To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To investigate the impacts of depression screening, diagnosis and treatment on major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Prospective cohort study including a nested 24-week randomised clinical trial for treating depression was performed with 5–12 years after the index ACS. A total of 1152 patients recently hospitalised with ACS were recruited from 2006 to 2012, and were divided by depression screening and diagnosis at baseline and 24-week treatment allocation into five groups: 651 screening negative (N), 55 screening positive but no depressive disorder (S), 149 depressive disorder randomised to escitalopram (E), 151 depressive disorder randomised to placebo (P) and 146 depressive disorder receiving medical treatment only (M).
Cumulative MACE incidences over a median 8.4-year follow-up period were 29.6% in N, 43.6% in S, 40.9% in E, 53.6% in P and 59.6% in M. Compared to N, screening positive was associated with higher incidence of MACE [adjusted hazards ratio 2.15 (95% confidence interval 1.63–2.83)]. No differences were found between screening positive with and without a formal depressive disorder diagnosis. Of those screening positive, E was associated with a lower incidence of MACE than P and M. M had the worst outcomes even compared to P, despite significantly milder depressive symptoms at baseline.
Routine depression screening in patients with recent ACS and subsequent appropriate treatment of depression could improve long-term cardiac outcomes.
The National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) 5-minute neuropsychology protocol consists of only verbal tasks, and is proposed as a brief screening method for vascular cognitive impairment. We evaluated its feasibility within two weeks after stroke and ability to predict the development of post-stroke dementia (PSD) at 3 months after stroke.
We prospectively enrolled subjects with ischemic stroke within seven days of symptom onset who were consecutively admitted to 12 university hospitals. Neuropsychological assessments using the NINDS-CSN 5-minute and 60-minute neuropsychology protocols were administered within two weeks and at 3 months after stroke onset, respectively. PSD was diagnosed with reference to the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statement, requiring deficits in at least two cognitive domains.
Of 620 patients, 512 (82.6%) were feasible for the NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol within two weeks after stroke. The incidence of PSD was 16.2% in 308 subjects who had completed follow-up at 3 months after stroke onset. The total score of the NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol differed significantly between those with and without PSD (4.0 ± 2.7, 7.4 ± 2.7, respectively; p < 0.01). A cut-off value of 6/7 showed reasonable discriminative power (sensitivity 0.82, specificity 0.67, AUC 0.74). The NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol score was a significant predictor for PSD (adjusted odds ratio 6.32, 95% CI 2.65–15.05).
The NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol is feasible to evaluate cognitive functions in patients with acute ischemic stroke. It might be a useful screening method for early identification of high-risk groups for PSD.
Rutile nanoparticles have been synthesized by acid hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide by low-temperature dissolution-reprecipitation process. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs of the rutile colloidal solution show needle-shaped rutile nanoparticles with the dimensions of 10–30 nm in diameter and 100–150 nm in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show the existence of only the rutile polymorph in TiO2 powder with a crystallite size of 11.3 nm. The dielectric constant of rutile nanoparticles has been found to be 57 at 10 MHz AC frequency and DC conductance as 2.3 × 10−6 S/cm. Transmission electron micrographs and XRD data analysis imply that the rutile crystallites are self-organized in a regular fashion to produce multilayer three-dimensional linear clusters. The clusters have been found to be microporous (average porosity 1.4 nm) with high specific surface area (132.2 m2/g). At higher concentration, the clusters aggregate to produce interconnected network of star- or flower-like structures. This organized crystalline microporous metal-oxide semiconductor might find various practical applications.
The liquid phase plasma reduction method has been applied to prepare silver nanoparticles from a solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) using a bipolar pulsed electrical discharge system. The excited states of atomic silver, hydrogen and oxygen as well as the molecular bands of hydroxyl radicals were detected in the emission spectra. As the discharge duration increased up to 10 min, silver particle peaks produced by surface plasmon absorption were observed around 430 nm. Both the particle size and the particle numbers were observed to increase with the length of the plasma treatment time and with the initial AgNO3 concentration. Spherical nanoparticles of about 5–20 nm in size were obtained with the discharging time of 5 min, whereas aggregates of nanoparticles of about 10–50 nm in size were mainly produced with the discharging time of 20 min. The cationic surfactant of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) added with the CTAB/AgNO3 molar ratio of 30% was shown to inhibit nanoparticle aggregation.
