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To evaluate the relationships of fibre intake with subsequent BMI sd-score, waist-to-height ratio and serum fasting glucose levels among school-age Japanese children.
This is a prospective study of school-age Japanese children. Participants were followed from 6–7 to 9–10 years of age (follow-up rate: 92·0 %). Fibre intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Serum fasting glucose was measured by a hexokinase enzymatic method. Using a general linear model, the associations between dietary fibre intake at baseline and BMI sd-score, waist-to-height ratio, and serum levels of fasting glucose at follow-up were evaluated after considering potential confounding factors.
Public elementary schools in a city in Japan
A total of 2784 students.
The estimated means for fasting glucose at 9–10 years of age were 86·45, 85·68, 85·88 and 85·58 mg/dl in the lowest, second, third and highest quartile of fibre intake at 6–7 years of age, respectively (P = 0·033, trend P = 0·018). Higher fibre intake at 6–7 years of age was associated with lower waist-to-height ratio at 9–10 years of age (trend P = 0·023). The change in fibre intake was inversely associated with concurrent change of BMI sd-score (trend P = 0·044).
These results suggest that dietary fibre intake may be potentially effective to limit excess weight gain and lower glucose levels during childhood.
Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that nut intake is associated with a reduced risk of mortality. Although diets and lifestyles differ by regions or races/ethnicities, few studies have investigated the associations among non-white, non-Western populations. We evaluated the associations of total nut and peanut intakes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a population-based prospective cohort in Japan. Participants (age: ≥35 years at baseline in 1992; n 31 552) were followed up until death or the end of follow-up in 2008. Those with cancer, CHD or stroke at baseline were excluded. Dietary intake was assessed only at baseline by using a validated FFQ. In total, 2901 men died during 183 299 person-years and 2438 women died during 227 054 person-years. The mean intakes of total nuts were 1·8 and 1·4 g/d in men and women, respectively. Although peanut intake accounted for approximately 80 % of the total nut intake, total nut and peanut intakes were inversely associated with all-cause mortality in men after adjusting for all potential confounders. For example, compared with the lowest quartile category, the adjusted hazard ratio (95 % CI) of total nut intake for all-cause mortality in men of the highest quartile category was 0·85 (95 % CI 0·75, 0·96) (Pfor trend = 0·034). Peanut intake was inversely associated with digestive disease mortality in men and CVD mortality in women. Total nut and peanut intakes, even in low amounts, were associated with a reduced risk of mortality particularly in men.
Studies on the intake of different types of carbohydrates and long-term mortality are sparse. We examined the association of starch, total and each type of sugar and free sugars with the risk of total and cause-specific mortality in a cohort of the general population in Japan. Study subjects were 29 079 residents from the Takayama Study, Japan, who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in 1992. Diet was assessed by a validated FFQ at the baseline. Mortality was ascertained during 16 years of follow-up. We noted 2901 deaths (974 cancer related and 775 cardiovascular related) in men and 2438 death (646 cancer related and 903 cardiovascular related) in women. In men, intake of starch was inversely associated with total mortality after controlling for covariates (hazard ratio (HR) for the highest quartile v. lowest quartile: 0·71; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·84; Ptrend < 0·001). Intakes of total sugars, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose and free and naturally occurring sugars were significantly positively associated with total mortality in men (HR for the highest v. lowest quartile of total sugar: 1·27; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·45; Ptrend < 0·0001). Similar relations were observed for cardiovascular mortality and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality in men. In women, there was no significant association between any type of carbohydrates and mortality except that intake of free sugars was significantly positively associated with total and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality. Data suggest that the high intake of starch reduces mortality, whereas the high intake of sugars, including glucose, fructose and sucrose, increases mortality in Japanese men.
Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption is inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Evidence from studies targeting non-white, non-Western populations is still sparse, although coffee is popular and widely consumed in Asian countries.
Population-based, prospective cohort study. We used Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for dietary and lifestyle factors to estimate associations between coffee consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Dietary intake including coffee consumption was assessed only at baseline using a validated FFQ.
A Japanese city.
Individuals aged 35 years or older without cancer, CHD and stroke at baseline (n 29 079) and followed from 1992 to 2008.
