two locations, cotton stand was lowest with rye drilled broadcast; at these sites the rye-free zone maximized stand equal to the no-cover system. At a third location, cover crop systems resulted in greater stand, due to enhanced soil moisture preservation compared with the no-cover system. Treatments did not influence cotton stand at the other three locations and did not differ in the control of weeds other than Palmer amaranth at any location. Treatments controlled Palmer amaranth equally at three locations; however, differences were observed at the three locations having the greatest glyphosate-resistant plant densities. For these locations, when broadcasting herbicides, Palmer amaranth populations were reduced 82% to 86% in the broadcast rye and rye-free zone systems compared with the no-cover system at harvest. The system with banded herbicides was nearly 21 times less effective than the similar system broadcasting herbicides. At these locations, yields in the rye broadcast and rye-free zone systems with broadcast herbicides were increased 9% to 16% compared with systems with no cover or a rye-free zone with PPI and PRE herbicides banded. A rolled rye cover crop can lessen weed emergence and selection pressure while improving weed control and cotton yield, but herbicides should be broadcast in fields heavily infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth.
Sugarbeet, grown for biofuel, is being considered as an alternate cool-season crop in the southeastern United States. Previous research identified ethofumesate PRE and phenmedipham + desmedipham POST as herbicides that controlled troublesome cool-season weeds in the region, specifically cutleaf evening-primrose. Research trials were conducted from 2014 through 2016 to evaluate an integrated system of sweep cultivation and reduced rates of ethofumesate PRE and/or phenmedipham+desmedipham POST for weed control in sugarbeet grown for biofuel. There were no interactions between the main effects of cultivation and herbicides for control of cutleaf evening-primrose and other cool-season species in two out of three years. Cultivation improved control of cool-season weeds, but the effect was largely independent of control provided by herbicides. Of the herbicide combinations evaluated, the best overall cool-season weed control was from systems that included either a 1/2X or 1X rate of phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. Either rate of ethofumesate PRE was less effective than phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. Despite improved cool-season weed control, sugarbeet yield was not affected by cultivation each year of the study. Sugarbeet yields were greater when treated with any herbicide combination that included either a 1/2X or 1X rate of phenmedipham+desmedipham POST compared with either rate of ethofumesate PRE alone or the nontreated control. These results indicate that cultivation has a very limited role in sugarbeet grown for biofuel. The premise of effective weed control based on an integration of cultivation and reduced herbicide rates does not appear to be viable for sugarbeet grown for biofuel.
Sugarbeet, grown for biofuel, is being considered as an alternate cool-season crop in the southeastern U.S. coastal plain. Typically, the crop would be seeded in the autumn, then grow through the winter and be harvested the following spring. Labels for herbicides registered for use on sugarbeet grown in the traditional sugarbeet production regions do not list any of the cool-season weeds common in the southeastern United States. Field trials were initiated near Ty Ty, GA, to evaluate all possible combinations of ethofumesate applied PRE, phenmedipham+desmedipham applied POST, clopyralid POST, and triflusulfuron POST for cool-season weed control in sugarbeet. Phenmedipham+desmedipham alone and in combination with clopyralid and/or triflusulfuron effectively controlled cutleaf eveningprimrose, lesser swinecress, henbit, and corn spurry when applied to seedling weeds. Ethofumesate PRE alone was not as effective in controlling cool-season weeds compared to treatments containing phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. However, ethofumesate PRE applied sequentially with phenmedipham+desmedipham POST improved weed control consistency. Clopyralid and/or triflusulfuron alone did not adequately control cutleaf eveningprimrose. Triflusulfuron alone effectively controlled wild radish. In the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 seasons, December-applied POST herbicides did not injure sugarbeet. However, in the 2015–2016 season POST herbicides were applied in late October. On the day of treatment, the maximum temperature was 25.4 C, which exceeded the established upper temperature limit of 22 C for safe application of phenmedipham+desmedipham, and sugarbeet plants were severely injured. In the southeastern United States, temperatures frequently exceed 22 C in early autumn, which may limit phenmedipham+desmedipham use for controlling troublesome cool-season weeds of sugarbeet in the region. Weed control options need to be expanded to compensate for this limitation.
