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This study compared the level of education and tests from multiple cognitive domains as proxies for cognitive reserve.
The participants were educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. We examined independent and interactive effects of education, baseline cognitive scores, and MRI measures of cortical gray matter change on longitudinal cognitive change.
Baseline episodic memory was related to cognitive decline independent of brain and demographic variables and moderated (weakened) the impact of gray matter change. Education moderated (strengthened) the gray matter change effect. Non-memory cognitive measures did not incrementally explain cognitive decline or moderate gray matter change effects.
Episodic memory showed strong construct validity as a measure of cognitive reserve. Education effects on cognitive decline were dependent upon the rate of atrophy, indicating education effectively measures cognitive reserve only when atrophy rate is low. Results indicate that episodic memory has clinical utility as a predictor of future cognitive decline and better represents the neural basis of cognitive reserve than other cognitive abilities or static proxies like education.
This essay explores the legacy and afterlife of François Macandal, a man who escaped enslavement on an eighteenth-century plantation in the French colony of Saint-Domingue. His fame as a poisoner and immortal rebel persist over time and space, reflecting transcaribbean associations of fetish making with spiritual and physical resistance on the plantation. Stories of Macandal and the fetish objects he crafted, also called macandals, continued to circulate in nineteenth-century Louisiana as one of many narratives of slave uprising and Revolution in the Americas. One example of the reach of Macandal’s story is the 1892 novel, Le Macandal: Épisode de l’Insurrection des Noirs à St. Domingue, published in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Marie-Joséphine Augustin. This work is part of a larger archive of how Macandal and his macandals shaped the literary realm. His story moves across genres arguing that Macandal is simultaneously the man, the fetish object, and the story in its many forms.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
Studies in countries where assisted dying is legal show that bereaved people express concern over the potential for social disapproval and social stigma because of the manner of death. There are indications that voluntary assisted dying is judged as less acceptable if the deceased is younger. A vignette-based experiment was used to determine whether public stigma (i.e., negative emotional reactions and desired social distance) and expected grief symptoms are higher for conjugally bereaved people through voluntary assisted dying (vs. long-term illness), when the deceased is a young adult (vs. older adult).
A 2 × 2 randomized factorial design was conducted with 164 Australian adults (130 women, 34 men, Mage = 37.69 years). Each participant was randomized online to read one of four vignettes and completed measures of anger, fear, prosocial emotions, desire for social distance, and expectations of grief symptomatology.
A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted. Death at a young age (28 years) was significantly associated with stronger negative emotional reactions of fear ($\eta _p^2 = 0.04$, P = 0.048) and anger ($\eta _p^2 = 0.06$, P = 0.010). There were no differences in outcomes associated with the mode of death, nor was there an interaction between mode of death and age group.
Significance of results
Concerns that voluntary assisted dying elicits public stigma appear unfounded. The fact that participants reported significantly higher anger and fear in response to bereaved people experiencing loss at a younger (vs. older) age, irrespective of cause of death, indicates that young people who lose their spouse might benefit from additional support.
To explore the perceptions of adolescents and their caregivers on drivers of diet and physical activity in rural India in the context of ongoing economic, social and nutrition transition.
A qualitative study comprising eight focus group discussions (FGD) on factors affecting eating and physical activity patterns, perceptions of health and decision-making on food preparation.
Villages approximately 40–60 km from the city of Pune in the state of Maharashtra, India.
Two FGD with adolescents aged 10–12 years (n 20), two with 15- to 17- year-olds (n 18) and four with their mothers (n 38).
Dietary behaviour and physical activity of adolescents were perceived to be influenced by individual and interpersonal factors including adolescent autonomy, parental influence and negotiations between adolescents and caregivers. The home food environment, street food availability, household food security and exposure to television and digital media were described as influencing behaviour. The lack of facilities and infrastructure was regarded as barriers to physical activity as were insufficient resources for public transport, safe routes for walking and need for cycles, particularly for girls. It was suggested that schools take a lead role in providing healthy foods and that governments invest in facilities for physical activity.
