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Cervical nodal metastasis is a key prognostic factor in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. The role of lymph nodes in papillary thyroid carcinoma management and prognosis remains controversial.
Level IIb lymph nodes obtained from 44 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were histopathologically examined retrospectively. Specimens were classified as ipsilateral or contralateral. The number of dissected nodes and prevalence of level IIb metastasis were compared according to pre-operative clinical nodal stage.
In the node-negative neck, the prevalence of contralateral and ipsilateral IIb nodes was 0 out of 20 and 0 out of 3, respectively. In the node-positive neck, the prevalence of contralateral and ipsilateral IIb nodes was 1 out of 13 (7.70 per cent) and 3 out of 41 (7.32 per cent), respectively. Clinically determined and pathologically confirmed level IIb node negativity were significantly associated. Thirty-four patients (77.3 per cent) developed accessory nerve complications from level IIb dissection.
Level IIb neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma may be required if pre-operative examination reveals multilevel, level IIa or suspicious level IIb metastasis.
The onset of magnetic reconnection in space, astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is reviewed discussing results from theory, numerical simulations and observations. After a brief introduction on magnetic reconnection and approach to the question of onset, we first discuss recent theoretical models and numerical simulations, followed by observations of reconnection and its effects in space and astrophysical plasmas from satellites and ground-based detectors, as well as measurements of reconnection in laboratory plasma experiments. Mechanisms allowing reconnection spanning from collisional resistivity to kinetic effects as well as partial ionization are described, providing a description valid over a wide range of plasma parameters, and therefore applicable in principle to many different astrophysical and laboratory environments. Finally, we summarize the implications of reconnection onset physics for plasma dynamics throughout the Universe and illustrate how capturing the dynamics correctly is important to understanding particle acceleration. The goal of this review is to give a view on the present status of this topic and future interesting investigations, offering a unified approach.
A magnetic field configuration of an island divertor for a quasi-axisymmetric stellarator (CFQS) is proposed. The configuration incorporates large islands surrounding the core confinement region. The interface between the core region and the peripheral region of the island divertor is a clear magnetic separatrix similar to a tokamak divertor. The structure of divertor magnetic field lines is very regular without stochasticity and the connection length is sufficiently long for good divertor performance. Such a divertor configuration is produced in the magnetic field configuration for the CFQS device, which is now under construction in China.
Forearc peridotite is generally characterized by low Mg# (= Mg/[Mg + Fe2+] atomic ratio) at a given Cr# (= Cr/[Cr + Al] atomic ratio) of chromian spinel compared to common abyssal peridotite. This may be due to (1) smaller modal abundance of spinel and/or (2) lower equilibrium temperature, for the forearc peridotite. Forearc peridotite has the same amount of spinel as abyssal peridotite, eliminating the first possibility. Spinel in harzburgite and dunite from the Hahajima Seamount at the Izu-Bonin forearc, has a large Cr#, >0.57, and the Mg# is slightly variable towards low values at a given Cr#. The Mg# of spinel cores decreases strongly with a decrease in size. This is due to cooling along with hydration, which gave rise to a compositional variation of Ca-amphibole, from edenitic hornblende (high-temperature) to tremolite (low-temperature) in the Hahajima peridotite. The average two- pyroxene temperature of the Hahajima peridotite, 921°C, is less than that of the abyssal peridotite (1138°C), which is not consistent with a size-dependent Mg# of spinel for the latter. Forearc peridotite has been cooled effectively by H2O released from the subducted slab, causing a small Mg# of their spinels.
There is limited information available regarding the benefits and outcomes of resection of pulmonary metastases arising from head and neck cancers.
A retrospective review was performed of 21 patients who underwent resection of pulmonary metastases of primary head and neck malignancies at Hamamatsu University Hospital. Clinical staging, treatment methods, pathological subtype (particularly squamous cell carcinoma), disease-free interval and overall survival were evaluated.
The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates of the study participants were 67.0 per cent and 55.0 per cent, respectively, as determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. The prognosis for patients with a disease-free interval of less than 24 months was poor compared to those with a disease-free interval of greater than 24 months (p = 0.0234).
Patients with short disease-free intervals, and possibly those who are older than 60 years, should be categorised as having severe disease. However, pulmonary metastases from head and neck malignancies are potentially curable by surgical resection.
Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
Crystal structure change with an applied electric field was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the 1 μm-thick (100)/(001) one-axis oriented tetragonal Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 films prepared on Pt-covered (100) Si substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. As-deposited films were under the strained condition in good agreement with the estimation from the thermal strain applied under the cooling process after the deposition from the Curie temperature to the room temperature. This strain was ascertained to be relaxed by an applied electric field in accompanying with the dramatic increase of the volume fraction of (001) orientation. These results demonstrate the importance of the crystal structure measurement not only as-deposited films, but also after applied electric field, such as after poling.
The luminosity function of planetary nebula populations in galaxies at distances within 10–15 Mpc exhibits a cut-off at bright magnitudes and a functional form that is observed to be invariant among different galactic morphological types. Therefore, it is used as a secondary distance indicator applicable to both early- and late-type galaxies. Recent deep surveys of planetary nebula populations in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) seem to indicate that their luminosity functions deviate from those observed in the nearby galaxies. We discuss the evidence for such deviations in the Virgo Cluster, and indicate which physical mechanisms may alter the evolution of a planetary nebula envelope and its central star in the halo of BCGs. We then discuss preliminary results for distances to the Virgo, Hydra i, and Coma Clusters based on the observed planetary nebulae luminosity functions.
The fields of extragalactic research and cosmology have continued to progress rapidly over the past three years, as detailed in the reports of the Commission Presidents, and we are pleased to acknowledge the award of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics to Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess for “the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. The Gruber Cosmology Prize was awarded in 2009 to Wendy L. Freedman, Robert C. Kennicutt and Jeremy Mould for their leadership of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale, in 2010 to Charles Steidel for the identification and study of galaxies in the very distant universe, and in 2011 to Marc Davis, George Efstathiou, Carlos Frenk and Simon D.M. White for pioneering the use of numerical simulations as a tool to model and interpret the large-scale distribution of galaxies and dark matter.
Limited information is available on mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas arising in the head and neck.
A retrospective analysis was conducted of 20 patients who were histologically diagnosed with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and treated at our institution between January 1990 and December 2009.
Treatment consisted of surgical resection alone in two patients (10 per cent), surgical resection with consecutive radiotherapy in one (5 per cent), and radiotherapy alone in eight (40 per cent). Three patients (15 per cent) were treated with systemic chemotherapy, and three (15 per cent) received chemoradiotherapy. Three patients (15 per cent) were informed of the diagnosis but not treated for their condition.
All of the 20 patients were still alive after a mean follow-up period of 50.8 months. Local treatment for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the head and neck should be the first choice in early-stage disease. However, prolonged follow up is important to determine these patients' long-term response to treatment.
The fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) in whole, unbroken eggs was monitored during storage at fixed or changing temperatures after inoculation with 20–47 c.f.u. of SE. Eggs stored at 10°C and 20°C showed little or no bacterial growth over 6 weeks, while egg storage at 30°C increased the percentage of the eggs that contained >106 c.f.u. after 3 weeks. Egg storage at 20°C for 5 days followed by 10°C caused only a few eggs with >106 c.f.u. after 2 weeks, whereas storage at 22–30°C or 27–35°C for 5 days followed by 25°C induced a rapid increase of eggs that contained >106 c.f.u. after 1 or 2 weeks, respectively. Therefore, egg storage at 10°C and 20°C can control SE growth, although the temperature during egg storage and transportation from farm to table should also be taken into consideration.
This study begins to redress our lack of knowledge of the interactions between colonial hosts and their parasites by focusing on a novel host-parasite system. Investigations of freshwater bryozoan populations revealed that infection by myxozoan parasites is widespread. Covert infections were detected in all 5 populations studied and were often at high prevalence while overt infections were observed in only 1. Infections were persistent in populations subject to temporal sampling. Negative effects of infection were identified but virulence was low. Infection did not induce mortality in the environmental conditions studied. However, the production of statoblasts (dormant propagules) was greatly reduced in bryozoans with overt infections in comparison to uninfected bryozoans. Overtly-infected bryozoans also grew more slowly and had low fission rates relative to colonies lacking overt infection. Bryozoans with covert infections were smaller than uninfected bryozoans. High levels of vertical transmission were achieved through colony fission and the infection of statoblasts. Increased fission rates may be a strategy for hosts to escape from parasites but the parasite can also exploit the fragmentation of colonial hosts to gain vertical transmission and dispersal. Our study provides evidence that opportunities and constraints for host-parasite co-evolution can be highly dependent on organismal body plans and that low virulence may be associated with exploitation of colonial hosts by endoparasites.