The ultraviolet (UV) color-color relation of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the nearby universe (0.05 < z < 0.12) is re-examined with the latest GALEX GR6 and SDSS DR7 data. By drawing the FUV – NUV (as a measure of UV temperature) versus FUV – r (as a measure of UV amplitude) color-color diagram for the morphologically-cleaned, spectroscopically-cleaned sample of ~3700 quiescent ETGs, we find that the “old and dead“ ETGs consist of a well-defined sequence in UV colors, the “UV red sequence”, so that the stronger UV excess galaxies should have a harder UV spectral shape systematically. However, the observed UV spectral slope is too steep to be reproduced by the canonical models in which the UV flux is mainly controlled by age or metallicity parameters. The observed data support the helium enhancement scenario in which the UV spectral shape of UV upturn (FUV – NUV < 0.9; FUV – r ~ 6) galaxies may be governed by the minority population of helium-enhanced horizontal-branch (HB) stars.
Despite numerous previous studies, relationships between watershed land use and adjacent streams and rivers at various scales in Korea remain unclear. This study investigated the relationships between land uses and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of 720 sites of streams and rivers across the country. The land uses at two spatial scales, including a 1-km buffer and the base watershed management region (BWMR), were computed in a geographical information system (GIS) with a digital land use/land cover map. Characteristics of land uses at two spatial scales were then correlated with the monitored multidimensional characteristics of the streams and rivers. The results of this study indicate that land use types have significant effects on stream and river characteristics. Specifically, most characteristics were negatively correlated with the proportions of urban, rice paddy, agricultural, and bare soil areas and positively correlated with the amount of forest. The site-scale and BWMR-scale analyses suggest that BWMR land use patterns were more strongly related to ecological integrity than they were to site land use patterns. Improving our understanding of land use effects will largely depend on relating the results of site-specific studies that use similar response techniques and measures to evaluate ecological integrity. In addition, our results clearly indicate that the characteristics of streams and rivers are closely linked and that land use types differentially affect those characteristics. Thus, effective restoration and management for ecological integrity of lotic system should consider the physical, chemical, and biological factors in combination.
To enhance the lifetime of large-sized active matrix organic light emitting
diodes (AMOLEDs), we developed a liquid desiccant for encapsulation. The
liquid desiccant was prepared by mixing nano-sized calcium oxide (CaO)
powders and silicone binder including polyalkylalkenylsiloxane,
polyalkylhydrogensiloxane and platinum compound. It was confirmed that
liquid desiccant had an effect on absorption of penetrated moisture and
oxygen through calcium tests. Also, the test cells encapsulated with only
epoxy sealant dispensed at the edge of the cell developed dark spots within
100 hrs, which grew larger with time at 85 oC and 85 % R.H. On the other hand, the test cell sealed with epoxy
sealant and liquid desiccant showed no dark spots and retained 97% of its
initial luminance even after being stored for 800 hrs at 85 oC and 85 % R.H. Furthermore, the accelerating storage lifetimes of
31-inch bottom-emitting AMOLEDs with epoxy sealant and liquid desiccant
showed about 1000 hrs. These results suggest that the liquid desiccant can
be applied to encapsulation of large-sized AMOLEDs.
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (PSH) is a relatively benign clinical entity with a low risk of recurrent bleeding. The precise etiology of PSH has not yet been determined. We report here three cases of PSH with clinical and radiological features that support a venous system as a cause.
The first patient, a 72-year-old woman, had PSH and venous hemorrhagic infarct in the left thalamus on non-contrast CT. Subsequent cerebral angiography revealed widespread thrombosis in the cerebral venous system, a potential cause for reflux overflow hemorrhage. The second patient, a 55-year-old man with an established diagnosis of neuro-Behçet's disease, a well-known cause for cerebral venulitis, presented with PSH one year later. The third patient, a 39-year-old female, with incomplete Behçet's disease was admitted with PSH.
Current concepts on the anatomic origin and the possible pathophysiologic mechanism leading to PSH are discussed. The underlying pathological conditions in the venous system in our cases provide theoretical clues to the anatomic origin of PSH in general.
The globular cluster system in M31 is an ideal laboratory for studying the formation and evolution of M31 as well as the globular clusters themselves. There have been numerous surveys and studies of the globular clusters in M31. However, only recently has the entire body of M31 been searched for globular clusters using wide-field CCD images by our group. A new era for the M31 globular cluster system has begun with the advent of wide-field CCD surveys of M31. We have discovered more than 100 new globular clusters in M31. Our catalog currently includes more than 500 globular clusters confirmed either based on spectra or HST images, many more than in the Milky Way. We present the structure, kinematics and chemical abundance of the M31 globular cluster system based on this large sample, and the implications for the formation and evolution of M31.