In this transitioning environment, that is representative of many parts of India and other Lower Middle Income Countries (LMIC), people perceive a need for interventions to improve adolescent diet and physical activity. Caregivers clearly felt that they had a stake in adolescent health, and so we would recommend the involvement of both adolescents and caregivers in intervention design.
To explore, from the perspectives of adolescents and caregivers, and using qualitative methods, influences on adolescent diet and physical activity in rural Gambia.
Six focus group discussions (FGD) with adolescents and caregivers were conducted. Thematic analysis was employed across the data set.
Rural region of The Gambia, West Africa.
Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Four FGD, conducted with forty adolescents, comprised: girls aged 10–12 years; boys aged 10–12 years; girls aged 15–17 years, boys aged 15–17 years. Twenty caregivers also participated in two FGD (mothers and fathers).
All participants expressed an understanding of the association between salt and hypertension, sugary foods and diabetes, and dental health. Adolescents and caregivers suggested that adolescent nutrition and health were shaped by economic, social and cultural factors and the local environment. Adolescent diet was thought to be influenced by: affordability, seasonality and the receipt of remittances; gender norms, including differences in opportunities afforded to girls, and mother-led decision-making; cultural ceremonies and school holidays. Adolescent physical activity included walking or cycling to school, playing football and farming. Participants felt adolescent engagement in physical activity was influenced by gender, seasonality, cultural ceremonies and, to some extent, the availability of digital media.
These novel insights into local understanding should be considered when formulating future interventions. Interventions need to address these interrelated factors, including misconceptions regarding diet and physical activity that may be harmful to health.
To describe the anthropometry, socioeconomic circumstances, diet and screen time usage of adolescents in India and Africa as context to a qualitative study of barriers to healthy eating and activity.
Cross-sectional survey, including measured height and weight and derived rates of stunting, low BMI, overweight and obesity. Parental schooling and employment status, household assets and amenities, and adolescents’ dietary diversity, intake of snack foods, mobile/smartphone ownership and TV/computer time were obtained via a questionnaire.
Four settings each in Africa (rural villages, West Kiang, The Gambia; low-income urban communities, Abidjan, Cote D’Ivoire; low/middle-class urban communities, Jimma, Ethiopia; low-income township, Johannesburg, South Africa) and India (rural villages, Dervan; semi-rural villages, Pune; city slums, Mumbai; low-middle/middle-class urban communities, Mysore).
Convenience samples (n 41–112 per site) of boys and girls, half aged 10–12 years and another half aged 15–17 years, were recruited for a qualitative study.
Both undernutrition (stunting and/or low BMI) and overweight/obesity were present in all settings. Rural settings had the most undernutrition, least overweight/obesity and greatest diet diversity. Urban Johannesburg (27 %) and Abidjan (16 %), and semi-rural Pune (16 %) had the most overweight/obesity. In all settings, adolescents reported low intakes of micronutrient-rich fruits and vegetables, and substantial intakes of salted snacks, cakes/biscuits, sweets and fizzy drinks. Smartphone ownership ranged from 5 % (West Kiang) to 69 % (Johannesburg), higher among older adolescents.
The ‘double burden of malnutrition’ is present in all TALENT settings. Greater urban transition is associated with less undernutrition, more overweight/obesity, less diet diversity and higher intakes of unhealthy/snack foods.
To explore influences on adolescent diet and physical activity, from the perspectives of adolescents and their caregivers, in Jimma, Ethiopia.
Qualitative design, using focus group discussions (FGD).
A low-income setting in Jimma, Ethiopia.
Five FGD with adolescents aged 10–12 years and 15–17 years (n 41) and three FGD with parents (n 22) were conducted.
Adolescents displayed a holistic understanding of health comprising physical, social and psychological well-being. Social and cultural factors were perceived to be the main drivers of adolescent diet and physical activity. All participants indicated that caregivers dictated adolescents’ diet, as families shared food from the same plate. Meals were primarily determined by caregivers, whose choices were driven by food affordability and accessibility. Older adolescents, particularly boys, had opportunities to make independent food choices outside of the home which were driven by taste and appearance, rather than nutritional value. Many felt that adolescent physical activity was heavily influenced by gender. Girls’ activities included domestic work and family responsibilities, whereas boys had more free time to participate in outdoor games. Girls’ safety was reported to be a concern to caregivers, who were fearful of permitting their daughters to share overcrowded outdoor spaces with strangers.
