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Intakes of excess Na and insufficient K are two major contributors of heart diseases and stroke development. However, no precise study has previously been carried out on Na and K intakes among Indonesian adults. The present study aimed to estimate the Na and K intakes using two consecutive 24-h urine collections. Participants were community-dwelling adults aged between 20 and 96 years, randomly selected from a pool of resident registration numbers. Of the 506 participants, 479 (240 men and 239 women) completed urine collections. The mean Na excretion was 102·8 and 100·6 mmol/d, while the mean K excretion was 25·0 and 23·4 mmol/d for men and women, respectively. Na and K excretions were higher in participants with a higher BMI. A higher K excretion was associated only with younger age. More than 80 % of the participants consumed more than 5 g/d of salt (the upper limit recommended by the Indonesian government), whereas none of them consumed more than 3510 mg/d of K (the lower limit). The high Na and low K intakes, especially high Na among participants with high BMI, should be considered when future intervention programmes are planned in this country.
We broaden the applicability of sparse coding, a machine learning method, to low-dose electron holography by using simulated holograms for learning and validation processes. The holograms, with shot noise, are prepared to generate a model, or a dictionary, that includes basic features representing interference fringes. The dictionary is applied to sparse representations of other simulated holograms with various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Results demonstrate that this approach successfully removes noise for holograms with an extremely small SNR of 0.10, and that the denoised holograms provide the accurate phase distribution. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the dictionary learned from the simulated holograms can be applied to denoising of experimental holograms of a p–n junction specimen recorded with different exposure times. The results indicate that the simulation-trained sparse coding is suitable for use over a wide range of imaging conditions, in particular for observing electron beam-sensitive materials.
To investigate molecular composition of low-metallicity environments, we conducted spectral line survey observations in the 3 mm band toward three dwarf galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, IC 10, and NGC 6822 with the Mopra 22 m, the Nobeyama 45 m and the IRAM 30 m, respectively. The rotational transitions of CCH, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CS, SO, 13CO, and 12CO were detected in all three galaxies. We found that the spectral intensity patterns are similar to one another regardless of star formation activities. Compared with Solar-metallicity environments, the molecular compositions of dwarf galaxies are characterized by (1) deficient nitrogen-bearing molecules and (2) enhanced CCH and suppressed CH3OH. These are interpreted (1) as a direct consequence of the lower elemental abundance of nitrogen, and (2) as a consequence of extended photon dominated regions in cloud peripheries due to the lower abundance of dust grains, respectively.
We report on magnetic field measurements associated with the well-known extreme red supergiant (RSG), VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). We measured both linear and circular polarization of the SiO v = 0, J = 1 − 0 transition using a sensitive radio interferometer. The measured magnetic field strengths are surprisingly high. A lower limit for the field strength is expected to be at least ~ 10 Gauss based on the high degree of linear polarization. Since the field strengths are very high, the magnetic field must be a key element in understanding the stellar evolution of VY CMa as well as the dynamical and chemical evolution of the complex circumstellar envelope of the star.
Recent progress in astrochemistry of low-mass protostellar sources is reviewed. In particular, we focus on disk formation processes and associated chemical changes at a 50 au scale, which is extensively being studied with ALMA. A small scale chemical differentiation sensitively reflects changes in physical conditions, and hence, it provides us with unique opportunities of chemical diagnostics of disk-forming regions. Complex physical and chemical pictures of disk formation revealed by observations are summarized, and future prospects are discussed.
We have detected [C I] 3P1–3P0 emissions in the gaseous debris disks of 49 Ceti and β Pictoris with the 10 m telescope of the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, which is the first detection of such emissions. The line profiles of [C I] are found to resemble those of CO(J=3–2) observed with the same telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. This result suggests that atomic carbon (C) coexists with CO in the debris disks, and is likely formed by the photodissociation of CO. Assuming an optically thin [C I] emission with the excitation temperature ranging from 30 to 100 K, the column density of C is evaluated to be (2.2 ± 0.2) × 1017 and (2.5 ± 0.7) × 1016 cm−2 for 49 Ceti and β Pictoris, respectively. The C/CO column density ratio is thus derived to be 54 ± 19 and 69 ± 42 for 49 Ceti and β Pictoris, respectively. These ratios are higher than those of molecular clouds and diffuse clouds by an order of magnitude. The unusually high ratios of C to CO are likely attributed to a lack of H2 molecules needed to reproduce CO molecules efficiently from C. This result implies a small number of H2 molecules in the gas disk; i.e., there is an appreciable contribution of secondary gas from dust grains.
PtCu nanoparticles were synthesized with different pH and support conditions
using radiochemical process. The nanoparticle structures were characterized by
transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission
spectrometry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques.
The nanoparticle structure was relevant to the pH of the precursor solutions.
The lattice parameter of PtCu alloy increased in high pH samples, which
indicates the critical effect of metal ion adsorption in precursor solution on
Antiviral activity of metallic Ag nanoparticles immobilized on textile fabrics
were investigated. The Ag nanoparticles synthesized by radiochemical process are
firmly immobilized on the surface of support textile fabrics of cotton. Small Ag
particles of about 2–4 nm were observed together with relatively
large particles of more than 10 nm. The Ag nanoparticles showed antiviral
activity against Influenza A and Feline Calicivirus. The antiviral activity
significantly depended on the concentration of the Eagle’s minimal
essential medium. It was implied that the surface passivation by inhibitory
agent lead to the deactivation of metallic Ag nanoparticles.