Experiments were conducted to test the accuracy of a global positioning system (GPS) in measuring the area of simulated weed patches of varying size and to determine the accuracy in navigating back to particular points in a field. Circular areas of 5, 50, and 500 m2 were established and measured using point and polygon features of a GPS. The GPS estimations of the area of those patches had errors ranging from 7 to 45%, 6 to 15%, and 3 to 6%, respectively, when compared to actual measurements. As patch size increased, errors decreased. A curve describing the relationship between GPS error and patch size had an excellent fit (r2 = 0.92). The error remained the same in all measurements across all patch sizes, but composed a smaller percentage of large patches. The GPS had submeter accuracy in navigation to the correct quadrat 73% of the time, located the correct quadrat 27% of the time, and invariably navigated to within 1.58 m of the correct quadrat. The relationship between patch size and measurement error was applied to natural infestations of hemp dogbane.
The Southern Weed Science Society has conducted an annual survey of the most troublesome weeds in several major crops since 1971. The objective of this summary was to characterize shifts in weed populations over a 22-yr period in four major agronomic crops. For corn, soybean, cotton, and peanut, the largest increases in rank as the most troublesome weeds were found with sicklepod and bermudagrass. The largest decreases were found with johnsongrass, crab-grasses, and common cocklebur. Morningglories and nutsedges remained relatively constant weed problems over the 22-yr period. Sicklepod, nutsedges, and morningglories were the three most troublesome weeds averaged over all crops because they are so well established and relatively difficult to control. Pigweeds (Palmer amaranth, sandhills amaranth, tumble pigweed, and water-hemps) have become increasingly important in soybean, peanut, and cotton in a limited number of states.
Field experiments were established at Columbus and near South Charleston, OH to determine the effects of giant ragweed population density on soybean yield and to characterize the development of giant ragweed grown in 76-cm soybean rows. An economic threshold was calculated for Ohio using a common treatment for giant ragweed control in soybean. A cost of $41/ha was estimated for a farmer to apply 0.56 kg/ha bentazon plus 0.28 kg/ha fomesafen plus COC (1.25% v/v). Assuming a soybean value of $0.22/kg, the cost of control was equivalent to 5.4 and 7.1% of the soybean yield in 1991 and 1992, respectively, which corresponded to the yield loss caused by 0.08 and 0.03 giant ragweed plants/m2. The competitiveness of giant ragweed can be at least partly attributed to its ability to initiate and maintain axillary leaves and branches within the shaded confines of the soybean canopy.
The objectives of this study were to determine how the timing of weed management treatments in winter wheat stubble affects weed control the following season and to determine if spring herbicide rates in corn can be reduced with appropriately timed stubble management practices. Field studies were conducted at two sites in Ohio between 1993 and 1995. Wheat stubble treatments consisted of glyphosate (0.84 kg ae/ha) plus 2,4-D (0.48 kg ae/ha) applied in July, August, or September, or at all three timings, and a nontreated control. In the following season, spring herbicide treatments consisted of a full rate of atrazine (1.7 kg ai/ha) plus alachlor (2.8 kg ai/ha) preemergence, a half rate of these herbicides, or no spring herbicide treatment. Across all locations, a postharvest treatment of glyphosate plus 2,4-D followed by alachlor plus atrazine at half or full rates in the spring controlled all broadleaf weeds, except giant ragweed, at least 88%. Giant foxtail control at three locations was at least 83% when a postharvest glyphosate plus 2,4-D treatment was followed by spring applications of alachlor plus atrazine at half or full rates. Weed control in treatments without alachlor plus atrazine was variable, although broadleaf control from July and August glyphosate plus 2,4-D applications was greater than from September applications. Where alachlor and atrazine were not applied, August was generally the best timing of herbicide applications to wheat stubble for reducing weed populations the following season.
