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The British Columbia Farmers’ Market Nutrition Coupon Program (FMNCP) provides low-income households with coupons valued at $21/week for 16 weeks to purchase healthy foods in farmers’ markets. Our objective was to explore FMNCP participants’ experiences of accessing nutritious foods, and perceived program outcomes.
This study used qualitative description methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with FMNCP participants during the 2019 farmers’ market season. Directed content analysis was used to analyse the data whereby the five domains of Freedman et al’s framework of nutritious food access provided the basis for an initial coding scheme. Data that did not fit within the framework’s domains were coded inductively.
One urban and two rural communities in British Columbia, Canada.
28 adults who were participating in the FMNCP.
Three themes emerged: Autonomy and Dignity; Social Connections and Community Building; and Environmental and Programmatic Constraints. Firstly, the program promoted a sense of autonomy and dignity through financial support, increased access to high-quality produce, food-related education and skill development, and mitigating stigma and shame. Secondly, shopping in farmers’ markets increased social connections and fostered a sense of community. Finally, participants experienced limited food variety in rural farmers’ markets, lack of transportation, and challenges with redeeming coupons.
Participation in the FMNCP facilitated access to nutritious foods and enhanced participants’ diet quality, well-being and health. Strategies such as increasing the amount and duration of subsidies, and expanding programs may help improve participants’ experiences and outcomes of farmers’ market food subsidy programs.
Promulgating a continuum model of mental health and mental illness has been proposed as a way to reduce stigma by decreasing notions of differentness. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines whether continuum beliefs are associated with lower stigma, and whether continuum interventions reduce stigma.
Following a pre-defined protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42019123606), we searched three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) yielding 6726 studies. After screening, we included 33 studies covering continuum beliefs, mental illness, and stigma. Of these, 13 studies were included in meta-analysis.
Continuum beliefs are consistently associated with lower stigma. Interventions were effective at manipulating continuum beliefs but differ in their effects on stigmatising attitudes.
We discuss whether and to what extent attitudes towards people with mental illness can be improved by providing information on a mental health-mental illness continuum. It appeared to be relevant whether interventions promoted a feeling of ‘us’ and a process of identification with the person with mental illness. We discuss implications for the design of future interventions.
We present current methods for estimating treatment effects and spillover effects under “interference”, a term which covers a broad class of situations in which a unit’s outcome depends not only on treatments received by that unit, but also on treatments received by other units. To the extent that units react to each other, interact, or otherwise transmit effects of treatments, valid inference requires that we account for such interference, which is a departure from the traditional assumption that units’ outcomes are affected only by their own treatment assignment. Interference and associated spillovers may be a nuisance or they may be of substantive interest to the researcher. In this chapter, we focus on interference in the context of randomized experiments. We review methods for when interference happens in a general network setting. We then consider the special case where interference is contained within a hierarchical structure. Finally, we discuss the relationship between interference and contagion. We use the interference R package and simulated data to illustrate key points. We consider efficient designs that allow for estimation of the treatment and spillover effects and discuss recent empirical studies that try to capture such effects.
The World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) advise cancer survivors to follow their lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention. Adhering to these recommendations may have beneficial effects on patient-reported outcomes after a cancer diagnosis, but evidence is scarce. We aimed to assess associations of the individual dietary WCRF/AICR recommendations regarding fruit and vegetables, fibre, fast foods, red and processed meat, sugar-sweetened drinks and alcohol consumption with patient-reported outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Cross-sectional data of 150 stage I–III CRC survivors, 2–10 years post-diagnosis, were used. Dietary intake was measured by 7-d dietary records. Validated questionnaires were used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL), fatigue and neuropathy. Confounder-adjusted linear regression models were used to analyse associations of each WCRF/AICR dietary recommendation with patient-reported outcomes. Higher vegetable intake (per 50 g) was associated with better global QoL (β 2·6; 95 % CI 0·6, 4·7), better physical functioning (3·3; 1·2, 5·5) and lower levels of fatigue (−4·5; −7·6, −1·4). Higher fruit and vegetables intake (per 100 g) was associated with better physical functioning (3·2; 0·8, 5·5) and higher intake of energy-dense food (per 100 kJ/100 g) with worse physical functioning (−4·2; −7·1, −1·2). No associations of dietary recommendations with neuropathy were found. These findings suggest that adhering to specific dietary WCRF/AICR recommendations is associated with better HRQoL and less fatigue in CRC survivors. Although the recommendations regarding healthy dietary habits may be beneficial for the well-being of CRC survivors, longitudinal research is warranted to gain insight into the direction of associations.
