To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There has been a significant transformation in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) over the past century, with the most pivotal changes occurring in the past three decades. To characterize this evolution, we assessed the number of articles published on various procedures for the treatment of IA as a measure of their interest and usage over time. We separated our analysis into two main areas: surgical and endovascular approaches. We further subdivided these two main categories into clipping and bypass for surgery, and coiling, flow diversion, and liquid material embolization for endovascular approaches. We found 5956 publications on open surgical approaches in the 70-year period from 1947 to 2017, with papers on clipping (n = 4204), being the most common. We found 8602 endovascular publications beginning in 1964, with most of the activity taking place in the late 1990s and beyond. Coiling had the most publications of the endovascular approaches (n = 5436). In 1999, the number of annual publications on endovascular treatments surpassed those of open surgery, signaling a crossover point in the IA literature. The same trend continues to this date.
The reputation of the Normans is rooted in warfare, faith and mobility. They were simultaneously famed as warriors, noted for their religious devotion, and celebrated as fearless travellers. In the Middle Ages few activities offered a better conduit to combine warfare, religiosity, and movement than crusading and pilgrimage. However, while scholarship is abundant on many facets of the Norman world, it is a surprise that the Norman relationship with crusading and pilgrimage, so central in many ways to Norman identity, has hitherto not received extensive treatment. The collection here seeks to fill this gap. It aims to identify what was unique or different about the Normans and their relationship with crusading and pilgrimage, as well as how and why crusade and pilgrimage were important to the Normans. Particular focus is given to Norman participation in the First Crusade, to Norman interaction in later crusading initiatives, to the significance of pilgrimage in diverse parts of the Norman world, and finally to the ways in which crusading and pilgrimage were recorded in Norman narrative. Ultimately, this volume aims to assess, in some cases to confirm, and in others to revise the established paradigm of the Normans as crusaders par excellence and as opportunists who used religion to serve other agendas.
Dr Kathryn Hurlock is Senior Lecturer in Medieval History at Manchester Metropolitan University; Dr Paul Oldfield is Lecturer in Medieval History at the University of Manchester.
Contributors: Andrew Abram, William M. Aird, Emily Albu, Joanna Drell, Leonie Hicks, Natasha Hodgson, Kathryn Hurlock, Alan V. Murray, Paul Oldfield, David S. Spear, Lucas Villegas-Aristizábal.
Growth and propagation of fish-infecting microsporidians within cell culture has been more difficult to achieve than for insect- and human-infecting microsporidians. Fish microsporidia tend to elicit xenoma development rather than diffuse growth in vivo, and this process likely increases host specificity. We present evidence that the fish microsporidian, Loma salmonae, has the capacity to develop xenomas within a rainbow trout gill epithelial cell line (RTG-1). Spore numbers increased over a 4 weeks period within cell culture flasks. Xenoma-like structures were observed using phase contrast microscopy, and then confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. Optimization of the L. salmonae-RTG-1 cell model has important implications in elucidating the process of xenoma development induced by microsporidian parasites.
The aim of this work is to improve bone-implant bonding. This can, potentially, be achieved through the use of an implant coating composed of fibre networks. It is hypothesised that such an implant can achieve strong peri-prosthetic bone anchorage, when seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The materials employed were 444 and 316L stainless steel fibre networks of the same fibre volume fraction. The present work confirms that hMSCs are able to proliferate and differentiate towards the osteogenic lineage when seeded onto the fibre networks. Cellular viability, proliferation and metabolic activity were assessed and the results suggest higher proliferation rates when hMSC are seeded onto the 444 networks as compared to 316L. Cell distribution was found uniform across the seeded surfaces with 444 showing a somewhat higher infiltration depth.
Investigations to determine the electrical contact
performance under repeated cycles at low force conditions for
carbon-nanotube (CNT) coated surfaces were performed. The surfaces under
investigation consisted of multi-walled CNT synthesized on a silicon
substrate and coated with a gold film. These planar surfaces were mounted on
the tip of a PZT actuator and contacted with a plated Au hemispherical
probe. The dynamic applied force used was 1 mN. The contact resistance
(Rc) of these surfaces was investigated with the applied force and with
repeated loading cycles performed for stability testing. The surfaces were
compared with a reference Au–Au contact under the same experimental
conditions. This initial study shows the potential for the application of
gold coated CNT surfaces as an interface in low force electrical contact