Understanding patterns of weed seedling emergence within a growing season and over years is important to develop models to predict optimum timing of weed management practices. A study was conducted in a field with no previous velvetleaf infestations to describe emergence patterns following seed burial at three depths in two tillage systems. Freshly harvested velvetleaf seeds were planted 0, 2, and 6 cm deep in moldboard plowed (MP) and no-tillage (NT) corn stubble in October 1990. Velvetleaf seedling emergence was monitored over the following 4 yr in continuous corn. Emergence was higher in NT than in MP plots throughout 4 yr of observation. The first growing season following seeding, emerged seedlings represented 9.3 to 15.8% of the seeds sown in NT, compared with 0.1 to 0.8% of seeds sown in MP. After four growing seasons, emerged seedlings were 12.5 to 25% of seeds sown in NT but only 6 to 7.4 % of seeds sown in MP. Emergence was consistently higher from the 0-cm depth than from the 6-cm depth in NT, but seeding depth did not influence emergence in MP due to mixing of the soil during tillage. Velvetleaf emergence was related to growing degree days (base 7.5 C), with greater consistency in NT than in MP. Averaged over years and planting depths, 50% velvetleaf emergence occurred within 8 and 13 d of the predicted date in NT and MP systems, respectively.
Experiments were conducted in 1991 and 1992 to evaluate the weed control effectiveness from several rates of AC 263,222 applied PPI and PRE (36 and 72 g ai/ha), early POST (EPOST) (18, 36, 54, or 72 g/ha), POST (18, 36, 54, or 72 g/ha), and EPOST followed by (fb) POST (27 fb 27 g/ha or 36 fb 36 g/ha). These treatments were compared to the commercial standard of bentazon at 0.28 kg ai/ha plus paraquat at 0.14 kg ai/ha EPOST fb bentazon at 0.56 kg/ha plus paraquat at 0.14 kg/ha plus 2,4-DB at 0.28 kg ae/ha. Application method had little effect on weed control with AC 263,222. In contrast, application rate affected control. Purple nutsedge, yellow nutsedge, prickly sida, smallflower morningglory, bristly starbur, common cocklebur, and coffee senna were controlled at least 82% with AC 263,222 at 36 g/ha (one-half the maximum registered use rate) regardless of application method. AC 263,222 at 72 g/ha (registered use rate) controlled sicklepod 84 to 93%, Florida beggarweed 65 to 100%, and Ipomoea morningglory species 89 to 99%. A single application of AC 263,222 at 36 g/ha or more controlled all weeds (with the exception of Florida beggarweed) as well or greater than sequential applications of bentazon plus paraquat fb bentazon, paraquat, and 2,4-DB. All rates of AC 263,222 applied POST and all application methods of AC 263,222 at 72 g/ha had better yields than the pendimethalin control.
A field study was conducted in 1994 and 1995 to determine the effect of MON 12037, linuron, and ametryn on purple nutsedge density in field corn in a 2-yr rotation with cotton. Each corn treatment included cultivation and noncultivation. A standard treatment for purple nutsedge control was applied to all cotton plots in the second season of the corn–cotton rotation. Purple nutsedge shoot densities were reduced in cultivated MON 12037, noncultivated MON 12037, and cultivated ametryn in the corn–corn and corn–cotton rotations. Purple nutsedge tuber population was reduced in the corn–corn rotation by MON 12037 with and without cultivation, cultivated linuron, and cultivated ametryn treatments relative to the noncultivated check. In the corn–cotton rotation, purple nutsedge tuber population was reduced only by the cultivated MON 12037 and cultivated ametryn treatments relative to the noncultivated check.