Background: Contaminated surfaces within patient rooms and on shared equipment is a major driver of healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs). The emergence of Candida auris in the New York City metropolitan area, a multidrug-resistant fungus with extended environmental viability, has made a standardized assessment of cleaning protocols even more urgent for our multihospital academic health system. We therefore sought to create an environmental surveillance protocol to detect C. auris and to assess patient room contamination after discharge cleaning by different chemicals and methods, including touch-free application using an electrostatic sprayer. Surfaces disinfected using touch-free methods may not appear disinfected when assessed by fluorescent tracer dye or ATP bioluminescent assay. Methods: We focused on surfaces within the patient zone which are touched by the patient or healthcare personnel prior to contact with the patient. Our protocol sampled the over-bed table, call button, oxygen meter, privacy curtain, and bed frame using nylon-flocked swabs dipped in nonbacteriostatic sterile saline. We swabbed a 36-cm2 surface area on each sample location shortly after the room was disinfected, immediately inoculated the swab on a blood agar 5% TSA plate, and then incubated the plate for 24 hours at 36°C. The contamination with common environmental bacteria was calculated as CFU per plate over swabbed surface area and a cutoff of 2.5 CFU/cm2 was used to determine whether a surface passed inspection. Limited data exist on acceptable microbial limits for healthcare settings, but the aforementioned cutoff has been used in food preparation. Results: Over a year-long period, terminal cleaning had an overall fail rate of 6.5% for 413 surfaces swabbed. We used the protocol to compare the normal application of either peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide or bleach using microfiber cloths to a new method using sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) applied with microfiber cloths and electrostatic sprayers. The normal protocol had a fail rate of 9%, and NaDCC had a failure rate of 2.5%. The oxygen meter had the highest normal method failure rate (18.2%), whereas the curtain had the highest NaDCC method failure rate (11%). In addition, we swabbed 7 rooms previously occupied by C. auris–colonized patients for C. auris contamination of environmental surfaces, including the mobile medical equipment of the 4 patient care units that contained these rooms. We did not find any C. auris, and we continue data collection. Conclusions: A systematic environmental surveillance system is critical for healthcare systems to assess touch-free disinfection and identify MDRO contamination of surfaces.
There are several published echo-derived scores to help predict successful biventricular versus univentricular palliation in neonates with critical aortic stenosis. This study aims to determine whether any published scoring system accurately predicted outcomes in these neonates.
Single centre, retrospective cohort study including neonates who underwent aortic valve intervention (surgical valvotomy or balloon valvuloplasty) with the intention of biventricular circulation. Primary outcome was survival with biventricular circulation at hospital discharge. Data from their initial neonatal echocardiogram were used to compute the following scores – Rhodes, CHSS 1, Discriminant, CHSS 2, and 2 V.
Between 01/1999 and 12/2017, 68 neonates underwent aortic valve intervention at a median age of 4 days (range 1–29 days); 35 surgical valvotomy and 33 balloon valvuloplasty. Survival with biventricular circulation was maintained in 60/68 patients at hospital discharge. Of the remaining eight patients, three were converted to univentricular palliation, four died, and one underwent heart transplant prior to discharge. None of the binary score predictions of biventricular versus univentricular (using that score’s proposed cut-offs) were significantly associated with the observed outcome in this cohort. A high percentage of those predicted to need univentricular palliation had successful biventricular repair: 89.4% by Rhodes, 79.3% by CHSS 1, 85.2% by Discriminant, and 66.7% by CHSS 2 score. The 2 V best predicted outcome and agreed with the local approach in most cases.
This study highlights the limitations of and need for alternative scoring systems/cut-offs for consistently accurate echocardiographic prediction of early outcome in neonates with critical aortic stenosis.
This study examined psychological constructs (delay discounting, grit, future time perspective and subjective social status) in relation to food security status and body weight.
A simultaneous triangulation mixed methods design was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected in fifty-six adults. Independent variables included food security status (food secure or food insecure) and BMI category (normal weight or overweight/obese). Participants, matched on race (African American and White), were categorised into four food security status by BMI category groups. Psychological constructs were measured via validated questionnaires. Qualitative data were collected in a subsample of twelve participants via in-depth interviews.
