The effects of reaction temperature (150–300 °C), chemical composition of the starting cerium salt (cerium nitrate and cerium chloride), and doping with trivalent cations (Sc3+ and Y3+) on the coarsening of CeO2 particles in dilute suspensions under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. The particle size was measured by x-ray line broadening and by transmission electron microscopy. The particle coarsening kinetics followed a parabolic law, indicating that the interfacial reaction (dissolution) was the rate-controlling step. Furthermore, the particle size distribution data can be well-described by the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner theory of Ostwald ripening controlled by the interfacial reaction. Doping with 6 at.% Y3+ produced a significant reduction in the coarsening rate but almost no change in the activation energy. At the same concentration, Sc3+ was more effective than Y3+ in reducing the coarsening rate. Particles synthesized from a starting solution of cerium(III) chloride coarsened at a markedly slower rate than that for particles synthesized from cerium(III) nitrate. The mechanisms controlling the coarsening of the particles are discussed.