Apocynum cannabinum is a native creeping perennial distributed throughout the U.S., with increasing importance in reduced tillage systems throughout the Midwest. Apocynum cannabinum has been shown to be a difficult species to control in field crops. Effective weed management is often a function of the timing of control practice. Knowledge of weed emergence patterns may be useful in predicting the optimum time of weed management. The objectives of these studies were to describe how temperature and moisture affect A. cannabinum seed germination and to describe the relationship between growing degree units (GDU) and A. cannabinum vegetative shoot emergence. At constant temperatures, seed germination was described as a sigmoidal function of temperature (r2 = 0.83), with maximum germination (32%) from 26 to 34 C. Under alternating temperatures, seed germination increased in a linear relationship between mean temperatures of 15 and 34 C (r2 = 0.85). Maximum seed germination (88%) occurred at a mean temperature of 34 C under alternating temperatures. The relationship between seed germination and osmotic potential between −1.0 and 0 MPa was described by a gompertz function (r2 = 0.98). Germination at −1.0 MPa was 4% and increased in a near linear manner to the nontreated control (0 MPa), which had 80% germination. Vegetative shoot emergence in 1997 and 1998 had a sigmoidal relationship to GDU using a base temperature of 6 C (r2 = 0.96). However, initial shoot appearance was not consistent over years, with first emergence recorded on May 21, 1997 (132 GDU), and May 5, 1998 (73 GDU). Approximately 50% of the shoots emerged before June 7, 1997 (282 GDU), and May 21, 1998 (285 GDU); therefore, optimal weed management programs will need to be initiated following this GDU accumulation.
Low resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and to a lesser extent excessive RSA reactivity to emotion evocation, are observed in many psychiatric disorders characterized by emotion dysregulation, including syndromes spanning the internalizing and externalizing spectra, and other conditions such as nonsuicidal self-injury. Nevertheless, some inconsistencies exist. For example, null outcomes in studies of RSA–emotion dysregulation relations are sometimes observed among younger participants. Such findings may derive from use of age inappropriate frequency bands in calculating RSA. We combine data from five published samples (N = 559) spanning ages 4 to 17 years, and reanalyze RSA data using age-appropriate respiratory frequencies. Misspecifying respiratory frequencies results in overestimates of resting RSA and underestimates of RSA reactivity, particularly among young children. Underestimates of developmental shifts in RSA and RSA reactivity from preschool to adolescence were also observed. Although correlational analyses revealed weak negative associations between resting RSA and aggression, those with clinical levels of externalizing exhibited lower resting RSA than their peers. No associations between RSA reactivity and externalizing were observed. Results confirm that age-corrected frequency bands should be used when estimating RSA, and that literature-wide overestimates of resting RSA, underestimates of RSA reactivity, and underestimates of developmental shifts in RSA and RSA reactivity may exist.
Field experiments were conducted in Citra, FL, and Tifton, GA, to evaluate simulated drift of dicamba and 2,4-D on cotton. Drift applications were made at the sixth leaf and first square growth stages using variable and constant carrier volumes and the same herbicide rate. Drift applied using variable carrier volumes were proportionally reduced with the herbicide rate while drift applied at constant carrier volumes were all made at 140 L ha-1, regardless of herbicide rate. At 21 DAT, dicamba applied at variable carrier volumes reduced cotton heights 8% [from nontreated check (NTC)] compared to no change in height with dicamba applied at constant carrier volumes. The same effect was seen with 2,4-D applied at first square where variable carrier volumes decreased cotton heights 18% (from NTC) compared to 2% at 140 L ha-1. Cotton yields were reduced to 70% of NTC when dicamba was applied at sixth leaf at variable carrier volumes compared to 87% at constant carrier volumes. The same response was seen with 2,4-D applied at sixth leaf where variable carrier volumes reduced cotton yields to 19% of NTC compared to 32% at constant carrier volumes. Cotton injury, height, boll production, and yield were all affected by drift carrier volume. When simulating herbicide drift in the future, it is critical to use variable carrier volumes for application as constant carrier volumes have shown to decrease the amount of plant injury observed.
The presence of weeds during bermudagrass putting green establishment can reduce growth and turf quality. Three field experiments were conducted in Georgia to investigate efficacy of dimethenamid, S-metolachlor, and oxadiazon on the establishment of ‘TifEagle’ bermudagrass from sprigs. Dimethenamid at 0.85 and 1.7 kg ai ha−1, S-metolachlor at 1.1 and 2.2 kg ai ha−1, and oxadiazon at 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 kg ai ha−1 did not reduce bermudagrass cover from the untreated after 8 wk. S-metolachlor at 4.4 kg ha−1 was the only treatment that reduced sprig cover from the untreated after 12 wk. All S-metolachlor and oxadiazon treatments provided excellent (≥ 90%) green kyllinga control by 8 wk after treatment (WAT) while dimethenamid at 0.85, 1.7, and 3.4 kg ha−1 provided 78, 85, and 92% control, respectively. Dimethenamid treatments provided poor control (< 70%) of spotted spurge but fair control (70 to 79%) was achieved from S-metolachlor at 4.4 kg ha−1 and oxadiazon at 2.2 and 4.4 kg ha−1 by 8 WAT. Overall, low to middle rates of the herbicides tested appear to temporarily inhibit TifEagle bermudagrass sprig establishment but high rates of dimethenamid and S-metolachlor may reduce cover from the untreated.