Adolescents and caregivers spoke a range of social, economic and cultural influences on adolescent diet and physical activity. Adolescents, parents and the wider community need to be involved in the development and delivery of effective interventions that will take into consideration these social, economic and cultural factors.
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that behaviour change interventions have modest effect sizes, struggle to demonstrate effect in the long term and that there is high heterogeneity between studies. Such interventions take huge effort to design and run for relatively small returns in terms of changes to behaviour.
So why do behaviour change interventions not work and how can we make them more effective? This article offers some ideas about what may underpin the failure of behaviour change interventions. We propose three main reasons that may explain why our current methods of conducting behaviour change interventions struggle to achieve the changes we expect: 1) our current model for testing the efficacy or effectiveness of interventions tends to a mean effect size. This ignores individual differences in response to interventions; 2) our interventions tend to assume that everyone values health in the way we do as health professionals; and 3) the great majority of our interventions focus on addressing cognitions as mechanisms of change. We appeal to people’s logic and rationality rather than recognising that much of what we do and how we behave, including our health behaviours, is governed as much by how we feel and how engaged we are emotionally as it is with what we plan and intend to do.
Drawing on our team’s experience of developing multiple interventions to promote and support health behaviour change with a variety of populations in different global contexts, this article explores strategies with potential to address these issues.
To explore, adolescents’ and caregivers’ perspectives, about shaping of diet and physical activity habits in rural Konkan, India.
Five focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with adolescents and two with caregivers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.
FGD were conducted in secondary schools located in remote rural villages in the Ratnagiri district, Konkan region, Maharashtra, India.
Forty-eight adolescents were recruited including twenty younger (10–12 years) and twenty-eight older (15–17 years) adolescents. Sixteen caregivers (all mothers) were also recruited.
Three themes emerged from discussion: (i) adolescents’ and caregivers’ perceptions of the barriers to healthy diet and physical activity, (ii) acceptance of the status quo and (iii) salience of social and economic transition. Adolescents’ basic dietary and physical activity needs were rarely met by the resources available and infrastructure of the villages. There were few opportunities for physical activity, other than performing household chores and walking long distances to school. Adolescents and their caregivers accepted these limitations and their inability to change them. Increased use of digital media and availability of junk foods marked the beginning of a social and economic transition.
FGD with adolescents and their caregivers provided insights into factors influencing adolescent diet and physical activity in rural India. Scarcity of basic resources limited adolescent diet and opportunities for physical activity. To achieve current nutritional and physical activity recommendations for adolescents requires improved infrastructure in these settings, changes which may accompany the current Indian social and economic transition.
To explore adolescents’ perceptions, knowledge and behaviours regarding nutrition and physical activity in low-income districts of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, taking into consideration their caregivers’ perspectives.
Two investigators conducted six focus group discussions.
The study was carried out in two low-income suburbs, Yopougon and Port-Bouët, in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
Adolescents and their caregivers were recruited into the study via local head teachers and heads of settlement.
Overall, seventy-two participants, including forty-six adolescents and twenty-six caregivers, took part. Participants demonstrated good nutrition knowledge, relating nutritional health to a balanced diet and hygiene. Sustained physical activity was reported. However, adopting good practices was challenging due to participant’s economic circumstances. Their environment was a barrier to improving health due to dirtiness and violence, with a lack of space limiting the possibility to practice sport. Adolescents and their caregivers differed in their response to these constraints. Many caregivers felt powerless and suggested that a political response was the solution. Alternatively, adolescents were more likely to suggest new creative solutions such as youth-friendly centres within their community.
Participants were aware that their nutritional habits were not in line with what they had learnt to be good nutritional practices due to socio-economic constraints. Physical activity was part of adolescent life, but opportunities to exercise were restricted by their environment. Strategies for improving adolescent health in these settings need to be developed in collaboration with adolescents in a manner that accommodates their opinions and solutions.