We used Monte Carlo simulation code DEGAS and studied the neutral particle behavior in the Compact Helical System (CHS) three-dimensionally. In contrast to other helical devices, the CHS plasma in the standard configuration has contact with the inner vacuum vessel wall like the material limiter used in many Tokamaks and the neutral recycling becomes dominant there. As the intensity of neutral recycling changes also along toroidal direction, we extended our previous simulation model geometry three-dimensionally and compared the results of these models. We found the variation of the gap between the vacuum wall and main plasma enhanced toroidal transport of hydrogen molecules and atoms. As the formation of the edge transport barrier (EBT) discovered recently in CHS is characterized by a clear drop in Hα emissions, it is interesting to study the relationship with the profile of atomic/molecular hydrogen and the Hα emission profile. We estimated emission not only from excited hydrogen atoms but also from dissociated molecules with a collisional radiation model. We found that our Hα detector signal in CHS mostly came from excited atoms and that the emission profile largely changed with the ETB formation.
Confinement and loss properties of tangentially co-injected beam ions have been studied for a standard configuration of the Compact Helical System (Rax/Bt=0.921 m/1.9 T) by use of the global particle simulation code DELTA5D. Both ripple transport and collisions with a background plasma are taken into account. It has appeared that partially thermalized, pitch-angle scattered beam ions are dominantly lost at the small major radius side. It has also been shown that the negative potential can enhance beam ions losses.
Ethylene glycol bis (β-aminoethylether)-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) is a chelating agent capable of binding to positively-charged metal ions, including a calcium-ion (Ca2+). Here, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of the chemical on the in vitro asexual growth of the equine protozoan parasites, Babesia caballi and Babesia equi. The growth of both B. caballi and B. equi was significantly inhibited in the presence of EGTA (IC50=1·27 and 2·25 mM, respectively). Under microscopical observation, increased percentages of extracellular merozoites in the total parasites were detected in both of the cultures treated with high concentrations of EGTA. In contrast, further addition of Ca2+ to the EGTA-treated cultures prevented the parasites from clearing and the percentages of extracellular merozoites from increasing. As for B. caballi, an invasion test using high-voltage pulsing proved that EGTA has an inhibitory effect to their erythrocyte invasion. These results suggest that Ca2+ is involved in erythrocyte invasion by equine Babesia parasites.
As documented by the reports of the Presidents of Commission 28 and Commission 47 the fields of extra-galactic research and cosmology have experienced a higher and higher development leading to a vast harvest of results and discoveries. They range from the description of the overall structure of the universe to that of the individual properties of galaxies. The availability of very large telescopes and the coverage of regions of the sky with deep surveys, on the observational side, and the wide use of sophisticated numerical simulations on the theoretical one are starting to produce a satisfactory understanding of the physical processes taking place during the evolution of galaxies. Very often there is an profitable interplay between the subjects of the two Commissions without clearcut boundaries. This makes Division VIII, which is one of the largest of the IAU, counting 1373 members, very well balanced and deserving to remain without modifications for the future.
A satisfactory understanding of the origin of the dependence of galaxy properties on their environment has remained, so far, out of reach. In the light of numerous observational results and substantial theoretical progress obtained for clusters of galaxies in the last few years, a primary goal is to understand how the star formation activity depends on cluster substructure, i.e. on the merging/accretion history of a cluster. In this contribution we present a case in which it is possible to identify the cluster environment, and in particular the intracluster medium and the recent infall history of galaxies onto the cluster, as the cause for an abrupt change in the star formation histories of a subset of galaxies in the Coma cluster.
Babesia parasites generally require a defined percentage of serum in the culture medium for their in vitro growth. In this study, we attempted to culture Babesia bovis in a serum-free condition. The growth pattern and morphology of B. bovis in serum-free (plain) GIT medium were unaltered as compared to those of the standard growth condition containing 40% bovine serum in M199. When exposed to the test drugs, the parasite in plain GIT medium showed clearly lower IC50 values than those in 40% serum-containing GIT medium, indicating that several serum components may interfere with the drug bio-availability. Therefore, the serum-free culture system is useful for standardizing drug test protocols and understanding the roles of serum factors in the drug test.