This study was conducted in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
The sample was 66 % female and 48 % African American with a mean age of 32·3 (sd 9·2) years and BMI of 28·8 (sd 7·7) kg/m2.
Quantitative results showed that food-insecure participants with overweight/obesity had greater delay discounting (–3·78 v. –6·16, P = 0·01; –3·78 v. –5·75, P = 0·02) and poorer grit (3·37 v. 3·99, P = 0·02; 3·37 v. 4·02, P = 0·02 ) than their food-secure counterparts and food-insecure participants with normal weight. Food-insecure participants with overweight/obesity also had a shorter time period for financial planning (0·72 v. 4·14, P = 0·02) than food-secure participants with normal weight. Qualitative data largely supported quantitative findings with participants discussing varied perceptions of psychological constructs.
This study found differences in delaying gratification, grit and financial planning between food security status and body weight groups.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating rare disease that affects individuals regardless of ethnicity, gender, and age. The first-approved disease-modifying therapy for SMA, nusinursen, was approved by Health Canada, as well as by American and European regulatory agencies following positive clinical trial outcomes. The trials were conducted in a narrow pediatric population defined by age, severity, and genotype. Broad approval of therapy necessitates close follow-up of potential rare adverse events and effectiveness in the larger real-world population.
The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) undertook an iterative multi-stakeholder process to expand the existing SMA dataset to capture items relevant to patient outcomes in a post-marketing environment. The CNDR SMA expanded registry is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study of patients with SMA in Canada designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of novel therapies and provide practical information unattainable in trials.
The consensus expanded dataset includes items that address therapy effectiveness and safety and is collected in a multicenter, prospective, observational study, including SMA patients regardless of therapeutic status. The expanded dataset is aligned with global datasets to facilitate collaboration. Additionally, consensus dataset development aimed to standardize appropriate outcome measures across the network and broader Canadian community. Prospective outcome studies, data use, and analyses are independent of the funding partner.
Prospective outcome data collected will provide results on safety and effectiveness in a post-therapy approval era. These data are essential to inform improvements in care and access to therapy for all SMA patients.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that Southeast dairy producers' self-reported bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) was associated with producers' response to three statements (1) ‘a troublesome thing about mastitis is the worries it causes me,’ (2) ‘a troublesome thing about mastitis is that cows suffer,’ and (3) ‘my broad goals include taking good care of my cows and heifers.’ Surveys were mailed to producers in Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia (29% response rate, N = 596; final analysis N = 574), as part of a larger survey to assess Southeastern dairy producers' opinions related to BTSCC. Surveys contained 34 binomial (n = 9), Likert scale (n = 7), and descriptive (n = 18) statements targeted at producer self-assessment of herd records, management practices, and BTSCC. Statements 1 and 2 were assessed on a 5-point Likert scale from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree.’ Statement 3 was assessed on a 5-point Likert scale from ‘very unimportant’ to ‘very important.’ Reported mean BTSCC for all participants was 254 500 cells/ml. Separate univariable logistic regressions using generalized linear mixed models (SAS 9.4, Cary, NC, USA) with a random effect of farm, were performed to determine if BTSCC was associated with probability for a producer's response to statements. If BTSCC was significant, forward manual addition was performed until no additional variables were significant (P ≤ 0.05), but included BTSCC, regardless of significance. Bulk tank somatic cell count was associated with ‘a troublesome thing about mastitis is the worries it causes me,’ but not with Statements 2 or 3. This demonstrates that >75% of Southeastern dairy producers are concerned with animal care and cow suffering, regardless of BTSCC. Understanding Southeast producers' emphasis on cow care is necessary to create targeted management tools for herds with elevated BTSCC.
The concept of compressions only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CO-CPR) evolved from a perception that lay rescuers may be less likely to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilations during an emergency. This study hopes to describe the efficacy of bystander compressions and ventilations cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CV-CPR) in cardiac arrest following drowning.
The aim of this investigation is to test the hypothesis that bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) utilizing compressions and ventilations results in improved survival for cases of cardiac arrest following drowning compared to CPR involving compressions only.