There is little information published on patch expansion of perennial weeds and none for Apocynum cannabinum. Studies were conducted to measure the between-season and in-season expansion patterns of natural A. cannabinum patches over three growing seasons. Regression analysis indicated strong relations between patch area in consecutive years 1996 to 1997 (r2 = 0.81) and 1997 to 1998 (r2 = 0.76). Patches less than 20 m2 in 1996 increased in area by more than 100% in 1997 during a fallow season. However, patches decreased in size 6 to 51% between 1997 and 1998 when Glycine max was grown. Evidence suggested that a late-season mowing of the A. cannabinum patches in 1997 contributed more to the decline in patch area than competition from G. max during the 1998 season. The relations between patch area and growing degree units (r2 = 0.97) indicated that greater than 89% of the terminal patch expansion occurred prior to the accumulation of 435 growing degree units (GDU) (June 19, 1997; May 31, 1998; June 9, 30-yr average), with minimal patch expansion between 435 and 1,000 GDU. Patches were at 50% of their final area on May 27, 1997, and May 14, 1998, a time when only 22% of the A. cannabinum population had emerged (r2 = 0.99). Knowledge of patch size and expansion could help growers time weed scouting, to account for the later emergence patterns of this species, as well as assist in timing appropriate weed management efforts. This information could also be used in conjunction with aerial photographs to project potential patch size for site-specific management of this weed.
Centipedegrass is a warm-season turf grass that has increased in popularity in recent years. However, more information is needed on the use of herbicides during centipedegrass establishment from seed, particularly in seed and sod production systems. The intent of this study was to evaluate turf-grass injury and weed control when atrazine, imazapic, imazethapyr, and simazine are applied immediately after seeding centipedegrass. Atrazine and simazine (applied at 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 kg ai/ ha) injured centipedegrass less than 15% at 5 wk after treatment (WAT) in 2001. Imazethapyr and imazapic (applied at 0.04, 0.07, and 0.1 kg ai/ha) injured centipedegrass between 7 and 13%, 5 WAT, in 2001 and from 30 to 77% in 2002. Herbicide and application rate also affected centipedegrass cover. At 3 WAT, cover decreased with all herbicides as application rate increased. At 12 WAT in both years, centipedegrass cover increased as atrazine application rate increased and imazethapyr application rate decreased. Imazapic and simazine were less consistent, causing increases in cover one year and decreases, or no change, the next. Imazapic controlled Texas panicum 80 to 89% and was more effective than any other herbicide. Atrazine and simazine controlled crowfootgrass better than any other herbicide. Imazethapyr often injured centipedegrass and failed to control weeds. Atrazine effectively controlled grass and broadleaf weeds with minimal centipedegrass injury. Imazethapyr and imazapic were too injurious to permit usage during centipedegrass establishment from seed.
Florida beggarweed is native to the Western Hemisphere but is naturalized around the world. During the last century, the mechanization of agriculture has transitioned Florida beggarweed from an important forage component to a weed of significance in the coastal plain of the southeast United States. This herbaceous annual is naturalized and found in fields and disturbed areas throughout the southern United States. The characteristics that made Florida beggarweed a good forage crop also make it a formidable weed. This review describes the importance of Florida beggarweed as a weed in the southern United States and the taxonomy of this species and details the distribution throughout the world and within the United States. The ecology of Florida beggarweed and its interactions with crop plants, insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens also are summarized. Finally, management of Florida beggarweed in agricultural systems using cultural practices and herbicides is reviewed.