From 410 352 person-years, 5339 deaths were identified (mean follow-up = 14·1 years). Coffee consumption was inversely associated with mortality from all causes and CVD among all participants, but not from cancer. Compared with the category of ‘none’, the multivariate hazard ratio (95 % CI) for all-cause mortality was 0·93 (0·86, 1·00) for <1 cup/d, 0·84 (0·76, 0·93) for 1 cup/d and 0·81 (0·71, 0·92) for 2–3 cups/d. The multivariate hazard ratio (95 % CI) for cardiovascular mortality were 0·87 (0·77, 0·99) for <1 cup/d, 0·76 (0·63, 0·92) for 1 cup/d and 0·67 (0·50, 0·89) for 2–3 cups/d. Inverse associations were also observed for mortality from other causes, specifically infectious and digestive diseases.
Drinking coffee, even 1 cup/d, was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular, infectious and digestive diseases.
(1 − x) (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3–xBiFeO3 (x = 0–0.9) ceramics were prepared and the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties along with the crystal structure were investigated. The crystal system of the ceramics was rhombohedral with the R3c symmetry throughout the compositions. The rhombohedral distortion (90° − α), where α was the rhombohedral angle based on a pseudocubic perovskite cell, was minimized at x = 0.1, while the lattice constant increased linearly with x. Saturated ferroelectric polarization-electric field hysteresis loops were observed at x = 0–0.6. The coercive field was reduced at x = 0.05–0.2 and the high remanent polarization of 30–35 µC/cm2 was obtained at x = 0–0.4. The piezoelectric constants d33 and d33* (which was calculated from a unipolar strain–electric field curve) were maximized to 93 pC/N at x = 0.1 and 183 pm/V at x = 0.05, respectively. These results suggested that the increase in the piezoelectric properties was associated with the reduction in the rhombohedral distortion, which could be useful in development of high performance lead-free piezoelectric materials.
Transparent 0.67(Pb1−xLax)(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.33(Pb1−xLax)TiO3 (x = 0–0.05) ceramics were successfully prepared without using a hot-pressing technique. The optical transmittance at the wave length of 400–2000 nm increased with increasing lanthanum (La) content, x from 0 to 0.03. The transmittance at 600–2000 nm further increased (with the highest transmittance of 68% at 2000 nm for ceramics with thickness of 0.5 mm) at x = 0.04 and 0.05, while the transmittance at 400–600 nm decreased. X-ray diffraction patterns suggested that the overall increase in the transmittance with x was associated with a change in the crystal systems from a monoclinic phase to a pseudocubic phase, and the decrease at x = 0.04 and 0.05 was related to the formation of an impurity second phase. Their microstructures and dielectric properties were also studied.
Crystal structure change with an applied electric field was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the 1 μm-thick (100)/(001) one-axis oriented tetragonal Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 films prepared on Pt-covered (100) Si substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. As-deposited films were under the strained condition in good agreement with the estimation from the thermal strain applied under the cooling process after the deposition from the Curie temperature to the room temperature. This strain was ascertained to be relaxed by an applied electric field in accompanying with the dramatic increase of the volume fraction of (001) orientation. These results demonstrate the importance of the crystal structure measurement not only as-deposited films, but also after applied electric field, such as after poling.
We fabricated Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells by a printing and high-pressure sintering (PHS) process. First, the CZTSSe solid solution powders were synthesized by heating the elemental mixtures at 550oC for 5 h in an N2 gas atmosphere. We fabricated CZTSSe films by a printing and high-pressure sintering (PHS) process. The obtained dense CZTSSe film was post-annealed at 550oC for 10 min under an N2 +5% H2S gas atmosphere. We fabricated CZTSSe solar cells with the device structure of Ag/ITO/i-ZnO/CdS/CZTSSe/Mo/soda-lime glass. The CZTSSe solar cell showed an efficiency of 2.1%, with Voc of 272 mV, Jsc of 18.0 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.44.
We have investigated the migration energy of Cd atom in CuInSe2 (CIS) with a Cu vacancy by first-principles calculations. The activation energy of Cd migration in CIS and migration pathways are obtained by means of the combination of linear and quadratic synchronous transit (LST/QST) methods and nudged elastic band (NEB) method. The theoretical migration energy of Cd atom in CIS is 0.99 eV. The migration energy of Cd atom (Cd→VCu) in CIS is comparable to that of Cu migration (Cu→VCu) in CIS (1.06 eV). This result indicates that Cd diffusion in CIS easily occurs like Cu diffusion.