Submillimetre observations of the externally irradiated protostar R CrA IRS7B show that this source has dramatically different chemical abundances in comparison with otherwise similar embedded protostars not subject to external irradiation.
Submillimetre observations of externally irradiated low-mass protostellar envelopes show that the gas temperature in the envelopes is dominated by the external irradiation. Detailed studies of the protostar IRS7B in Corona Australis also show that the chemistry is strongly affected by the irradiation, depleting the abundances of complex organic molecules.
Electrode catalysts composed of carbon supported PtRu nanoparticles (PtRu/C) synthesized by radiochemical process were annealed to control the PtRu substructure to enhance catalytic activity. The substructure of the PtRu nanoparticles synthesized by using high-energy electron beam under acidic condition was Pt-rich core/Ru-rich shell type, reflecting the redox potentials of each precursor ions. The material characterization techniques revealed that the reductive annealing led to the mixing of PtRu both in the core and on the surface. The sample with annealing temperature of 300°C for 5 hour showed the highest methanol oxidation current, 2.3 times higher than that obtained with before annealing.
Carbon supported Pt-SnO2 electrocatalysts with different Sn/Pt molar ratios were prepared by an electron beam irradiation method. Dissolved gas conditions in the vials irradiated with electron beam were controlled to air or Ar. The results of the material analyses showed that both Pt and SnO2 were immobilized onto carbon support in all catalysts. Bubbling Ar to the precursor solution led to steady change of metal contents in response to the precursor concentrations. The ethanol oxidation activity plotted against Sn/Pt ratio behaved differently with dissolved gas condition of the vial. This difference is discussed with supposed existing state of SnO2 in connection with the reduction process of Pt and Sn.
We computationally analyzed performance and power-gating (PG) ability of a new nonvolatile delay flip-flop (NV-DFF) based on pseudo-spin-MOSFET (PS-MOSFET) architecture using spin-transfer-torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs). The high-performance energy-efficient PG operations of the NV-DFF can be achieved owing to its cell structure employing PS-MOSFETs that can electrically separate the STT-MTJs from the ordinary DFF part of the NV-DFF. This separation also makes it possible that the break-even time (BET) of the NV-DFF is designed by the size of the PS-MOSFETs without performance degradation of the normal DFF operations. The effect of the area occupation ratio of the NV-DFFs to a CMOS logic system on the BET was also analyzed. Although the optimized BET was varied depending on the area occupation ratio, energy-efficient fine-grained PG with a BET of several sub-microseconds was revealed to be achieved. We also proposed microprocessors and system-on-chip (SoC) devices using nonvolatile hierarchical-memory systems wherein NV-DFF and nonvolatile static random access memory (NV-SRAM) circuits are used as fundamental building blocks.
We are carrying out near-infrared spectroscopy of Cepheids in the Galactic nuclear disk. The H-band spectra taken with SUBARU/IRCS indicate that their kinematics are consistent with the rotation of the nuclear disk.
Submillimeter-wave observations of complex organic molecules toward southern massive star forming regions were carried out with ASTE 10m telescope. Methyl formate (HCOOCH3) and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) were detected in some molecular cloud cores with young protostars. Differences in chemical composition among neighboring cores were also found.
A nanoparticle catalyst of PtRuAu/C was synthesized by including an Au precursor in the radiolytic process for preparing a PtRu/C catalyst. Their methanol oxidation activity and electrochemical durability were measured by linear sweep voltammetry before and after potential cycling treatment. PtRuAu/C had a significantly higher durability than PtRu/C while maintaining a comparable high activity. The morphology and substructure of the nanoparticles were investigated by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Metallic nanoparticles with diameters of about 2 nm were obtained; they probably had Pt-core/PtRu-shell structures. Transmission electron microscopy observations after potential cycling revealed that 2-nm-diameter nanoparticles containing Au did not coarsen, whereas nanoparticles without Au coarsened significantly to 3.7 nm. Some crystal defaults were observed in the coarsened particles, implying that the coarsening was caused by Ostwald ripening. The Au addition to catalyst particles consisting of PtRu inhibits coarsening and consequently improves the electrochemical durability.
We proposed and computationally analyzed a nonvolatile power-gating field programmable gate array (NVPG-FPGA) based on pseudo-spin-transistor architecture with spin-transfer-torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs). The circuit employs nonvolatile static random memory (NV-SRAM) cells and nonvolatile flip-flops (NV-FFs) as the storage circuits. The circuit configuration and microarchitecture are compatible with SRAM-based FPGAs, and the additional nonvolatile memory functionality makes it possible to execute efficient power-gating (PG). Break-even time (BET) for the nonvolatile configuration logic block (NV-CLB) of the NVPG-FPGA was also analyzed, and reduction techniques of the BET were proposed, which allows highly efficient PG operations with a fine granularity.