Introduction of glyphosate resistance into crops through genetic modification has revolutionized crop protection. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide with favorable environmental characteristics and effective broad-spectrum weed control that has greatly improved crop protection efficiency. However, in less than a decade, the utility of this technology is threatened by the occurrence of glyphosate-tolerant and glyphosate-resistant weed species. Factors that have contributed to this shift in weed species composition in Georgia cotton production are reviewed, along with the implications of continued overreliance on this technology. Potential scenarios for managing glyphosate-resistant populations, as well as implications on the role of various sectors for dealing with this purported tragedy of the commons, are presented. Benghal dayflower, a glyphosate-tolerant species, continues to spread through Georgia and surrounding states, whereas glyphosate susceptibility in Palmer amaranth is endangered in Georgia and other cotton-producing states in the southern United States. Improved understanding of how glyphosate susceptibility in our weed species spectrum was compromised (either through occurrence of herbicide-tolerant or -resistant weed species) may allow us to avoid repeating these mistakes with the next herbicide-resistant technology.
Purple and yellow nutsedge are the most troublesome weeds of vegetable crops in the southeast United States. Elimination of methyl bromide use will require alternative management programs to suppress nutsedge growth and interference in vegetables. Polyethylene mulch is an effective barrier for most weeds; however, nutsedges can proliferate in beds covered with polyethylene mulch. The influence of polyethylene mulch on shoot production and lateral expansion patterns of single tubers of purple nutsedge and yellow nutsedge over time was evaluated in field studies. Purple nutsedge patch size was similar in the black mulch treatment and nonmulched control after 8 and 16 wk after planting (WAP). By the end of the growing season, purple nutsedge patch size in the black mulch treatment was nearly twice that in the nonmulched control. At 32 WAP, there were 1,550 shoots in the 16.1 m2 patch in the black mulch treatment and 790 shoots in the 8.1 m2 patch in the nonmulched control. In contrast, yellow nutsedge growth was suppressed in the black mulch treatment, relative to the nonmulched control. Compared with the black mulch treatment at 16 and 24 WAP, the nonmulched control produced nearly three times as many yellow nutsedge shoots (140 shoots at 16 WAP and 210 shoots at 24 WAP) and patches that were twice the size (0.10 m2 at 16 WAP and 0.18 m2 at 24 WAP). These data indicate that there are significant differences in the growth habits of the two nutsedges species in mulched vegetable systems. The differences in response to black mulch will likely lead to purple nutsedge becoming a greater problem, relative to yellow nutsedge, in vegetable systems. The rapid expansion of a single purple nutsedge shoot to form a patch that is 22.1 m2 and containing 3,440 shoots at 60 WAP illustrates the importance of managing this species.
Purple nutsedge is among the most troublesome weeds of vegetables in the
Southeast US and a substantial impediment in the search for methyl bromide
alternatives. Greater understanding of the environmental cues that regulate
tuber sprouting may assist in improved nutsedge management. Experiments were
conducted to evaluate the effect of diurnal temperature variation on
sprouting of purple nutsedge tubers. Two temperature regimes were evaluated:
the first averaged 28 C, with daily fluctuations ranging from 0 to 19.5 C;
the second temperature regime averaged 16 C, with daily fluctuations ranging
from 0 to 18.5 C. When average temperature was 28 C, cumulative tuber
sprouting ranged from 88 to 92%, with no detectable differences among
diurnal fluctuations. The high average temperature in the first study may
have negated any type of enforced sprouting suppression. However, when
average temperature was lowered to 16 C (simulating early spring diurnal
fluctuations under polyethylene mulch), there was a positive linear
correlation between maximum tuber sprouting and temperature variation. With
an average temperature of 16 C, the absence of temperature variation
resulted in 52% purple nutsedge sprouting, while 87% sprouting occurred when
daily temperature varied 18.5 C at the same average temperature. The use of
various types of mulching material can affect average soil temperatures and
diurnal variations, potentially shifting nutsedge emergence. Further studies
are needed to determine if these data on tuber sprouting in response to
alternating temperatures can facilitate more efficient weed management.