The Cardiac Arrest Registry for Enhanced Survival (CARES) was queried for patients who suffered cardiac arrest following drowning from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2017, and in whom data were available on type of bystander CPR delivered (ie, CV-CPR CO-CPR). The primary outcome of interest was neurologically favorable survival, as defined by cerebral performance category (CPC).
Neurologically favorable survival was statistically significantly associated with CV-CPR in pediatric patients aged five to 15 years (aOR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.10–6.77; P = .03), as well as all age group survival to hospital discharge (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.01–2.36; P = .046). There was a trend with CV-CPR toward neurologically favorable survival in all age groups (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI, 0.86–2.10; P = .19) and all age group survival to hospital admission (aOR = 1.29; 95% CI, 0.91–1.84; P = .157).
In cases of cardiac arrest following drowning, bystander CV-CPR was statistically significantly associated with neurologically favorable survival in children aged five to 15 years and survival to hospital discharge.
Weight gain among psychiatric inpatients is a widespread phenomenon. This change in body mass index (BMI) can be caused by several factors. Based on recent research, we assume the following factors are related to weight gain during psychiatric inpatient treatment: psychiatric medication, psychiatric diagnosis, sex, age, weight on admission and geographic region of treatment.
876 of originally recruited 2328 patients met the criteria for our analysis. Patients were recruited and examined in mental health care centres in Nigeria (N=265), Japan (N=145) and Western-Europe (Denmark, Germany and Switzerland; N=466).
There was a significant effect of psychiatric medication, psychiatric diagnoses and geographic region, but not age and sex, on BMI changes. Geographic region had a significant effect on BMI change, with Nigerian patients gaining significantly more weight than Japanese and Western European patients. Moreover, geographic region influenced the type of psychiatric medication prescribed and the psychiatric diagnoses. The diagnoses and psychiatric medication prescribed had a significant effect on BMI change.
In conclusion, we consider weight gain as a multifactorial phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. One can discuss a number of explanations for our findings, such as different clinical practices in the geographical regions (prescribing or admission strategies and access-to-care aspects), as well as socio-economic and cultural differences.
Millions of children are on the move worldwide. Children are fleeing conflicts and wars. They move with or without their parents to attain a better future. Children on the move is not a new phenomenon, but its scale is without precedent. UN reports suggests that there are almost 50 million children who have migrated or who have been forcibly displaced. It is also reported that children form half the global refugee population and that many flee from violence, conflict and insecurity. Children who are migrants or refugees often find themselves in a particular vulnerable position, despite rather strong entitlements to human rights protection, as laid down in international and regional legal instruments including the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted 30 years ago. This book presents a collection of scientific papers presented at the conference 'Safeguarding Children's Rights in Immigration Law', organised by the Institute of Immigration Law and the Department of Child Law of Leiden Law School, at Leiden University in November 2018. It reflects the growing concern for children and children's rights in immigration in academia and practice. It also shows the diversity of issues related to immigration and children, including family reunification, detention, participation, human trafficking and the rights of siblings in the context of migration, as well as the significance of regional legal systems and infrastructures for the protection of children on the move. The book targets at academics, legal and other professionals and (advanced) students.
The landscape of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is changing rapidly. The primary objective of this study was to assess the benefit of linking population-based infection prevention and control surveillance data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to hospital discharge abstract data (DAD). We assessed the value of this novel data linkage for the characterization of hospital-acquired (HA) and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) cases.
Incident inpatient MRSA surveillance data for all adults (≥18 years) from 4 acute-care facilities in Calgary, Alberta, between April 1, 2011, and March 31, 2017, were linked to DAD. Personal health number (PHN) and gender were used to identify specific individuals, and specimen collection time-points were used to identify specific hospitalization records. A third common variable on admission date between these databases was used to validate the linkage process. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA cases identified through the linkage process.
A total of 2,430 surveillance records (94.6%) were successfully linked to the correct hospitalization period. By linking surveillance and administrative data, we were able to identify key differences between patients with HA- and CA-MRSA. These differences are consistent with previously reported findings in the literature. Data linkage to DAD may be a novel tool to enhance and augment the details of base surveillance data.
Conclusion and recommendations:
This is the first Canadian study linking a frontline healthcare-associated infection AMR surveillance database to an administrative population database. This work represents an important methodological step toward complementing traditional AMR surveillance data practices. Data linkage to other data types, such as primary care, emergency, social, and biological data, may be the basis of achieving more precise data focused around AMR.