The local structures about Cu, In, and Se atoms in a series of Cu2Se–In2Se3 pseudobinary compounds have been investigated by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). In K-edge XAFS and L3-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) suggest that CuInSe2, Cu0.9InSe1.95, Cu0.82InSe1.91, and Cu2In3Se5.5 have a nominally four-coordinated InSe4 structure, whereas CuIn3Se5 and CuIn5Se8 possess two different InSe4 structures. Cu K-edge XAFS also showed that CuIn3Se5 and CuIn5Se8 possess two different CuSe4 structures, whereas others have a CuSe4 structure. Se K-edge XANES and curve fitting analysis reveal that the Cu vacancy (VCu) gradually forms with decreasing Cu/In ratio. Moreover, the substitution of In for VCu (InCu) is observed in CuIn3Se5 and CuIn5Se8. These results were compared to the previously proposed Cu–In–Se models. We conclude that Cu0.9InSe1.95 and Cu0.82InSe1.91 have a chalcopyrite structure with VCu and that the structure of CuIn3Se5 and CuIn5Se8 is a stannite-like structure with VCu and InCu defects.
We have theoretically evaluated the phase stability and electronic structure of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) and Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS). The enthalpies of formation for kesterite, stannite and wurtz-stannite phases of CZTSe and CZTS were calculated using a plane-wave pseudopotential method within the density functional formalism. For CZTSe, the calculated formation enthalpy (ΔH) of the kesterite phase (−312.7 kJ/mol) is a little smaller than that of the stannite phase (−311.3 kJ/mol) and much smaller than that of the wurtz-stannite phase (−305.7 kJ/mol). For CZTS, the ΔH of the kesterite phase (−361.9 kJ/mol) is smaller than that of the stannite phase (−359.9 kJ/mol) and much smaller than that of the wurtz-stannite phase (−354.6 kJ/mol). The difference of ΔH between the kesterite and stannite phases for CZTS is greater than that for CZTSe. This indicates the kesterite phase is more stable than the stannite phase in CZTS compared with CZTSe. The valence band maximums (VBMs) of both the kesterite- and stannite-type CZTSe(CZTS) are antibonding orbitals of Cu 3d and Se 4p (S 3p). The conduction band minimums (CBMs) are antibonding orbitals of Sn 5s and Se 4p (S 3p). The Zn atom does not affect the VBM or the CBM in either CZTSe(CZTS). The theoretical band gap of the kesterite phase calculated with sX-LDA in both CZTSe and CZTS is a little wider than that of the wurtz-stannite phase and much wider than that of the stannite phase.
We prepared fine Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) powder suitable for screen printing using a mechanochemical synthesis and wet bead milling. Particulate precursors were deposited in a layer by a screen-printing technique, and the porous precursor layer was sintered into a dense polycrystalline film by atmospheric-pressure firing in an N2 gas atmosphere. The microstructure of CIGS powder and fired CIGS film were observed in an SEM. The wet bead milling was effective for the reduction and homogenization of the average grain size of CIGS powder. The CIGS grains in the film were well sintered and the size of CIGS grains was as large as about 2 μm. The CIGS solar cell showed an efficiency of 3.1%, with Voc of 0.279 V, Jsc of 28.8 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.386.
We have theoretically evaluated the phase stability and electronic structure of a Zn1-xMgxO solid solution. The enthalpies of formation for both the wurtzite and rocksalt phases of Zn1-xMgxO were calculated using a plane-wave pseudopotential method within the density functional formalism. For 0 < x < 0.5, the calculated enthalpies of formation (&[Delta]H) for the wurtzite phases were lower than those for the rocksalt phases. On the other hand, for x > 0.75, the &[Delta]H values for the wurtzite phase were larger than those for the rocksalt phases. This indicates that the wurtzite phase is more stable for a Zn1-xMgxO solid solution with 0 < x < 0.5, while the rocksalt phase is more stable for a solid solution with x > 0.75. The band gaps of a wurtzite Zn1-xMgxO solid solution increase with increasing Mg content. MgO substitution on Zn1-xMgxO largely affects the conduction band leaving the valence band nearly unchanged. The conduction band minimum (CBM) shifted to higher energy with increasing Mg content. These theoretical results qualitatively agree with the experimental results for Zn1-xMgxO thin films fabricated by RF magnetron co-sputtering.
We successfully prepared (Cu1-XAgx)InSe2 solid solution with 0 ¡Ü x ¡Ü 1.0 by a mechanochemical process without any additional heating. The obtained fine powder was suitable for screen-printing. Particulate precursors were deposited in a thin layer by a screen-printing technique and then the porous precursor layer was sintered into a dense polycrystalline film by atmospheric-pressure firing. The crystal structures of the powder and the film were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and the microstructure of the film was observed in an SEM. For the (Cu1-XAgx)InSe2 films with x ¡Ü 0.2, the (Cu,Ag)InSe2 films had a good microstructure for the solar cell absorbers.
