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In many countries, illiteracy rates among aged people are quite high. However, only few studies have specifically investigated the impact of illiteracy on depression.
Data for 1,890 elderly individuals (aged ≥65 years) were obtained from a nationwide dementia epidemiological study conducted in South Korea. Based on their reading ability, the participants were divided into three groups: totally illiterate, partially illiterate, and literate. The Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale – Short Form (SGDS-K) was used to detect depression (cut-off score = 8). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between illiteracy and depression. To explore clinical features of depression in illiterate people, we performed logistic regression to calculate odds ratios of positive responses (or negative responses to reverse-coded items) for each SGDS-K item using literate individuals as the reference group.
Totally illiterate participants had 2.41 times the odds and partially illiterate individuals had 1.59 times the odds of being depressed compared with literate participants after controlling for other variables. Compared with literate individuals, illiterate elderly persons were at increased odds for responding negatively to the majority of SGDS-K items, including “having memory problems,” “others are better off than me,” and “feeling worthless” even after controlling for various demographic and clinical factors.
Illiteracy in elderly individuals was associated with a higher rate and increased severity of depression. Illiteracy negatively affected depression symptomatology, especially factors associated with self-esteem. Therefore, clinicians should carefully monitor for the presence of depression in illiterate elderly adults.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronically relapsing inflammatory disorders of the intestine. Although some therapeutic agents, including steroids, are available for the treatment of IBD, these agents have limited use. Therefore, dietary supplements have emerged as possible interventions for IBD. Japanese honeysuckle flower, the flower of Lonicera japonica, is a well-known dietary supplement and has been used to prevent or treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. japonica on experimental murine colitis. Colitis was induced by 5 % dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in Balb/c mice. The water extract of L. japonica (LJE) at doses of 20, 100 or 500 mg/kg was orally administered to mice twice per day for 7 d. Body weight, colon length and a histological damage score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Cytokine profiles were assessed to examine the effects on helper T (Th) cell-related immunological responses. In addition, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cells were analysed in vivo and in vitro for investigating the effects on regulatory T (Treg) cells. LJE showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects against colon shortening, weight loss and histological damage. LJE down-regulated IL-1β, TNF-α, interferon-γ, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-17. However, LJE did not show any significant effects on IL-10, IL-23, transforming growth factor-β1 and Treg cell populations. In conclusion, LJE showed protective effects against DSS-induced colitis via the Th1/Th17 pathway and not via Treg cell-related mechanisms.
Background: The influences of demographics, culture, language, and environmental changes on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores are considerable.
Methods: Using a sample of 7452 healthy, community-dwelling elderly Koreans, aged 55 to 94 years, who participated in the four ongoing geriatric cohorts in Korea, we investigated demographic influences on MMSE scores and derived normative data for this population. Geropsychiatrists strictly excluded subjects with cognitive disorders according to the protocol of the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) Clinical Assessment Battery (CERAD-K-C).
Results: Education (standardized β = 0.463), age (standardized β = −0.303), and gender (standardized β = −0.057) had significant effects on MMSE scores (p < 0.001). The score of MMSE increase 0.379 point per 1-year education, decrease 0.188 per 1-year older, and decrease 0.491 in women compared to men. Education explained 30.4% of the scores’ total variance, which was much larger than the variances explained by age (8.4%) or gender (0.3%). Accordingly, we present normative data for the MMSE stratified by education (0, 1–3, 4–6, 7–9, 10–12, and ≥ 13 years), age (60–69, 70–79, and 80–89 years), and gender.
Conclusions: We provide contemporary education-, age-, and gender-stratified norms for the MMSE, derived from a large, community-dwelling elderly Korean population sample, which could be useful in evaluating individual MMSE scores.
Electron tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the unique three-dimensional structures of helical or zigzagged GaN, ZnGa2O4 and Zn2SnO4 nanowires. The helical GaN nanowires adopt a helical structure that consists of six equivalent <0-111> growth directions with the axial  direction. The ZnGa2O4 nanosprings have four equivalent <011> growth directions with the  axial direction. The zigzagged Zn2SnO4 nanowires consisted of linked rhombohedrons structure having the side edges matched to the <011> direction, and the  axial direction.
In order to design liquid lens which works in a severe environment such as high temperature and high humidity, several layered liquid systems are investigated. Especially, the change of the interface between conducting and non-conducting liquid layers has been traced by using empirical molecular dynamics simulation and density-functional theory calculation. The stability of the liquid layers at high temperature was evaluated by simulation results such as the density profile of liquid components, their distribution near the interface, the interface thickness and chemical reactivity between them, which depends on the molecular species consisting of liquid and their concentrations. We found that the organic solvent including halogen atoms, alkyl halide, easily penetrates into conducting liquid layer and reacts with its substances, which is added to increase refractive index and density of non-conducting liquid. We also presented an optimized solution including the minimum organic solvent and satisfying the requisites for an optical device.
