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The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Trifludimoxazin, a new protoporphyrinogen oxidase–inhibiting herbicide, is being evaluated for possible use as a soil-residual active herbicide treatment in cotton for control of small-seeded annual broadleaf weeds. Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted to compare vertical mobility and cotton tolerance of trifludimoxazin to flumioxazin and saflufenacil, which are two currently registered protoporphyrinogen oxidase–inhibiting herbicides for use in cotton, in three West Texas soils. Vertical soil mobility of trifludimoxazin was similar to flumioxazin in Acuff loam and Olton loam soils, but was more mobile than flumioxazin in the Amarillo loamy sand soil. The depth of trifludimoxazin movement after a 2.5-cm irrigation event ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 cm in all soils, which would not allow for crop selectivity based on herbicide placement, because ideal cotton seeding depth is from 0.6 to 2.54 cm deep. Greenhouse studies indicated that PRE treatments were more injurious than the 14 d preplant treatment when summarized across soils for the three herbicides (43% and 14% injury, respectively). No differences in visual cotton response or dry weight was observed after trifludimoxazin preplant as compared with the nontreated control within each of the three West Texas soils and was similar to the flumioxazin preplant across soils. On the basis of these results, a use pattern for trifludimoxazin in cotton may be established with the use of a more than 14-d preplant restriction before cotton planting.
A small aspect of football culture has an enmeshed history with alcohol and can create an environment where harmful alcohol consumption is promoted. As a result, both current and former professional footballers are at risk. Alcohol-related psychiatric assessments need to serially assess severity, risk, social function and manage any co-morbid physical or mental health conditions. Following these assessments, a personalised biopsychosocial care plan should be agreed. A sports psychiatrist must understand how alcohol misuse presents within the elite football environment and how patient motivation towards behaviour change is central to recovery.
Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.
Substance misuse in older people represents a growing clinical and public health problem within primary care.
The aim of article is to explore policy and research evidence for informing best practice in the assessment, treatment effectiveness, treatment implementation and approaches to recovery for older people with substance misuse in primary care.
Relevant search terms were used to examine the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO up to January 2016.
An age-sensitive approach is required to overcome barriers to assessment. Training is essential for developing relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes. Clinical audit be used to develop care pathways, particularly for older people with dual diagnosis. There is also a need to develop closer links between primary care and the secondary care specialties, as well as added value in working with carers and voluntary agencies.
Further research is needed to inform more effective approaches to treatment. Adequate funding for workforce development and quality improvement in service development are also essential to improve health outcomes and quality of life in older people with substance misuse.
Radnor Lake State Natural Area in Nashville, TN, has cedar glades that contain the endangered perennial herb wild dill [Perideridia americana (Nutt. ex DC.) Rchb.] and the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle [Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder]. This research examined whether L. maackii treatment in the Radnor Lake State Natural Area cedar glades is followed by an increase in P. americana plants. A grid of 60 adjacent 2 m by 4 m plots was placed in five cedar glades to encompass the P. americana population. With great care to protect P. americana, the annual treatment for L. maackii was to pull plants ≤1-m tall from the ground; and to cut stems >1-m tall and then treat the stumps with glyphosate. The t-tests of means for the log natural of the number of plants in the 60 plots (significance level of P-value = 0.05) were used to compare pretreatment L. maackii and P. americana counts with posttreatment counts in 2018 and P. americana counts at leaf out and flowering in 2018. The L. maackii population was significantly smaller (P-value < 0.001) in 2018 than pretreatment at all five sites. When pretreatment in 2014 and 2015 was compared with posttreatment in 2018 for the P. americana populations, the increases were significant at the Cheek, Harris 2, Hideaway, and Norfleet sites, but the increase at East Hall Farm was not significant. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) trampling was the explanation given for the decreases in P. americana from leaf out to flowering at all five sites in 2018. Browsing was evident only at Hideaway, which had a greater loss for P. americana from leaf out to flowering in 2018 than the combined losses for the Cheek, East Hall Farm, Harris 2, and Norfleet sites. The research informed the creation of adaptive management decisions regarding monitoring and treatment of the invasive species L. maackii for an endangered species.