We investigated an AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diode (SBD) with a field plate structure for a high breakdown voltage. The AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was grown by MOCVD. The AlGaN buffer was grown on the Si (111) substrate and Al0.25Ga0.75N (25 nm)/ GaN (1000 nm) was grown on the buffer layer. The AlGaN/GaN heterostructure without any crack was obtained. After that, a Schottky barrier diode was fabricated using an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. In order to obtain a high breakdown voltage, a gate field plate structure was used. SiO2 was formed on the AlGaN layer using a plasma chemical vapor deposition. The Schottky electrode of Ni/Au was partially deposited on the SiO2 film towards the ohmic region. The length of field plate structure was also changed to investigate the effect. Ti/Al-silicide was used for an ohmic electrode of SBD. The contact resistance of ohmic electrodes was 8E-6 ohmcm2.
The current-voltage characteristics of an AlGaN/GaN SBD were measured. The reverse breakdown voltage of the diode was also over 1000 V and the reverse leakage current was below 1.5E-6 A/mm.
We have reported on the stress effects of the SiNx passivation film on AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistors (HFETs). The AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure was grown using a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We first investigated the dependences between SiNx films and the refractive index of these. As a result, the stress type of the SiNx films was all Tensile. Moreover, the refractive index of SiNx increased, the stress was decreasing and almost invariable over refractive index 2.1. Furthermore, we fabricated some kinds of AlGaN/GaN HFETs and estimated the gate-leakage current and the current collapse of HFET. As a result, we confirmed the relationship between the stress of passivation film and gate-leakage current, and that the low stress SiNx film with a high-refractive index can suppress both a gate-leakage current and a current collapse.
We overall evaluated the enthalpies of formation and the formation energies of neutral vacancies in ANbO3 (A = Li, Na, K) using a plane-wave pseudopotential method within a density functional formalism. The LiNbO3 phase with the LiNbO3-type structure was confirmed to have lower enthalpy of formation than that with perovskite- or ilmenite-type structure. The NaNbO3 (R3c) and KNbO3 (Bmm2 and R3m) phases with the lowest symmetry were found to have the lowest enthalpy of formation. The formation energy of a A vacancy was found to be the lowest under an oxidizing atmosphere and that of an O vacancy was found to be the lowest under a reducing atmosphere. The formation energy of a Nb vacancy was the highest under both oxygen-rich and -poor conditions. These results are in agreement with the empirical rule that B site defects in perovskite-type oxide do not exist.
We have proposed a novel field effect Schottky barrier diode (FESBD) with a dual Schottky structure combined with an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure in order to obtain a very low on-voltage. This diode has a dual Schottky structure of a very low Schottky barrier metal and a high Schottky barrier metal for obtaining a low on-voltage. The leakage current at a reverse bias was suppressed by the pinch-off based on field effect of a higher Schottky barrier metal, resulting in increasing the reverse breakdown voltage.
In this paper, we carried out a planer-type FESBD for a large current operation. The AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was grown by a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A dual Schottky structure was fabricated using Ti/Al and Pt. An ohmic electrode was also Ti/Al. As a result, the on voltage of FESBD was below 0.1 V. The reverse breakdown voltage was also over 400 V by pinch-off effect. The switching time of the diode was shorter than 3 ns.
We report on the novel normally-off AlGaN/p-type GaN heterojunction field effect transistors (HFETs). We grew the AlGaN/p-GaN heterostructure on p-type Si (111) substrate using a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A homogeneous buffer layer was first formed on a Si (111) substrate at 1123 K. After that, AlGaN (30 nm)/high resistive p-type GaN (500 nm) heterostructure was also grown at 1303 K without cracking. We fabricated an HFET using AlGaN/p-type GaN on Si substrate. The ohmic electrode material was Al/Ti/Au and the gate electrode was Pt/Au. The distance between the source and the drain was 0.01 mm. The gate length and width were 2000 nm and 0.15 mm, respectively. As a result, the HFET was operated at the condition of the positive gate bias. The pinch-off voltage was 0 V. A normally-off operation was thus confirmed for the first time. The breakdown voltage of FET was over 250 V. We also confirmed that the normally-off HFET was operated at 573 K for over 150 h.