We report Mn-doped GaN nanowires exhibiting ferromagnetism even at room temperature. The growth of single-crystalline wurtzite structured GaN nanowires doped homogeneously with about 5 atomic % Mn was achieved by chemical vapor deposition using the reaction of Ga/GaN/MnCl2 with NH3. The ferromagnetic hysteresis at 5 and 300 K and the temperature-dependent magnetization curves suggest the Curie temperature around 300 K. Negative magnetoresistance of individual nanowires was observed at the temperatures below 100 K.
The Si nanowires were synthesized using a novel catalytic thermal reaction under Ar flow. The average diameter is in the range of 50 ∼ 100 nm. They consist of defect-free single-crystalline cubic structure with the  growth direction. The thickness of amorphous oxide outer layers was controllable by growth conditions or surface treatment. In order to protect the oxidation, the Si nanowires were coated with boron nitride layer by the reaction of boron oxide mixture with NH3.
For a diffusion barrier against Cu, tantalum nitride (TaN) films have been successfully deposited by both conventional thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma assisted atomic layer deposition (PAALD), using pentakis (ethylmethlyamino) tantalum (PEMAT) and ammonia (NH3) as precursors. The growth rate of PAALD TaN at substrate temperature 250° was slightly higher than that of ALD TaN (0.80 Å/cycle for PAALD and 0.75 Å/cycle for ALD). Density of TaN films deposited by PAALD was as high as 11.0 g/cm3, considerably higher compared to the value of 8.3 g/cm3 obtained by ALD. The N: Ta ratio for ALD TaN was 44: 37 in composition and the film contained approximately 8∼10 atomic % carbon and 11 atomic % oxygen impurities. On the other hand, the ratio for PAALD TaN layers was 47: 44 and the respective carbon and oxygen contents of TaN layers decreased to 3 atomic % and 4 atomic %. The stability of 10 nm-thick TaN films as a Cu diffusion barrier was tested through thermal annealing for 30 minutes in N2 ambient and characterized by XRD, which proves the PAALD deposited TaN film to maintain better barrier properties against Cu below 800°.
Monoclinic gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) nanowires were catalytically synthesized by electric arc discharge of GaN powders mixed with a small amount (less than 5 %) of transition metals under a pressure of 500 Torr (80 %-Ar + 20 %-O2). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images showed that the average diameter of the wires were about 30 nm and their lengths were as long as up to one hundred micrometer, resulting in extremely large aspect ratio. Fourier diffractogram was indicative of single crystalline nature of the β-Ga2O3 wire. HRTEM image also showed β-Ga2O3 with twin defects at the center of the wire which might play as nucleation seeds. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and FT-Raman spectra of the wires identified the observed nanowires as monoclinic crystalline gallium oxides.
An optimized process of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3(PZT) ferroelectric capacitor has been investigated in order to develop a highly scaleable 1T/1C ferroelectric random access memory. The PZT ferroelectric capacitor, Pt/PZT/Pt stack, was formed on the TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate. The PZT thin films were prepared by conventional sol-gel multi-coating method. Physical and electrical properties of the PZT ferroelectric capacitors were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and RT6000S, respectively.
It was revealed that the microstructure of PZT thin film is strongly influenced by sol-gel coating process, especially depending on coating methods of the first PZT layer. The second phase was observed in the PZT thin films, which is found to be pyrochlore phase. The size and density of pyrochlore phase were significantly reduced by modifying the coating methods of first PZT layer. Microstructure of PZT thin film capacitors was evaluated in detail along with electrical properties such as remnant polarization, coercive electric field, and dielectric leakage. The sensing Pr window was also introduced for proper sensing margin in IT/1C ferroelectric random access memory. This concept is well verified by 64Kb 1T/1C ferroelectric random access memory.
We have fabricated a poly-Si TFT with double gate insulator composed of ECR oxide and APCVD oxide to improved the performance of poly-Si TFTs. The poly-Si TFT with double gate oxide exhibits the remarkable enhancement of the electrical parameters compared with the conventional poly-Si TFTs which has APCVD gate oxide, such as improvement of the subthreshold swing and the low threshold voltage. The proposed poly-Si TFT has a higher oxide breakdown electrical field and the device characteristics are not degraded significantly after an electrical stress. It is found that the ECR oxide plays a key role to improve the device performances and prevent the poly-Si TFTs from degradation due to the electrical stress.
The slope etching technology of hydrogenated amorphous silicon film (a-Si:H) has been very useful for its devices; thin film transistor, contact image sensor and other large area electronic components. To obtain a good step coverage slope etching was performed by RIE using CF4 gas and optimum amount of O2 gas after modification of photoresist(PR) patterns by thermal treatment. In this experiment, primary factors were
1) thermal treatment temperature and time of PR.
2) CF4 gas flow rate, etch rate of a-Si:H film and ash rate of PR in proportion to O2 gas flow rate.
As a result, the slope angle of 11° was obtained when CF4 gas flow rate was 46 SCCM, O2 gas flow rate was 7 SCCM and thermal treatment temperature and time was 140°C and 30 minutes respectively.