To explore influences on the diet and physical activity of adolescents living in Mumbai slums, from the perspectives of adolescents and their caregivers.
Three investigators from Mumbai conducted six focus group discussions.
The study was conducted in suburban Mumbai slums.
Thirty-six adolescents (aged 10–12 and 15–17 years) and twenty-three caregivers were recruited through convenience sampling.
The findings highlighted the complex negotiations between adolescent and caregivers surrounding adolescent junk food consumption and physical activity opportunities. Caregivers learned recipes to prepare popular junk foods to encourage adolescents to eat more home-cooked, and less ‘outside’, food, yet adolescents still preferred to eat outside. To adolescents, the social aspect of eating junk food with friends was an important and enjoyable experience. Caregivers felt that they had no control over adolescents’ food choices, whereas adolescents felt their diets were dictated by their parents. Adolescents wanted to be physically active but were encouraged to focus on their academic studies instead. Gender was also a key driver of physical activity, with girls given less priority to use outside spaces due to cultural and religious factors, and parental fears for their safety.
These findings show that adolescents and caregivers have different agendas regarding adolescent diet. Adolescent girls have less opportunity for healthy exercise, and are more sedentary, than boys. Adolescents and caregivers need to be involved in designing effective interventions such as making space available for girls to be active, and smartphone games to encourage healthy eating or physical activity.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent, pervasive disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Although traditionally considered a disorder of childhood, symptoms and associated impairments persist into adulthood for a significant proportion of individuals. Untreated ADHD can have a number of adverse effects for both the individual and wider society. Despite this, ADHD in adults is often misdiagnosed or its diagnosis is ‘missed’ in general psychiatric settings and this article highlights some reasons for this.
Wholegrain consumption is linked to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Evidence from randomized controlled trials have established that the consumption of wholegrain oats lowers blood cholesterol, via a mechanism partly mediated by β-glucan soluble fiber. However, oats contain an array of phenolic acids, including ferulic acid and also structurally related avenanthramides, which may also contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of oat intake. We investigated whether 4 weeks, daily consumption of oat phenolics leads to improvement in markers of CVD risk men and women.In a 3 arm crossover single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 28 volunteers consumed either: 1) oatmeal/oatcake intervention (-containing 48.9 mg of phenolic acids and 19.2 mg of avenanthramides); 2) oatbran concentrate + rice porridge/wheat cracker intervention (-containing 38.4 mg of phenolic acids and 0.5 mg of avenanthramides) or 3) rice porridge/wheat cracker intervention (containing 13.8 mg of phenolic acids). All treatments were matched in soluble fiber (4.8g) and energy (500kcal). The primary endpoint was FMD and other cardiovascular endpoints were blood pressure, LDI, LDL/HDL cholesterol, platelets and endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). All measures were taken at baseline and after three, 4 week long intervention periods and two washout periods.Our data indicates an increase by 1.09 % ± 0.41 %(Mean ± SEM) in FMD response following high phenolic oat intake with a significant difference (P = 0.007) between baseline and post-intervention. Consumption of high phenolic oats also led to a significant improvement in 24-hour SBP, day time SBP and night time SBP (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) and day time and night time DBP (p < 0.05). There was also a significant decrease with total and LDL cholesterol after the consumption of moderate and high phenolic oat interventions (P < 0.05) and a small improvement in LDI (both Ach and SNP) but not significant. The number of resting endothelial EVs were also found to be increasing after the consumption of high phenolic oats.The findings of this study may provide evidence about the role of oat phenolic acids and avenanthramides in cardiovascular health and contribute to more effective public health advice about the consumption of oats and healthy cardiovascular aging.
Trends in detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 in two major London secondary mental healthcare providers were explored using patient-level data in a historical cohort study between 2007–2008 and 2016–2017. An increase in the number of detention episodes initiated per fiscal year was observed at both sites. The rise was accompanied by an increase in the number of active patients; the proportion of active patients detained per year remained relatively stable. Findings suggest that the rise in the number of detentions reflects the rise of the number of people receiving secondary mental healthcare.