A systematic study on the effect of sputtering deposition parameters on material properties of Al doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films prepared by an in-line rf magnetron sputtering and on surface morphology of the films after wet etching process was carried out. For application to silicon thin film solar cells as a front electrode, the as-deposited films were surface-textured by a dilute HCl solution to improve the light scattering properties such as haze and angle resolved distribution of scattered light on the film surfaces. The microstructure of as-deposited films is affected significantly by the working pressure and film compactness decreases with increasing working pressure from 1.5 mTorr to 10 mTorr. High quality ZnO:Al films with electrical resistivity of 4.25 × 10-4 Ω cm and optical transmittance of 80% in a visible range are obtained at low working pressure of 1.5 mTorr and substrate temperature of 100℃. Crater-like surface morphologies are observed on the textured ZnO:Al films after wet etching. The size and shape of craters are closely dependent on the microstructure and film compactness of as-deposited films. Haze values of the textured ZnO:Al films are improved in a whole wavelength of 300 – 1100 nm compared to commercial SnO2:F films (Asahi U type) and incident light on the textured films is scattered effectively with 30° angle.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between preeclampsia and eNOS, DDAH, and VEGF gene polymorphisms, and also to search for a possible association between haplotypes in eNOS, DDHA, and VEGF genes and the risk for preeclampsia. DNA was extracted from whole blood of 223 preeclampsia patients and 237 healthy pregnant women. The genotypes were analyzed by a single base primer extension assay using a SNaPShot assay kit. Results were analyzed with the Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and Logistic regression analysis. Haplotype analyses were performed using Haploview 3.2 version. There were no significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies of eNOS, DDAH, and VEGF gene polymorphisms between preeclampsia patients and controls. No increase in the risk of preeclampsia for those genes was observed under any model of inheritance and there were no statistically significant associations between any haplotypes and preeclampsia risk. Polymorphisms in eNOS, DDAH, and VEGF gene do not seem to be risk factors for preeclampsia.
We synthesized bulk amorphous alloy systems of Cu43Zr43Al7X7 (X = Be, Ag; numbers indicate at.%), with the objective of simultaneously enhancing the glass-forming ability (GFA) and the plasticity. The alloys not only exhibit high plasticity (∼7%, ∼8%), but also possess enhanced GFA (alloys with 12 and 8 mm diameter). The possible mechanisms underlying this enhanced GFA and plasticity exhibited by these alloys are discussed based on the atomic-packing state and atomistic-scale compositional separation associated with the mixing enthalpy difference. A strategy for designing bulk amorphous alloys with simultaneous improvement in the GFA and the plasticity is proposed from the viewpoint of atomic-packing state and atomistic-scale phase separation.
We report on the basic characteristics and gas sensing operation of density controlled single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films on poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) substrates The vacuum filteration and PDMS mold transfer method allowed the density of SWCNT distributed to have non-local uniformity. The optical transparency of the SWCNT thin films was inversely proportional to SWCNT density and conductivity. The flexible SWCNT thin film showed high mechanical stability with negligible change in conductance after being bent by 180o. We evaluated its gas sensing operation depending on SWCNT density and bias voltage. It was shown that lower SWCNT density thin films had higher sensitivity to NH3 gas, which may be due to higher exposed surface area for lower density SWCNT thin films. Also, we found that lower bias voltage devices showed faster recovery times. The results show that vacuum filteration and mold transfer method produced flexible SWCNT thin films that have stable mechanical and electrical characteristics and also stable gas sensing capabilities making them applicable to future flexible integrated sensors.
We propose a pre-electrical bias aging to reduce threshold voltage (Vth) shift of hydrogenated- amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (a-Si:H TFT) for AMOLED display. The quantity of Vth shift in the sample subjected to a bias-aging is reduced due to the reduction of created dangling bond density, compared with a sample without a bias-aging. When an identical stress duration of 50,000 sec is applied to a-Si:H TFT with or without a pre-electrical bias-aging, the created dangling bond density (ΔNDB) after a pre-electrical bias-aging is decreased from 1.38 × 1011/cm2 to 0.685 × 1011/cm2. Our experimental results indicate that after the pre-electrical bias aging, a newly created dangling bond during an electrical stress is decreased because a weak bond density and hydrogen diffusion may be decreased.