This article reexamines Marx's early conception of history by returning to his 1845–6 manuscripts, long known as The German Ideology. On conventional interpretations of these manuscripts, Marx sought to explain the entire historical process through a theory of the systematic development of productive forces. This article reveals that concern to be an artifact of subsequent editorial practices and argues that a different concern animated the manuscripts for Marx himself—namely to grasp the nature of individual epochs, particularly the present one, which he doubted that a generalized theory of history could help him to do. In “Saint Max,” perhaps the most neglected of these early manuscripts, Marx developed the concept of a “mode of production” into a historical lens, one that could aid the work of social critique by bringing into focus how the present is made and might be made anew.
In a 2017 article, Holen and colleagues reported evidence for a 130 000-year-old archaeological site in California. Acceptance of the site would overturn current understanding of global human migrations. The authors here consider Holen et al.’s conclusions through critical evaluation of their replicative experiments. Drawing on best practice in experimental archaeology, and paying particular attention to the authors’ chain of inference, Magnani et al. suggest that to argue convincingly for an early human presence at the Cerutti Mastodon site, Holen et al. must improve their analogical foundations, test alternative hypotheses, increase experimental control and quantify their results.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To translate a behavioral theory–informed, evidence-based, face-to-face health education program into an mHealth lifestyle intervention for African-Americans (AAs). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This mixed methods study consisted of 4 phases, using an iterative development process to intervention design with the AA community. In Phase 1, we held focus groups with AA community members and church partners (n=23) to gain insight regarding the needs and preferences of potential app end users. In Phase 2, the interdisciplinary research team synthesized input from Phase 1 for preliminary app design and content development. Phase 3 consisted of a sequential 3-meeting series with the church partners (n=13) for iterative app prototyping (assessment, cultural tailoring, final review). Phase 4 was a single group pilot study among AA church congregants (n=50) to assess app acceptability, usability, and satisfaction. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Phase 1 focus groups indicated preferences for general and health related apps: multifunctional; high-quality graphics/visuals; evidence-based, yet simple health information; and social networking capability. Phase 2 integrated these preferences into the preliminary app prototype. Feedback from Phase 3 was used to refine the FAITH! App prototype for pilot testing. Phase 4 pilot testing indicated high acceptability, usability, and satisfaction of the FAITH! App. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study illustrates the process of using formative and CBPR approaches to design a culturally relevant, mHealth lifestyle intervention to address CV health disparities within the AA community. Given the positive perceptions of the app, our study supports the use of an iterative development process by others interested in implementing an mHealth lifestyle intervention for racial/ethnic minority communities.
Crisis resolution teams (CRTs) offer brief, intensive home treatment for people experiencing mental health crisis. CRT implementation is highly variable; positive trial outcomes have not been reproduced in scaled-up CRT care.
To evaluate a 1-year programme to improve CRTs’ model fidelity in a non-masked, cluster-randomised trial (part of the Crisis team Optimisation and RElapse prevention (CORE) research programme, trial registration number: ISRCTN47185233).
Fifteen CRTs in England received an intervention, informed by the US Implementing Evidence-Based Practice project, involving support from a CRT facilitator, online implementation resources and regular team fidelity reviews. Ten control CRTs received no additional support. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction, measured by the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8), completed by 15 patients per team at CRT discharge (n = 375). Secondary outcomes: CRT model fidelity, continuity of care, staff well-being, in-patient admissions and bed use and CRT readmissions were also evaluated.
All CRTs were retained in the trial. Median follow-up CSQ-8 score was 28 in each group: the adjusted average in the intervention group was higher than in the control group by 0.97 (95% CI −1.02 to 2.97) but this was not significant (P = 0.34). There were fewer in-patient admissions, lower in-patient bed use and better staff psychological health in intervention teams. Model fidelity rose in most intervention teams and was significantly higher than in control teams at follow-up. There were no significant effects for other outcomes.
The CRT service improvement programme did not achieve its primary aim of improving patient satisfaction. It showed some promise in improving CRT model fidelity and reducing acute in-patient admissions.